6. Aliens who resided in Athens but were not classed as citizens.
7. According to Roman tradition, Numa Pompilius was the second king of Rome.
8. Citizens of one Greek city-state who were granted full citizenship in another.
9. Antoine Cherbuliez (1797–1869, Swiss lawyer and economist, follower of Sismondi, although he added some elements of Ricardian theory), Richesse ou pauvreté: Exposition des causes et des effets de la distribution actuelle des richesses sociales, Paris, 1841, p. 16.
10. Bastiat et Proudhon, Gratuité du crédit, pp. 65–74. For Marx’s later discussions of the polemic between Bastiat and Proudhon, see pp. 640–41, 754–8, 843–5.
11. Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, Vol. III, Bk III, Ch. 4.
12. ‘This’ refers back to ‘manufacture’. See the definition of ‘factory’ given by Ure, cited by Marx on p. 690.
13. This statement is taken directly from Du Cange, Glossarium mediae et infimae Latinitatis, ed. G. A. L. Henschel, Paris, 1842, Vol. 2, p. 139, article entitled ‘2. Capitale’. However, Du Cange was wrong. The word ἀρχεῖα means ‘government buildings’, never ‘loan’ or ‘principal sum of money owed’ as suggested there; the Greek word for loan, which Du Cange probably had in mind, is χρέοϛ.
14. métairie: share-cropping, the modern métayage. Bail de bestes à cheptel: lease with livestock as capital. Cf. Du Cange, Glossarium, Vol. 2, p. 139.
15. ‘Those who have to pay a head tax’.
16. Adam H. Müller (1774–1829, leading advocate of the Romantic reaction in history and economics during the early nineteenth century; Austrian state official under Metternich, ennobled for his propagandistic activities), Die Elemente der Staatskunst, Erster Theil, Berlin, 1809, pp. 226–41.
17. ‘I shall grant a tenth part of my own to God both in livestock and in dead fruits of the earth’, quoted by Du Cange, Glossarium, p. 140, from Athelstan’s Ordinance of 925 on tithes.
18. See above, pp. 457–8.
19. ‘(false!)’ was inserted afterwards, above the line. [MELI note]
20. In English in the original.
21. Marx’s distinction between Rohstoff and Rohmaterial has no English equivalent. Rohstoff is the raw material in its pristine state, before being subjected to human labour; Rohmaterial is the raw material which has been formed by human labour but has yet to enter into the final product. Cf. Capital, Vol. I, Moscow, 1954, pp. 178–82.
22. See above, p. 402.
23. See above, pp. 256–7.
24. par excellence.
25. Cf. Hegel, System of Philosophy, I, Logic, para. 161: ‘The concept remains at home with itself in its process; no new content is posited by the process, only an alteration of form is produced.’
26. Sismondi, Nouveaux Principes d’économie politique, Vol. I, p. 89. See above, p. 261.
27. ibid., Vol. I, pp. 91–2.
28. Cherbuliez, Richesse ou pauvreté, p. 64.
29. In Cherbuliez; raw material, instrument of labour, and supply of articles of consumption. See above, p. 299.
30. Cherbuliez, Richesse ou pauvreté, pp. 25–6.
31. William Thompson (1783–1833) was an Irish landowner who embraced Owenism, and criticized political economy from a utopian socialist position, but on the basis of Ricardo’s doctrines.
32. ‘That’, i.e. ‘that situation’.
33. ‘Of the same’ (desselben) probably refers back to ‘recognition of nature ([and] practical power over nature)’. The contraction is ambiguous.
34. Storch, Cours d’économie politique, Vol. I, pp. 411–12.
35. Malthus, The Measure of Value Stated and Illustrated, with an Application of it to the Alterations in the Value of the English Currency since 1790, London, 1823, p. 17.
36. William Thompson, An Inquiry into the Principles of the Distribution of Wealth, Most Conducive to Human Happiness, Applied to the Newly Proposed System of Voluntary Equality of Wealth, London, 1824, p. 176.
37. Ramsay, An Essay on the Distribution of Wealth, p. 55.
38. Incidental ‘false’ expenses of production: the category into which the political economists from Adam Smith onwards relegated the cost of maintaining necessary but unproductive workers, e.g. soldiers, doctors etc.
39. Thomas de Quincey (1785–1859), the essayist, author of Confessions of an Opium Eater, was also a writer on political economy, and a follower of Ricardo.
40. Ramsay, An Essay on the Distribution of Wealth, p. 43. The references are to the page numbers of Ramsay’s book. The quotations themselves are as usual in a mixture of English and German.
41. ibid., p. 55.