History of Ireland. Preparatory Material. Engels 1870

Chronology of Ireland

First Published: in German in Marx-Engels Archives Vol. X, Russ. ed., Moscow, 1948;
Source: Marx and Engels on Ireland;
Transcribed: by Andy Blunden.

Chronology of Ireland was compiled by Engels mainly according to the book by Thomas Moore, outstanding Irish poet and historian, The History of Ireland, vols. I-IV, Paris, 1835-46. Engels admired this book for wealth of facts, literary merits and the author’s deep sympathy with the oppressed people. Apart from the “Chronology,” Engels used also other passages from the book. Scientifically Moore’s The History of Ireland did not excel other works on Irish history written in the first half of the 19th century, and reflected many of the shortcomings of Irish romantic historiography of that period. This largely explains Engels’s wish to make the information he drew from it fuller and more precise by turning to other sources, references to which crop up frequently in the “Chronology of Ireland.” Engels, however, did not have the opportunity at that time to make all the necessary corrections to Moore’s dating of events. Yet, the general line of Ireland’s historical development in his work, and his appraisals of events and people are extremely valuable and have been corroborated by later historical research. “Chronology of Ireland” ends, as does Moore’s book, with 1646, the climax of the 1641-52 Irish uprising. Engels traced the subsequent course of this uprising in his excerpts from other books.

?Immigration of the Scots (Milesians).
200 B.C. ?King Kimbaoth.
A.D. 2 ?King Conary the Great?
258 ?First Scottish settlement in Albany (Scotland).
King Cormac Ulfadha.-Finn McCumhal.
396Irish invasion of Great Britain. King Nial of the Nine Hostages.
406Dathy, last of the Irish heathen kings.
403St. Patrick brought to Ireland from France as slave. He fled in 410.
432Returned as converter and died in 465.
684Egfrid, King of Northumberland, sailed his navy to Ireland.
795First Danish invasion, thenceforth regularly renewed (first invasion of England in 787).
818-33King Concobar.
839-46Feidlim, King of Munster.
844Turgesius died and Danes were expelled.
849New Danish invasion.
853Olaf, Ivar and Sitrick arrived. Nose-money tribute.
901-08Cormac McCulinan, King of Munster.
902Leinster expelled Danes from Dublin.
926Muirkeartach’s first victory over Danes.
937Battle of Brunanburh. Olaf of Dublin takes part 224
939Muirkeartach-ruler of all Ireland.
943Muirkeartach died.
944King Donogh died.
969Mahon, King of Munster, and his brother Brian Boromhe (King Kennedy’s son) defeated Limerick Danes at Sulchoide and, pursuing them, captured Limerick, which they burned.
976Mahon assassinated by another chieftain, Maolmua. Brian Boru, King of all Munster, defeated Maolmua and other chieftains involved in the plot, conquered Iniscathy (Shannon estuary) from the Danes and expelled them from the other Shannon islands.
980Malachy the Great (of the Hy Nials) became King of Tara (at that time there were only two kingdoms in Ireland-Cashel and Tara); defeated the Danes at Tara, subjugated them and freed all Irish war prisoners (c. 2,000). Leinster and other vassal chieftains [Unterfursten) plotted against Brian, but were foiled.
982Malachy overran Brian’s possessions.
983Malachy overran Leinster. Brian made war.
They signed an agreement consummating the division of Ireland, with Leinster remaining a tributary of the Southern Kingdom.
988Another war broke out between the two with changing fortune, until
997the agreement formalising the division was reaffirmed.
998-1000The two made common cause in war against Danes, achieving notable success.
1000Again war between the two; Malachy, the weaker, submitted before the battle.
1001Brian Boru became King of Tara and all Ireland.
1008Defeated the rebellious Southern Hy Nials at Athlone. General peace set in.
1013Sitrick= Sigtrygg, the Danish King of Dublin, and his allies from Leinster invaded Meath, where Malachy was local king, and defeated him.
Brian denied Malachy help, but in summer marched against and ravaged Leinster.
1014Large-scale invasion of Ireland by the Norsemen. They made Dublin their main base. Brian marched on Dublin. Battle of Clontarf on April 23 (Good Friday). The Danes defeated (described in Nialssaga; see Dietrich, [Altnordisches Lesebuch] p. 52).
Brian was assassinated in his tent by the Norwegian Admiral Brodar; his son Morrough fell too. After the battle strife broke out anew over succession and supremacy.
1015Malachy again became King of Ireland and repulsed a new Danish invasion. Numerous inland risings and new clashes with the Danes who never recovered after Clontarf.
1022Malachy abdicated and withdrew to a cloister, where he soon died. No new supreme king was elected. Wars of succession followed in Munster until
1064Turlough, Brian Boru’s nephew, became King and
1072annexed Dublin, Leinster and Meath.
1070Murchad, the first Irish King of the Dublin Danes, who now assimilate rapidly.
Ulster was also finally subjugated by Turlough.
1086Turlough died. Wars of succession followed.
1090Treaty of Lough Neagh: Murkertach, son of Turlough, made King of the South, and Domnal O'Lochlin, chief of the Hy Nials, King of the North. But war broke out between them at once, lasting 28 years. In
1103Murkertach was defeated.
1114Murkertach, who fell sick, abdicated in favour of Dermot, his brother.
1121Domnal O'Lochlin died. New wars of succession followed.
1088Tigernach (pronounced Tiarna), the chronicler, died.
1086Marianus Scotus died in Mayence.
