51. Cobbett, Paper against Gold, London, 1828, p. 2.
52. Literally, ‘toads’. A French term of abuse.
53. Garnier, Histoire de la monnaie, Vol. II, p. 11.
54. ‘King Servius first stamped money with the image of sheep and oxen.’
55. ‘Unwrought gold, unwrought silver’.
56. The Economist, Vol. I, No. 37, 11 May 1844, p. 771, article entitled ‘The First Step in the Currency Question – Sir Robert Peel’.
57. The Economist, Vol. I, No. 42, 15 June 1844, p. 890, article entitled ‘The Action of Money on Prices’.
58. The Economist, Vol. I, No. 58, 5 October 1844, p. 1,275.
59. H. Thornton, An Enquiry into the Nature and Effects of the Paper Credit of Great Britain, London, 1802, p. 48.
60. Say, Cours complet d’économie politique pratique, Vol. I, p. 510.
62. Jelinger Cookson Symons (1809–60) was a lawyer who was appointed in 1835 by the government to draw up a report on the situation of the hand-loom weavers; later he reported on the miners, and the educational system in Wales; author of many books on economic and educational questions.
63. W. H. Prescott, History of the Conquest of Peru, 4th edn, London, 1850, Vol. I. p. 127.
64. ‘O blessed money, which furnishes mankind with a sweet and nutritious beverage, and protects its innocent possessors from the infernal disease of avarice, because it cannot be long hoarded, nor hidden underground!’, quoted in ibid., p. 123 n.
65. H. A. M. Merivale, Lectures on Colonization, London, 1841, Vol. I, p. 52 n.
66. J. Sempéré y Guarinos, Considérations sur les causes de la grandeur et de la décadence de la monarchie espagnole, Paris, 1826, Vol. I, pp. 275–6.
67. This heading, though taken from Marx’s own index to his notebooks (Grundrisse (MELI), p. 966), seems to be out of place here.
68. Niebuhr, Römische Geschichte, Erster Theil, p. 608.
69. At an interest of one-twelfth.
70. At an interest of five-twelfths.
71. Hüllmann, op. cit., Teil II, pp. 36–45.
72. ‘Things sacred and religious, which cannot be in the possession of anyone, and cannot either receive a valuation or be mortgaged or alienated, which are exempt from the commerce of men’ (Justinian, Institutes, II, 1).
73. S. P. Newman, Elements of Political Economy, Andover and New York, 1835, p. 296.
74. Lauderdale, Recherches, pp. 173–82.
75. J. R. MacCulloch, A Dictionary, Practical, Theoretical, and Historical, of Commerce and Commercial Navigation, London, 1847, p. 836.
76. C.-F. Chevé (1813–75) was a Catholic socialist, who supported Proudhon between 1848 and 1850, and edited the Proudhonist journal La Voix du Peuple, in which the discussion between Bastiat and Proudhon first appeared (1849).
77. The Reverend Joseph Townsend (1739–1816) was a Methodist clergyman who originally studied medicine; he opposed the Poor Law legislation, and (among others) invented the theory of population later taken over by Malthus; he issued the pamphlet A Dissertation on the Poor Laws, By a Well-Wisher to Mankind anonymously in 1786.
78. G. Opdyke, A Treatise on Political Economy, New York, 1851, p. 300.
79. Volume 5, which Storch issued separately, under the title mentioned, as a counter-blast to the four-volume edition of his Cours d’économie politique, produced and annotated by J.-B. Say.
80. See above pp. 600–602.
81. Karl Arnd (1788–1877) was a state official in the small German principality of Electoral Hesse, as well as a prolific compiler of economics textbooks; hence his familiarity with the dog tax.