Marx's Grundrisse: Footnotes

* The same law expresses itself simply—but this expression to be looked at later in the theory of population—as the relation of the growth of population—namely its labouring part—to the capital already presupposed.

** The other way in which this same law also expresses itself, in the relation among many capitals, i.e. in competition, likewise belongs in another section. It can also be formulated as a law of the accumulation of capitals; as e.g. by Fullarton. We shall come to this in the next section. It is important to call attention to the point that this law deals not simply with the development of productive power dunamei, but at the same time with the scope in which this productive power acts as capital, and is realized as fixed capital above all in one respect, and as population in the other.

22. Adam Smith, Recherches sur la nature et les causes de la richesse des nations, Vol. I, p. 193.

23. Ricardo, On the Principles of Political Economy, pp. 338-9.

24. Ramsay, An Essay, pp. 179-80.

25. Marx made extracts from these works on organic chemistry: J. von Liebig, Die organische Chemie, 4th edn, Brunswick, 1842; J. F. W. Johnston, Lectures on Agricultural Chemistry and Geology, 2nd edn, London, 1847; and J. F. W. Johnston, Catechism of Agricultural Chemistry and Geology, Edinburgh, 1849.

* Some things from Notebook III about the antithesis of Carey and Bastiat can be included at this point.

29. Sismondi, Nouveaux Principes, Vol. I, p. 90.

30. op. cit., Vol. I, p. 82.

31. op. cit., Vol. I, p. 89.

32. Torrens, An Essay on the Production of Wealth, p. 52.

33. s/c + v < s/v is the correct expression; but the manuscript has: c + v/s < v/s, struck out but not replaced by anything else [MELI note].

* It is easy to form the notion that machinery as such posits value, because it acts as a productive power of labour. But if machinery required no labour, then it would be able to increase the use value; but the exchange value which it would create would never be greater than its own costs of production, its own value, the labour objectified in it. It creates value not because it replaces labour; rather, only in so far as it is a means to increase surplus labour, and only the latter itself is both the measure and the substance of the surplus value posited with the aid of the machine; hence of labour generally.

34. Robert Owen, Six Lectures Delivered in Manchester, Manchester, 1837, p. 58.

35. Benjamin Thompson (1753-1814), American adventurer, who entered the service of George III, was created Count of Rumford in 1784, issued Essays, Political, Economical, and Philosophic, in London, 1796-1802, in which he recommended various inferior forms of food for labourers; discussed by Marx in Capital, Vol I, Moscow 1954, p. 601.

36. The MELI edition gives aufgelöst (dissolved) rather than ausgelöst (triggered, released). This is in all probability a misreading of the handwritten manuscript. (The f and one form of the s are virtually indistinguishable in the old-style German script Marx used at that time.)

37. Wakefield's note on p. 64 of Vol. I of his edition of Adam Smith (London, 1835-9).

38. Steuart, An Inquiry into the Principles of Political Economy, Vol. I, p. 399.

39. ibid., pp. 403-5.

40. Geminiano Montanari, Della moneta, trattato mercantile, in Custodi (ed.), Scrittori Classici Italiani di Economia Politica, Parte Antica, Tomo III, Milan, 1804.

41. Tuckett, A History, Vol. I, p. 157 n.

42. ibid., p. 204.

43. Eden, The State of the Poor, Vol. I., pp. 119-20.

44. Marx collected and annotated an immense amount of material on the various theories of the exchange rate: he included this in a draft of 1854-5 entitled 'Money System, Credit System, and Crises'. This manuscript remains unpublished.

45. The Economist, Vol. XVI, No. 759, 13 March 1858, p. 290, article entitled 'Will the Low Rate of Interest Last?'.

46. David Urquhart, Familiar Words as Affecting England and the English London, 1856, p. 112.

48. 'Sterlings' in the original text.

49. Marx's English in the above sentence has been altered to conform to modern usage. His use, in these and other passages, of terms which today have an offensive ring (e.g. 'semi-civilized', 'uncivilized', 'savage', 'semi-savage', where what is meant is simply 'capitalist') reflects the general blindness of European scholarship towards non-European civilizations, and indicates the relative weakness of anti-colonial political movements at the time. This did not prevent Marx from being an enemy of colonialism and of great-power chauvinism in every form.

50. The wars of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic periods, 1793-1815.

* The mint price can also be raised above the bullion price within a country by the mintage.