1136Tordelvac O'Connor, King of Connaught, made King of all Ireland, but continuously attacked by the kings of Munster, until
1151the Momons were totally defeated at Moinmor and Munster was subjugated. But a rising followed at once
1153by Murtogh O'Lochlin, King of Tyrone, chief of Ulster and member of the Hy Nials, who, however, was also defeated.
1152Synod in Kells. Resolutions against simony, usury, priest marriage and concubinage.
Later, a prescript by Cardinal Legate Paparo, introducing payment of tithe in Ireland.
1156Tordelwach died. His son Roderic O'Connor-King of Connaught; but Murtogh O'Lochlin made King of all Ireland, meeting but little resistance from Roderic.
Otherwise, peace.
1166Murtogh died. Roderic O'Connor became King of Ireland. Held
1167counsel with all chiefs and prelates at Athboy, where a retinue of 30,000 people gathered. This was exactly four years before the English invasion!
1153Dermot McMurchad, King of Leinster, abducted Dervorgilla, wife of Tiernan O'Ruark, chief of Breffny in East Connaught.
1154Tordelwach forced him to return her and protected O'Ruark. However, his successor O'Lochlin sided with Dermot, while Roderic again on O'Ruark’s side.
1166Roderic sent reinforcements to help O'Ruark and drove out Dermot, who fled
1168to England and appealed for help to Henry II. The latter had soon after 1155 obtained from Pope Adrian IV (an Englishman by name of Breakspear) a bull allowing him in return for recognising extended temporal papal court authority to conquer Ireland in order to reform the Irish church, with every Irish household paying the Pope 1d. yearly.
1169-71Conquest of South and East Ireland by the English.[225]
1173Marauding by the English.
1174Strongbow and Hervey of Mount Maurice defeated by Donald O'Brian. General uprising. Raymond Le Gros brought 30 knights, 100 men-at-arms and 30 archers from England and restored order. He became Strongbow’s son-in-law and enfeoffed Idrone, Fethard and Glascarrig; captured Limerick from Donald O'Brian.
1175O'Brian beleaguered Limerick, but was defeated at Cashel. Here Irishmen, the princes of Ossory and Kinsale, sided with the English. Roderic and O'Brian accepted defeat. Roderic was reaffirmed as King of all Ireland under English suzerainty, exclusive of Leinster, Meath and the coast from Waterford to Dungarvan. These were put directly under English rule. Roderic acknowledged that the Kings of England were for all time Lords Paramount in Ireland and the fee of the soil should be in them. Meanwhile, old laws remained and chieftains retained full power in Roderic’s possessions, making war on each other as before.
1176Strongbow died.
1177English invasion of Ulster under de Courcy failed. Ditto of Connaught under Milo de Cogan without pretext and just as unsuccessful. The Irish laid waste the land and withdrew to the hills, attacking the English as the latter withdrew, and defeating them.
1178De Courcy defeated in Ulster and pressed back to Downpatrick.
1182De Cogan (Milo) assassinated in Desmond.
Uprising in Munster. Strife among Irish, as a result of which Roderic abdicated in favour of his son, Connor Manmoy.
1184-85New reinforcements of the English. Continuous plunder of the country, especially of Ulster, by the English.
1185John (Lackland), 12 years old, sent to Ireland as Lord. His retinue insulted the Irish chiefs, and a general uprising broke out. Irish clans, long subdued in the Pale, were driven out by the English and their land confiscated. Even Welsh were mistreated by John’s men. Now the Irish began a small war with some success, destroying isolated forts and detachments. But soon they resumed wars against each other, so that by and large the English held their ground.
1189Henry II died. Uprisings against the English broke out continuously until the end of the century. Continuous internal wars between the Irish and those Irishmen who fought on the side of the English.
1198Strife broke out among the English barons.
After Roderic’s death a war of succession began in Connaught between his sons Carrach, supported by William de Burgh (of the Fitz-Adelms), and Cathal, backed by J. de Courcy and Walter de Lacy.
Soon thereafter the rivalry between John de Courcy and Hugh de Lacy culminated in
1205de Courcy’s capture by the King and the transfer of his county in Ulster to de Lacy.
1205-16Ireland mostly quiet until John’s death.
1216HENRY III. Ten years old. Earl Pembroke, Strongbow’s heir in Leinster, Earl Marshal of England, appointed administrator. Magna Carta[226] extended to Ireland (i.e., for the English).
1219-20War between William Earl Pembroke (son of the above) and Hugh de Lacy over some border land, with O'Neill of Tyrone helping de Lacy.
1245Maurice Fitz-Gerald, Lord Justice of Ireland, supplied an Irish army which included Feidlim, King of Connaught, to aid King Henry in the war against Wales. This campaign was conducted voluntarily by the Irish barons, for they were not obligated to serve outside Ireland; “may this not be considered a precedent.”
1244 and 1254Henry ordered the indigenous Irish chiefs to provide him with troops in Scotland and Gascogne. Nothing is known of whether they complied.
1255Irish troops sailed to help Earl of Chester and the Welsh against the English, but were defeated before landing by Prince Edward (later 1). Thereupon, Irish troops dispatched to help the King against the Welsh.
1259Uprising of the McCarthys of Desmond, almost all of whose land was given over to the Geraldines.[227] The Geraldines were expelled, but the success was not lasting, because other chiefs denied help.
1264Feud between the de Burghs and Geraldines, until finally the Irish Parliament (?) in Kilkenny and the new Lord justice Barry put an end to it.
