Encyclopedia of Anti-Revisionism On-Line

Anti-Revisionism in Belgium


Communist Party (Marxist-Leninist) of Belgium


Belgium was the first Western European country to develop a significant anti-revisionist communist party, and to closely align itself with China and its polemics against “modern revisionism”.

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In 1963, Jacques Grippa, a prominent leader in the pro-Soviet Communist Party of Belgium, was expelled from the Party for his anti-revisionism. Grippa had been active in the Party since the 1930’s, was a hero of the World War II Belgian resistence movement, and had headed its Brussels Federal Committee. In 1964, Grippa and a significant number of his supporters founded an alternative Communist Party of Belgium (PCB) and began publishing a weekly magazine, La Voix du Peuple (The Voice of the People).

With Chinese support, both ideological and financial, Grippa helped organize pro-Chinese anti-revisionist groups in other European countries. With the outbreak of the Chinese Cultural Revolution, however, the PCB underwent a split as supporters of the Cultural revolution clashed with Grippa and his supporters. Many left the PCB to form several new Maoist parties – the Walloon Communist Party (Marxist-Leninist) and the Communist Party Marxist-Leninist of Belgium. In 1968, Grippa came out openly in support of Liu Shao-chi, the former Chairman of the People’s Republic of China, deposed during the Cultural Revolution. Thereafter, Grippa’s PCB ceased to play a significant role in the Belgian anti-revisionist movement.


Historical Materials

Le P.C.B. et la Scission “Grippiste” de 1963 par Milou (Émile) Rikir

Background Materials

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China’s Great Cultural Revolution Has Opened a Channel to Communism by Sidney Rittenberg [Peking Review, April 14, 1967]

“On a Speech by Sidney Rittenberg” by Hammer & Steel [U.S.A.]

On the Question of Liu Shao-chi by the Progressive Worker [Canada]

Primary Documents

Marxist-Leninists, Unite! Resolution of the Brussels Federal Committee of the Belgian Communist Party

“Theory” and Practice of the Modern Revisionists by Jacques Grippa

What Does Khrushchov Revisionists’ “United Action” Boil Down to? [Peking Review, #7, 1966]

Castro Speaks of Unity, But Has Chosen a Split [Peking Review, #9, 1966]

Moscow Meeting Has Nothing in Common With A Congress of the Party of Lenin – Says Jacques Grippa, Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Belgium [Peking Review, #15, 1966]

Comrade Grippa Arrives For Visit [Peking Review, #35, 1966]

China’s Great Cultural Revolution Is Chairman Mao’s Magnificent and Great Achievement [Peking Review, #39, 1966]

Jacques Grippa’s Message [on China’s nuclear test] [Peking Review, #45, 1966]

Central Committee of C.P.C. Sends Greetings to Comrade Grippa [Peking Review, April 21, 1967]


Workers’ Party of Belgium (Parti du Travail/Partij van de Arbeit)

Background Materials

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Obituary: Ludo Martens (1946-2011) by Harpal Brar

Primary Documents

Belgium’s Party of Labor Founded

The Liquidationist Tendency within the Marxist-Leninist Movement

Concerning Marxist-Leninist Unity by the Central Committee of the Workers’ Party of Belgium

To Be a Marxist and a Revolutionary in the World of 1988

On certain aspects of the struggle against revisionism: For the unity of all communists, in defence of proletarian internationalism by Ludo Martens


Communist Party of Belgium (Marxist-Leninist)

Primary Documents

Greetings From Communist Party of Belgium (Marxist-Leninisl) [Peking Review, #22, 1970]

Soviet-U.S. “Disarmament” Hoax [Peking Review, #25, 1973]

Social-lmperialism Is the Enemy of the People [Peking Review, #12, 1974]

Belgium Communist Party (M-L) National Congress [Peking Review, December 19, 1975]

Message from First Secretary Lefebvre of Marxist-Leninist Communist Party of Belgium [on the death of Mao] [Peking Review, #40, 1976]

Belgian Party on war and revolution by The Call

Comrade Li Hsein-nein Meets Delegation of Marxist-Leninist Communist Party of Belgium [Peking Review, April 15, 1977]

Belgium communists celebrate by The Call

May Day in Europe: two special reports by The Call