NOTEBOOK II: The Chapter on Capital
18. The first few pages of the Chapter on Capital (pp. 239–50) were entitled by Marx ‘Chapter on Money as Capital’.
19. Charles Ganilh (1758–1836, French neo-Mercantilist economist, an advocate of the Napoleonic Continental System), Des systèmes d’économie politique, de leurs inconvéniences, de leurs avantages, et de la doctrine la plus favorable aux progrès de la richesse des nations, Paris, 1809. Vol. II. pp. 64–5.
20. Say, Traité d’économie politique, Vol. II, pp. 480–82.
21. Sein für andres is a basic concept of Hegel’s logic, described in the Science of Logic (p. 119 of the translation by A. V. Miller, London, 1969) as ‘a negation of the simple relation of being to itself which is supposed to be determinate being’. However, it is paired, not with Sein für sich, but with Sein in sich (being in itself, described as ‘something returned into itself out of the being for other’). In any case, it is difficult to detect any relation between Marx’s use of Sein für andres and Hegel’s use. The situation is different with the concept of Sein für sich, since Hegel described being for self in the Lesser Logic (p. 179 of the translation by W. Wallace, Oxford, 1892) in the following way: ‘Being for self is a self-subsistent, the One’, and added ‘The readiest instance of being for self is found in the “I”.’ This comes close to Marx’s ‘each individual … as an end in himself’.
22. Institutes, Bk II, Title IX, para. 3 ‘A slave, who is in the power of another person, can have nothing of his own’ (The Institutes of Justinian, tr. J. B. Moyle, Oxford, 1906, p. 58).
23. See Marx’s critique of Proudhon’s doctrine of exchange value in Poverty of Philosophy, pp. 37–8.
24. The socialist opponents of Bastiat, in particular Proudhon. This passage is in fact a critique of the discussion between Bastiat and Proudhon, printed as F. Bastiat et P.-J. Proudhon, Gratuité du crédit, Paris, 1850, pp. 1–20, 32–47 and 285–6.
25. Say, Traité d’économie politique, Vol. II, pp. 428–30 and 478–80.
26. The German text has here ‘the other’, but since the reference back is to ‘landed property itself’ this has been replaced with ‘the latter’.
27. The German reads ‘as’, the sense seems to require ‘the’.
28. Cf. Hegel, Science of Logic (tr. A. V. Miller), p. 71: ‘That into which the movement returns as into its ground is (also) result.’
29. Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, Vol. II, pp. 355–6.
30. The reference is to Marx’s own excerpt-book; the quotation is from Ganilh, Des systèmes d’économie politique, Vol. II, pp. 11–12.
31. Cf. Hegel, Science of Logic, pp. 106–8, 129–31.
32. The reference is to Marx’s own excerpt-book; the quotation is from Say, Traité d’économie politique, Vol. II, p. 185.
33. Sismondi, Nouveaux Principes d’économie politique, Paris, 1827, Vol. I, p. 89.
34. Marx used brackets (shown here by < and >) to indicate a digression.
35. Bastiat et Proudhon, Gratuité du crédit, p. 250.
36. ibid., pp. 177–80.
37. Constituted value is ‘valeur faite’; most perfect value is ‘valeur la plus parfaite’, ibid., p. 183.
38. For Ricardo’s discussion of the effects of difficulties of cultivation on rent, see On the Principles of Political Economy, pp 55–75.
39. Say, Traité d’économie politique, Vol. I, pp.2–6.
40. The ‘Misère’: Proudhon’s Système des contradictions économiques, ou philosophie de la misère. His doctrine of exchange value is put forward in Vol. I, pp 39–50.
41. See above, pp. 260–61.
42. ‘The epitome of all things’ (Boisguillebert, Dissertation, p. 399).
43. Storch, Cours d’économie politique, Vol. I, p. 154.
44. As in Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, Vol. I, pp. 131–2.
45. Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, Vol. II, pp. 355–85.
46. Storch’s views in Considérations, pp. 38–50; Senior’s in Principes fondamentaux, pp. 284–308.
47. Steuart, An Inquiry, Vol. I, p. 45.
48. Edward Gibbon Wakefield (1796–1862) was an English diplomat and economist, who put forward his views on the colonies in A View of the Art of Colonization, with Present Reference to the British Empire, London, 1849. He proposed that the government should reserve land in the colonies and put a higher price on it than prevailed in the open market.
49. Cf. Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, Vol. I, pp. 104–5.
50. A reference to the abstinence theory advanced by Nassau Senior (Principes fondamentaux, pp. 307–8).
51. As in Charles Babbage, Traité sur l’économie des machines et des manufactures. Traduit de l’anglais sur la troisième édition, Paris, 1833, pp. 329–51.
52. Simon Linguet, (1736–94) was a French lawyer and historian, a conservative critic of the Enlightenment and of the economics of the Physiocrats, an opponent of the French Revolution. He was guillotined during the Terror. The reference here is to his book Théorie des lois civiles, ou principes fondamentaux de la société, published anonymously in London, 1767, Vol. II, pp. 462–8.
53. The manuscript breaks off here, and the following page (page 29) is missing. Marx noted its contents as follows: ‘Capital a merely objective power vis-à-vis the worker. Without personal value. Distinction from the performance of service. Purpose of the worker in the exchange with capital – consumption. Must always begin anew. Labour as the capital of the worker’ (Grundrisse (MELI), p. 953).