1270A new strong uprising of the Irish, but only destruction and a small war resulted; English power remained vigorous.
1272EDWARD I. Early in his reign, the Irish (of the Pale) petitioned that English law be extended to them.
That same year, 1272, the Irish rose again.
Invasion of Ireland by Scots, followed by a raid of Scotland by Richard de Burgh and Sir Eustace de Poer with Irish troops employing their favourite method of smoking the Scots out of the caves.
1276-80Many wars against the Irish.
1277Wars of succession between the O'Brians of Thomond; Thomas de Clare, son of Earl of Gloucester, took advantage of this to establish himself in the country. In the meantime, the Irish warred among themselves in Connaught, of which Lord justice Robert de Ufford wrote the King that it would be fine if the rebels killed each other, because it did not cost the King’s treasury anything and would help instil peace in the country (Vol. III, p. 33)
1280Edward called on lords spiritual and temporal and all the other Englishmen in Ireland to hold counsel about the petition asking for the Irish to be placed under English law. He was in favour (the Irish promised 8 , 000 marks for it), because the laws of the Irish From were “hateful in the sight of God” and so Davies unjust that they could not be considered as laws, though he did not wish to act without the consent of the lords. However, the barons appear not to have taken any notice, with still only a few Irishmen admitted within the pale of English law.
Feuds between the de Burghs and the Geraldines, likewise between other barons, throughout Edward’s reign. Similar strife between the Irish chiefs.
At last,
1295Lord Justice Sir John Wogan convened Parliament to settle the feuds, devising an armistice that lasted two years. This Parliament was, of course, no more than a gathering of barons and prelates. For its decisions see excerpts [from Moore, History of Ireland, Book of Excerpts II,] p. 12.[228]
1299When Anglo-lrish auxiliary troops set out for the Scottish war[229] an uprising occurred in the Maraghie mountains and in Oriel.
Peace ensued for a number of years after the troops returned.
1303Again, Anglo-lrish troops from Ulster set out for Scotland.
1306Irish rising in Meath crushed in the Battle of Glenfell.
1307Irish rising in Offaley and Connaught.
1309Parliament in Kilkenny: acts against gross or 1310 exactions and general misconduct of the nobility.
1312The Byrnes and O’tooles of Wicklow marched on Dublin, while English bondsmen [Lehnsleute] in Oriel rebelled.
1307Robert Bruce, who had fled to Rachlin Island, Antrim County, where he was in hiding all winter, helped by the Irish, set out for Galloway with 300 Scotsmen and 700 Irish troops, but was intercepted by Duncan M'Dowal, a local chief, at embarkation and defeated.
1315After Robert Bruce’s victory at Bannock burn in 1314,[230] Edward Bruce and 6,000 men landed in Antrim, the Irish joining him en masse, and conquered Ulster; he was crowned King of Ireland in Dundalk, defeated the English under de Burgh on the Banne River, Down County, and waited for reinforcements from Scotland. While Feidlim O'Connor of Connaught marched off with the English, Roderic O'Connor rebelled; Connaught was swept by insurrection; but Feidlim defeated Roderic, who was killed in battle; whereupon Feidlim banded with Bruce. Munster, too, rose against the English; even several of the great lords (English) and many English people made common cause with Bruce. The latter defeated the English in Meath, marched on Kildare and defeated them once more; an insurrection in Leinster, especially Wicklow (Byrnes, O’tooles and O'Moores), held in check by the English.
1316Food shortages compelled Bruce to withdraw to Ulster, where he idled. The English Lord Justice, Butler, suppressed the rising in Wicklow, then the English marched against 1316 Feidlim, defeating him (he fell) at Athenry.
Robert Bruce arrived in Ireland with a large force, and Carrickfergus surrendered; at the end of the year, Robert Bruce marched on Dublin, but did not dare to attack; instead he headed for Naas and Kilkenny, ravaging the land up to Limerick and thereby cutting himself off from food supplies, losing many men through hunger, especially due to the lateness of the season.
1317In May, Bruce brought his half-starved army to Ulster and departed for Scotland, leaving the troops to his brother Edward, probably because he was disappointed in the Irish. The Scots were quiet, but the Irish, like the English barons, were again at each other’s throats.
1318Finally, Edward Bruce was defeated and killed by the English at Faughard in Dundalk.
1327EDWARD III. Feud between Maurice Fitz-Thomas, later Earl of Desmond, and Lord Arnold Poer, consequent on which
1328the Irish rose in Leinster under Donald M'Morrough of the old Dermot clan.
1329Pacification of feuding barons by Lord justice Roger Outlaw. The Irish again petitioned that they might be permitted to use the law of England without being obliged to purchase charters of denization, which the King advised the barons to concede, but which the latter again shelved ad acta.
New feuds among the barons and risings of the Irish in the south and east, until finally
1330Fitz-Thomas, Earl of Desmond, helped by the O'Brians (who had rebelled shortly before!) defeated the rebels. Soon thereafter O'Brian rebelled again; a new war ensued, in which the de Burghs indulged in plunder and abuse during their march across Fitz-Thomas’s estates, causing another feud; Lord Justice Sir John Darcy had to lock up the chiefs of both houses.
1331New rebellions in Leinster.
1332Royal decree issued that the Irish and English should have the same law (English), excluding villeins (betagii, classed with the English villanis). But the decree was stillborn. Like wise, a royal ordinance against absenteeism; twenty-two absentees (English lords) were to accompany the King on his voyage to Ireland, but this did not materialise.
