MIA: Encyclopedia of Marxism: Glossary of Organisations
Military Organization of the Bolshevik Party
The Military Organization of R.S.D.L.P. (Bolshevik) began in 1905 and played a considerable role in developing the revolutionary movement in the army. The first attempt to unite the work of the Party cells in the army was made at the end of March 1906, when a conference of the ‘military organizations’ was convened in Moscow. After the arrest of those who took part on that occasion, the conference was held in Tammerfors in the winter of 1906.
In 1917, after the February revolution, the Military Organization developed its influence first in Petrograd and later also at the front (especially in the Northern sector and in the Baltic Fleet). On April 15 appeared the first issue of the newspaper Soldatskaya Pravda, the central organ of the organization. At the congress of the Military Organization in Petrograd on July 16 up to 500 separate units were represented, with a total membership of not less than 30,000 Bolsheviks. The Military Organization carried on direct preparation for the rising and sent some active comrades from its membership to serve in the Petrograd Military Revolutionary Committee, and later in the War Department (comrades Podvoisky, Mekhonoshin, Krylenko, Dzevaltovsky, Raskolnikov and many more).
A minority of the French Socialist Party which formed in 1915. The minoritaires were followers of the social-reformist Charles Longuet (the members of the group are sometimes named Longuetists).
The party held Centrist views; during the First World War they took a social-pacifist stand. The group supported the October Revolution in Russia. The party split from the French Socialist Party in December 1920, and joined the Second International after its major breakdown.