An Analysis of Russian Economy. Raya Dunayevskaya 1942


1. For studies of Japan, see: Industrialization of Japan and Manchukuo, 1930-1940, by Schumpeter, Alien, Gordon and Penrose; The Economic Strength of Japan, by Isoshi Asahi, and Industrialization of the Western Pacific, by Kate L. Mitchell, 1942.

2. This is not based on the unit which was used for previous years since, in 1933, for reasons best known to the Russian state and unrevealed to the public, a measure known as the “biological yield” was adopted. This standard of measurement meant the grain is estimated on the stalks in the field before harvesting, and a 10 per cent deduction is allowed for waste. All agricultural economists, with the exception of the Stalinists, of course, agree that such an estimate does not account for actual waste. Prof. Prokopovitch discounts an additional 10 per cent, or a total of 20 per cent, for waste; other bourgeois economists discount as high as 30 to 40 per cent. However, this abstract reports official figures only.

3. 1937 census was destroyed and data were not made available to public.

4. Russian statistics lump workers and employees in one category; or when they separate them into two categories they lump rural and urban workers in one category and rural and urban employees in another; the above figure rep-resents urban workers and employees.

5. Author’s own estimate; cf. section on Standard of Living, 1940.

6. 1928 figures: Gosplan, State Planning Commission for the Dev. of Nat. Eco., 1980; 1932 figures: Caspian, Results of the First Five Year Plan, 1988, both in Russian. The results are also published In English

7. Planned figures computed from: Gosplan, The Second Five Year Plan for the Development of Nat’1 Eco. of the USSR; accomplished figures computed from Caspian, Results of the Second Five Year Plan, 1989; both In Russian. There is no English edition of the results; there is one of the Plans, but it varies considerably from the figures in the Russian edition.

8. Table by Molotov in speech to the 18th Congress, RCP, March, 1989, with exception of starred figure, which is from Problems of Economics, No. 8/89, in Russian.

9. Those who wish to see the Third Plan can consult: Gosplan, The Third Five Year Plan for the Dev. of the Nat. Eco. of the USSR, 1989 (Russian); no English edition was published.

10. Cf. section on ending rationing.

11. Cf. article by Baykov In The Economic Journal (London), December, 1941.

12. Cf. Soviet Money and Finance, by L. E. Hubbard, and Bank Credit and Money in Soviet Russia, by A. Z. Arnold. The latter is evidently a Stalinist but if the rationalization is thrown out, the banking legislation is there in full. In Russian the legislation (as well as all decrees mentioned in this article) can be found in Compendium of Laws, 1929-40: also, the dally press generally carries decrees the day after enacted.

13. Cf. Yugow, Russia’s Economic Front far War and Peace.

14. Cf. Boris M. Stanfield: Private Property Rights in Russia, in International Conciliation No. 87S, December, 1041.

15. Cf. L. E. Hubbard: Economics of Soviet Agriculture.

16. Cf. Minutes of the 14th Congress of the RCP, page 493 (in Russian).

17. Cf. Gosplan, The First Five Year Plan.

18. First officially revealed in 1934 in Stalin’s Report to the l7th Congress of the RCP.

19. Ct. article by Baykov in Economic Journal, London, December, 1941.

20. Development of Kolkhoz Trade in 1936. In Russian.

21. Problems of Economy, No. 8, 1838, In Russian (as are all official magazines and newspapers mentioned In this article).

22. Quarterly Bulletin of Soviet Russian Economics, No. 1-2, 1939, Prague; Prokopovicz Is the editor of this and it is translated into English: excellently documented.

23. Socialist Agriculture of the USSR Statistical Yearbook, for 1939, in Russian.

24. Cf. Russia’s Economic Front for War and Peace, by Yugow.

25. Income, Savings and Finance in Collective Farms, in Russian.

26. Cf. L. E. Hubbard: Soviet Trade and Distribution.

27. Cf. N. Mikhailov: Land of the Soviets.

28. Table abstracted from Quarterly Bulletin of Soviet-Russian Economics, No. 1-2, November, 1039.

29. 1928 prices abstracted from Statistical Handbook (In Russian); l9"2 prices from Prokopovicz’s Bulletin, No. 1-2; 1985 prices from American Quarterly for the Soviet Union, April, 1940. Starred items are 1939 prices.

30. The 1918 figures are from Prokopovlo’s Bulletin, No. 1-2; 1928 prices as in note 29.; 1940 figures for beginning of year from “Monthly Labor Re-view”; starred figure, 1989. The 1928 study. Including quantities, reproduced in International Labor Review.

31. Problems of Economy, No. 3, 1939.