1339Irish risings all over Ireland, with here and there assimilated barons on the Irish side.
1341Sir John Morris, Knight, Lord justice of Ireland. On pretext of money shortage due to the war against France, he took back all estates, titles and jurisdiction granted by Edward III and Edward 11, and demanded settlement of all due, even void, crown debts.
1342He ordered all Anglo-lrish or Irish officials and judges, or officials and judges with Anglo-lrish or Irish wives to be replaced by imported Englishmen (the power of the Anglo-lrish lords was to be broken).
Convened Parliament in Dublin in October.
Opposed Parliament of Nobles, especially of the Desmonds, in Kilkenny; a protest petition was sent to the King, who acknowledged receipt, which was as far as matters seem to have gone. Morris’s orders of restitution remained in force.
1343Sir Ralph Ufford, husband of the Countess Dowager of Ulster, was made Lord Justice, and
1345convened Parliament in Dublin, while Desmond convened one in Callan; Ufford came to grips with him and compelled him to comply. Ufford died in 1346, and the King’s fight against the lords seems to have ended for a time.
1353The confiscated possessions (1342) were returned.
1361Lionel, Duke of Clarence, third son of Edward, appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Marched without the Irish lords, whom he slighted, against O'Brian of Thomond, and was defeated; then he called on them for help, and the latter defeated the Irish.
1364Lionel returned to England.
1367Parliament of Kilkenny.[231] At this time, Ireland was so peaceful that the King’s writran in Ulster and Connaught and the revenues of those provinces were regularly accounted for in the Exchequer.
1369-70New risings of the O’tooles and others in Leinster, and of O'Connor and O'Brian in the south-west; they were suppressed.
1364Dublin University founded.
1377RICHARD II. Almost every Parliament (English) of his reign demanded supplies and men for war in Ireland.
1394Richard landed in Waterford with 4,000 horsemen and 30,000 archers to reconquer Ireland. The chiefs of Leinster and Ulster, numbering 75, expressed submission. Those of Ulster were to pay the bonaght[232] to the Earl of Ulster, while those of Leinster relinquished all their land and promised help against all other Irish, for which they would keep land thus conquered.
1395No sooner Richard and his army returned than raids were renewed into the Pale.
1399Richard marched against Ireland again, but in his absence
1399HENRY IV, Bolingbroke of Lancaster, usurped the English throne and took Richard prisoner on his return.
1402The O'Byrnes of Wicklow were defeated by John Drake, Mayor of Dublin.
1407War against McMorrough of Leinster; yielded no decisive results, though by and large favourable for the English.
1410Parliament in Dublin. An Act made it treason to exact coynye and livery.[233] During an excursion by Thomas Le Botiller, Prior of Kilmainham and Lord Justice, with 1,500 kerns (Irish infantry) against O'Byrne, half went over to the enemy and the English had to withdraw. An act was introduced whereby the Irish were prohibited to migrate without special licence to assure enough hands for the fields.
1413HENRY V.
1414Talbot victorious over Irish borderers.
1417200 Irish horsemen and 300 infantry under Thomas Butler, Prior of Kilmainham, went to France as auxiliary troops[234] the horsemen on ponies, unsaddled, clothed in armour, the infantry with shields, spears and large knives. They fought very well and won much acclaim.
1421New wars with the Irish, the latter being defeated in Leinster and Oriel.
1432Sir Thomas Stanley, Lord Lieutenant, repulsed unusually strong Irish attacks.
1438For the second time an Act was passed in English Parliament that all people born in Ireland (except beneficed clergymen, English estate holders and a few others) must at once return to the country of their birth. A similar act was passed in Irish Parliament to curb the exodus to England.
1449Duke of York, heir of Earl March and as such Earl of Ulster and Cork, Lord of Connaught, Clare, Trim and Meath, hence nominally Lord of 1/3 of Ireland, was appointed Lord Lieutenant for ten years.
As usual, wars and feuds continued.
Throughout the hundred years, the government contended with financial difficulties. Ireland’s annual deficit was about 1,500.
1450York returned to contest the English throne.
1460York defeated and killed at Wakefield, [235] where he was accompanied by “the flower of all the English colonies (in Ireland), specially of Ulster and Meath, whereof many noblemen and gentlemen were slain at Wakefield” (Davies).
1463-67Earl of Desmond became Lord Lieutenant; ascendancy of the Geraldines. Carlow, Ross, Dunbar’s Island and Dungarvan bestowed to Desmond; he was also made beneficiary of a large annuity chargeable on the principal seigniories belonging to the Crown in the Pale. But Desmond was too Irish and too popular, and hence.
1467Lord Worcester became his successor, imprisoning Desmond, indicting him under the Statute of Kilkenny for alliance and intermarriage with the Irish. (It was through this marital connection with the Irish that Desmond was able to uphold the King’s authority in Munster; as for the Statute, it was long out of use in the south.) Parliament of Drogheda found Desmond attainted of treason for “alliance, fostering, and alterage with the King’s enemies, for furnishing them with horses, harness, and arms, and supporting them against the King’s subjects.” He was beheaded in Drogheda on February 5, 1468.
1468Worcester recalled, while Earl Kildare, the Geraldine, though also attainted, was restored and even made Lord Lieutenant.
1476John, Earl of Ormond (attainted under Edward as follower of Henry VI), restored to all his possessions and in high favour.
The Butlers rose, the Geraldines fell, but regained favour in 1478.
1478Thomas, Earl Kildare, died. His son, Gerald Fitz-Thomas, Earl Kildare, was made Lord Deputy (of the Duke of Clarence, who was Lord Lieutenant).
1485HENRY VII. Confirmed the Yorkists (the Geraldines and others) in their Irish offices, and installed no Lancasterites beside them. However, Thomas, Earl Ormond (attainted by Edward IV), was reinstated in his Irish and English estates and made member of the English Privy Council (he was brother of James).
1486In Dublin, posing as young Earl of War wick, son of the Duke of Clarence, Lambert Simnel was crowned King Edward VI. Kildare and the Pale, excluding Waterford, the Butlers and a few foreign bishops, swore allegiance, and the Duchess of Burgundy, sister of Edward IV, sent 2,000 German mercenaries under Martin Schwarz, to support him. These and Irish levies were then sent to England, landed in Furness, and pushed forward
1487to Stoke (Nottinghamshire) on June 6, where they were annihilated. “The Iryshemen, and these although they foughte hardely and stuck to it were mostly valiantly, yet because they were after the degenerate manner of their country almost naked, English![236] without harneys or armour, they were stricken down and slain like dull and brute beasts” (Hall). Simnel was captured and sent to the royal kitchen as scullion (Spiessdreher) (Gordon). Kildare, whose power the King feared, was pardoned and remained Lord Deputy-Dubliners, however, were penalised and their ships, goods and merchandise given by the King to the Waterforders.
1488Sir Richard Edgecomb sent to Ireland with 500 men to receive the new oath and proclaim the official pardon for the rebellion.
1489Henry invited the Irish lords to Greenwich and chastised them; they would have crowned apes if he had stayed away much longer, he said, and made ex-King Simnel serve them at table.
Continuous wars among the natives.
1492Kildare suddenly deposed and W. Fitz-Symons, Archbishop of Dublin, made Lord Deputy. Thereupon the border Irish rebelled and raided the Pale. Perkin Warbeck, the false Richard of York, landed in Cork; the city took his side, but Warbeck left at once, going to the court of the French King.
1494Sir Edward Poynings sent to Ireland as Lord Deputy with 1,000 men and diverse English jurists. Parliament of Drogheda.
Re The Poynings’s Act: no parliament in Poynings’s Ireland may convene in council (English Act see Privy Council) without approval of the Butt. King. Kildare, too, attainted of treason and sent to England as prisoner,
1496but regains favour and is appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. From then on Kildare was loyal to the King and waged violent wars against the Irish.
1497Warbeck, who returned to Ireland (Cork) from Scotland, was joined by Earl Desmond, but, after unsuccessfully besieging Waterford, went to Cornwall. (This is now contested by virtue of a letter by Henry VII, according to which Warbeck landed “in the wyIde Irisherie” in difficult circumstances and would have been captured by Kildare and Desmond if he had not made a hasty escape.)
1496-1500Kildare’s wars against the Irishry in Ulster, Connaught and Munster (Davies says [in Hist. Tracts, ed. 1786, p. 48] those were his “private quarrels,” which is confirmed in detail by Gordon), all of them victorious, until finally Ulick Burke, Lord Clanricarde, called MacWilliam, a son-in-law of Kildare, chief of a mighty troop of “degenerate English,” placed himself at the head of a general uprising in the south and west. Kildare set out with his entire Anglo-Irish force and a few Irish and On defeated the rebels in Axtberg (Knoc-tuadh), August 19, even miles off Galway; Galway and Athenry
1504surrendered, and the spirit of the Irish was thereby broken (?!) (in the country where Black Rent[237] was paid until 1528!!). Kildare’s arrogance as first Irish lord was ever in evidence in government matters and wars.
Kildare continued his campaigns against the Irish. In 1509, he undertook a big campaign against James, eldest son of Earl Desmond, O'Brian, etc.
1513Kildare died. His son Gerald, Lord Deputy, warred on against the Irish until 1517, was mostly successful, yet as always the victories were not decisive, and he had to begin all over again after a few years. However, like his father, he was very popular among the Irish, who considered him “rather as the chief of a great leading sept than as acknowledged ruler of the whole kingdom” by virtue of his Irish nature and many family ties with the Irish. In 1519, Kildare fell out of favour through Wolsey and was recalled to England.
1520Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey, was appointed Lord Lieutenant. An Englishman, he held the Irish in check. He reconciled two old enemies, Earl Desmond, the assimilated Geraldine who often espoused the Irish cause, with Earl Ormond, follower of the English, but not for long. On the whole, he acted skilfully, though this did not prevent continuous wars. He resigned and was 1521 followed by Sir Piers Butler, eighth Earl of Ormond who, though married to the sister of Earl Kildare, 1522-23 destroyed a number of the latter’s castles.
War between the two. At last, Ormond was dismissed and
1524Kildare made Deputy.
In 1523, Desmond entered into an alliance with Francis 1 of France, who intended to, but did not, invade Ireland. Desmond was persecuted, concealed himself and remained undiscovered.
1526Kildare was again recalled to England and thrown into the Tower, then released upon security.
(Ormond relinquished his title of Earl of Ormond in favour of Sir Thomas Boleyn and became Earl of Ossory.)
1528O'Connor of Offaley treacherously captured a Deputy (of the Lord Lieutenant Richard Nugent, Lord of Delvin). This O'Connor was Kildare’s son-in-law. Violent strife followed among the Anglo-lrish.
1530Kildare returned in the retinue of the new Lord Deputy, Sir William Skeffington. He extended his Irish family ties, giving his daughter away in marriage to Fergananym O'Carrol, and laid waste the estates of his rival, Ormond-Ossory.
1532Kildare again made Lord Lieutenant. Prosecuted war against all his enemies as enemies of the Crown, and fortified and armed his castles to resist the King if the necessity arose; however, he was again recalled to England, and on his departure 1534 his 21-year-old son Thomas (Lord Thomas Fitz-Gerald) stayed behind as his Deputy.
The latter was led to believe that his father had been beheaded in the Tower and that he, too, and all his family, would suffer the same fate. He rode to the Council with 140 horsemen, laid down all his insignia of office and publicly withdrew his allegiance to the King. Then he started a rebellion.
The Council took refuge in Dublin Castle, which Fitz-Gerald beleaguered. Fitz-Gerald also plundered Ossory’s estates, but without marked success. In the meantime, Dublin townsmen captured the force besieging the Castle and Fitz-Gerald concluded an armistice with Ossory in order to take Dublin, but was defeated. Ossory mean while (though threatened in the south by the rebellious Desmond) laid waste Carlow and Kildare. Fitz-Gerald was excommunicated because his troops caused the death of the Archbishop of Dublin.-The war was fought half-heartedly by both sides, though most of the Pale was ravaged, until finally O'Connor (from Offaley) and then Lord Thomas Fitz-Gerald surrendered in 1535 and Fitz-Gerald was shipped to England. He surrendered on a solemn promise of pardon (Gordon [Vol. II, p. 238).
1536The five uncles of Fitz-Gerald, of whom three had opposed the rebellion, and ten other lords were invited to a feast by Lord Grey and there put under guard (Gordon [Vol. I), p. 238) and sent to London. They and Lord Thomas Fitz-Gerald were executed in Tyburn (the elder Kildare died in London earlier). Thereby the power of the Geraldines was providentially terminated.
Only a 12-year-old boy escaped abroad.
1536 ff.Lord Leonard Grey, Lord Deputy, made war on the indigenous population, especially the O'Connors.
1538Peaceful expedition (hosting) by Grey to Galway through Offaley, Ely O'Carrol, Ormond, Arrah and Thornond. MacWilliam deposed as chief of Clanricarde and the captaincy given to Ulick de Burgh, later Earl of Clanricarde. All chiefs whose possessions Grey crossed, were made to swear allegiance, but, as Ormond wrote Cromwell, “neither from them nor any other from all the Irishry” could faith be expected once the troops departed.
1539 According to O'Conor the confederation was directed against the Reformation.Large confederation of the northern chiefs and of Desmond and the Fitz-Geralds in the south to reinstate Gerald Fitz-Gerald, son of the executed Earl Kildare, in his rights. Gradually, the confederation expanded. The allies sought the help of the Emperor and of France, reviving the idea of Ireland as an independent kingdom under O'Neill. The confederates also contacted the King of Scotland, who was also against the Reformation,[238] now an issue against the King in Irish matters. (The confederation fell apart after the Battle of Ballahoe [O'Conor, p. 10), of which no details are available.)
In the autumn, Lord Grey traversed the south once more at the head of his troop, but without any special success, though compelling Gerald Fitz-Gerald (and his friends) to flee to France and later to Italy.
(Queen Mary reinstated him.) Otherwise, there was peace and order in Ireland, and only the bastard Geraldines (a completely assimilated family) were, “by the permission of God, killing one another” (Lord Grey’s letter). John Alen, Lord Chancellor, wrote Cromwell: “I never did see, in my time, so great a resort to law as there is this term, which is a good sign of quiet and obedience. This country was in no such quiet these many years.”
1540 See Gordon.Lord Grey recalled and soon executed. Some clashes with the Irish, though nothing of significance, for by and large the country was calm. Sir Anthony St. Leger, Lord Deputy, subdued the Cavenaghs of Carlow, the O'Moores of Leix and diverse other minor clans. O'Connor submitted too, and so did O'Donnell. As for O'Neill, the King entered into negotiations with him.
1541By an Act of Parliament Henry was proclaimed King of Ireland.
From now on the Irish chiefs became vassals [of the King] and came under English law (probably a consequence of the unsuccessful confederation of 1539).
Turlogh O’toole of North Wicklow was the first to go to England of his own volition, followed by Earl Desmond, who was at once made member of the King’s Council. Irish lords and Irish nobles appeared in 1541 Parliament; they had not done so in many years or had never appeared there before. Ormond translated the English speeches to the Irish.
1542O'Neill submitted and became Earl of Tyrone, while his son was made Lord Duncannon. This time the peace was real; Desmond even ordered the arrest of two other Geraldines engaged in a feud, Lord Roche and the White Knight,* both were dispatched to Dublin and slept in the same bed, suffering each other quite well. O'Brian became Earl Thomond and MacWilliam became eighth Earl of Clanricarde. These Irish chiefs were so lacking in money that the government had to provide them with clothes in which to come to Parliament (see Davies).
All these lords acknowledged the King’s supremacy.
1544Again, Irish kerns served in the English army in France.
1545Likewise against the Scots, though actually they did not land in Scotland.
England owed all these successes, the first real subjugation of Ireland, to St. Leger.
1550French envoys went to O'Donnell and O'Neill in Ulster.
1550New liturgy introduced in Ireland. Long debates among the clergy, while English soldiers plundered cloisters and churches, and destroyed sacred pictures. By and large, however, only among the higher classes were there a few converts to the new religion.
1552War of succession between the sons of Earl Tyrone (O'Neill) in Ulster. In the south, feuds between Earl Thomond and his relatives, and in Connaught between Clanricarde and another de Burgh.
1553MARY. St. Leger reappointed Lord Deputy in Ireland until 1558.
Gerald Fitz-Gerald reinstated as eleventh Earl Kildare (and Baron of Offaley). Continued feuds between the chiefs.
1556?After 13 years an Irish Parliament was finally reconvened, repealing all acts against the Pope and others passed since the Act of the 20th year of Henry VIII.
1557Leix was incorporated in the Pale as Queen’s County and Offaley as King’s County,[239] the Moores and O'Connors having been banished under Edward VI and now almost all annihilated (see Gordon).
1558ELIZABETH. New oath of supremacy taken from which only two Irish bishops abstained; the entire Irish Parliament took the oath, making the Reformation in the Pale official and formalising it on paper.
All acts of 1556 (?) were declared null andvoid.
1560Feud between Shane O'Neill (“The O'Neill”) and the Dublin government, which would make Calwagh O'Donnell of Donegal Earl Tyrconnel if he agreed to help it, but O'Neill takes him prisoner. Finally, 1561 Shane submits directly to the Queen and goes to her in England, but encounters difficulties in obtaining an audience. When Matthew’s son, then Earl of Tyrone, died, he returned to Ireland and in time claimed supremacy (independence) in all Ulster, but 1564 finally made peace and submitted to the Queen.
1565Open war between Desmond and Ormond, with Desmond wounded and captured by the latter.
1564To win the Queen’s favour, O'Neill made war on the island Scots settled along the coast of Ulster (Antrim) and defeated them.
But Elizabeth and her representatives did not keep their word and endeavoured to trip up O'Neill. Again, a war broke out. Ulster was ravaged by an English army, but O'Neill withdrew to his unapproachable hills. Most of the chiefs of Ulster
1567submitted, as did O'Neill’s subjects, leaving O'Neill no choice but to flee to the Antrim Scots, where he was assassinated on the instigation of Piers, an English officer (see Gordon).
1570Desmond captured and shipped to England.
Rising of the Geraldines under James Fitz-Maurice, who took Kilmallock and turned to Spain for help. But order was soon restored by Sir John Perrot, Lord President of Munster, and Fitz-Maurice was compelled to submit.
Excommunication of Elizabeth[240] is joyfully received in Ireland.
Uprising of Clanricarde’s sons.
Thomond (who fled to France) plots to asassinate Sir Edward Fitton, Lord President of Connaught; later, Thomond regained the Queen’s favour through the English Ambassador in France.
See Davies, p. 200 ff.Act of attainder against Shane O'Neill, whereby more than half of Ulster went to the Crown. The Lord Deputy in Council was also empowered to accept surrenders and re-grant under English tenure (see Gordon).
Another Act declared the old clan system of chieftainship totally abolished, unless granted by the Crown. This reservation made the Act illusory, for the Crown had to tolerate what it could not hinder.
Seven new counties with sheriffs (?) and other officials established (see Davies), but without assizes.
1572Sir Thomas Smith tried to establish an English plantation in Ulster, but it was too weak and the indigenous population wiped out the colonists.
1579Landing by James Fitz-Maurice, brother of Earl Desmond, in Smerwick, Kerry County, with three ships and 100 men, Catholics of different nationalities; but he and his Irish followers were killed when requisitioning in Tipperary. Thereupon, the invasion was soon defeated.
Leix and Offaley still rebellious, especially Rory Oge O'Moore, who was killed in 1578.
After the invasion of Smerwick was repulsed, a rising by Desmond followed, whose betrayal was now confirmed in captured papers. He was defeated, his castles were seized, but he escaped.
1580Rising in Wicklow under Lord Baltinglass.
Setback for the English infantry, which ventured into the hills and valleys, in the Valley of Glendalough, says Gordon (Vol. II, p. 271).
Landing of 700 Spaniards in Smerwick with arms for 5,000. However, their fort was captured by Lord Grey de Wilton, the Lord Deputy, and all of them massacred after surrendering and placing themselves at the discretion of the victors.
1583Desmond, who stalked undiscovered in the south escaping from pursuit, was killed by peasants whose cattle he seized. He was the last of the Fitz-Geralds to be Earl Desmond.
1584Sir John Perrot was reappointed Lord Deputy. He was instructed, among other things, “to consider how Munster may be repeopled and how the forfeited lands in Ireland (Desmond and others) may be disposed of to the advantage of Queen and subject.”
1587As son of Matthew of Dungannon, heir of the earldom, Hugh O'Neill petitioned Irish Parliament to name him Earl of Tyrone and allow him possession of the estates. He led a troop of horsemen in the service of the Queen against Desmond, but had secret designs of becoming more than just Earl of Tyrone. He was granted the title and then from the Queen also his possessions on condition that he should claim no authority over the lords bordering on his county.
1588Sir John Perrot returned to England, saying he found the Irish much more manageable than the Anglo-lrish and even the English Government. Fell into disfavour and died in the Tower.
The government in Dublin-it was still Perrot-arrested Hugh O'Donnell, son of the O'Donnell, and two sons of Shane O'Neill by resorting to subterfuge (they were given drink aboard a ship), and brought them to Dublin as hostages to ensure the loyalty of the old O'Donnell; they were held in captivity for three years.
1591"Red Hugh” (O'Donnell) escaped and at home was (with his father’s consent) proclaimed chief of Tyrconnel; he concluded an alliance with O'Neill Tyrone (who had flirted with both sides, until he had reason to fear for his life). O'Neill taught his men war craft (he had a bodyguard of 600 infantry and introduced a system of short term training [Krumpersystem]), and laid in equipment and ammunition.
1597Sir John Norris sent to Ireland with troops as Lord General to restore the imperilled authority of the Queen, but died the same year.
Tyrone declared himself the O'Neill, which amounted to high treason.’ He concluded an alliance with the other O'Neills, the Magennisses, M'Mahons and O'Donnells, and was appointed allied commander; when he heard that 2,000 fresh English troops were en route, he struck out, capturing and demolish ing Fort Portmor on Blackwater, but was compelled by Bagenal (his brother-in-law), who was Marshal of Ireland, to lift the siege of Monaghan. However, on getting reinforcements he made Bagenal retreat.
1592-96When the English advanced with fresh forces, O'Neill set fire to his own town of Dungannon and many villages, withdrawing into his forests. It came to light that he had offered Ireland to the King of Spain in return for 3,000 troops and money subsidies.
Meanwhile, the insurgents in the north, whom Sir John Perrot had armed against the Antrim Scots and who had many veteran soldiers among them, were now very strong. Hence,
1596new negotiations were begun. Tyrone submitted, and the insurgents demanded religious freedoms, which were finally granted by the Queen. But again hopeful news arrived of munition shipments from Spain, prompting Tyrone to blockade
1598Fort Blackwater; he decisively defeated Marshal Bagenal (whom he killed with his own hands), who had hurried to the rescue.
Now, the rest of Ulster rose too.
1599Devereux, Earl Essex, the Queen’s favourite, was sent to Ireland with 20,000 infantry and 2,000 cavalry. He wasted the summer in a march on Munster, his rearguard being defeated by the O'Moores on the return march, and finally, after his army was decimated by disease, went to Ulster, where O'Neill Tyrone inveigled him in parleys, and he lost more time. (Tyrone demanded freedom to practise Catholicism, confirmation of the Ulster chiefs in their possessions of the past 200 years, and all officials and judges and half the garrison to be Irish.)
In the end Essex returned to England and Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoy, replaced him as Lord Deputy, with Sir George Carew (author of Pacata Hibernia) as Lord President of Munster.
In the meantime, Tyrone went to Munster to incite the local chiefs, especially James Fitz-Thomas, Earl of Desmond, and Florence McCarthy. Mountjoy sent strong troops to the northern border forts of the Pale, Dundalk, Carlingford, and others, while marching on Ulster and issuing the order to cut off Tyrone’s retreat at Athlone or Limerick. But Tyrone escaped by forced marches, whereupon Mountjoy deployed strong garrisons to Lough Foyle (Derry?) and Ballyshannon, which kept the Ulster people in check.
A campaign against the O'Moores of Leix. The English totally destroyed the harvest.
1600Carew planned to assassinate the Sugan Earl (straw rope earl) of Desmond and McCarthy. Mountjoy restored order in Kildare and Carlow, and all Ireland was subjugated save Tyrone.
Coinage of Ireland embased by Elizabeth.
1601Two Spanish ships dropped anchor at Kilbeg, Donegal, bringing arms, equipment and money for Tyrone.
Twice, a price was set on Tyrone’s head: 2,000 if alive and 1,000 if dead. But this was futile, as were the prices on the heads of the insurgent chiefs hiding in Munster.
However, the Sugan Earl was finally captured. No one could be found for money to show the way through the forests to Tyrone ‘s possessions.
Attempt on Tyrone by an assassin hired by the English Government; it failed.
On September 22, five thousand Spaniards landed at Kinsale and occupied the town.
Mountjoy laid siege, with part of the southern Catholics declaring against the Spaniards or neutral, while the bulk sided with them. Tyrone, Tyrrell, O'Donnell, etc., marched against Mountjoy, and fortified themselves in a swampy area, cut off his supplies, but were prevailed upon by the Spaniards to give battle on December 23 and were totally defeated. O'Donnell escaped to Spain, Tyrone to his possessions, while the Spaniards surrendered on a promise to be allowed to depart freely.
O'Donnell was active in Spain for Ireland.
Mountjoy went north and laid waste all Tyrone.
1602Fort Dunboy (at Bantry), the last fort of the Spanish (it belonged to Daniel O’sullivan), was captured and its Irish garrison massacred.
1603Finally, peace was concluded between Mountjoy and Tyrone, whereupon the latter submitted, but was confirmed in his possessions. Then Elizabeth died. All Ireland was subjugated for the first time.
1603JAMES I. Everybody expected him to restore the Catholic religion. It was at once reintroduced in Waterford, Cashel, Clonmel and Limerick, but these were quickly brought to their senses by Mountjoy. James, however, demanded that all officials, barristers and graduates of universities gave the oath of supremacy and also restored the Act of Uniformity.[241] He at once purged the Dublin Council of Catholics. Although the penal laws against the Papists were upheld, they were not applied. But in 1605 all Catholic priests were banished on pain of death (Sir Arthur Chichester was now Deputy) and, according to O'Conor, Catholic church services were banned by proclamation.
Gavelkind and tanistry[242] were again repealed by a judgement of the King’s Bench, the English inheritance law introduced, the land of Irish smallholders directly confirmed by the Crown and these placed directly under Crown protection, whereby clanship was visibly broken, while all duties of the clan people were converted into money rent to their landlord. Yet all this was done gradually. Tyrone and Roderic O'Donnell, brother of Red Hugh, went to England, where the former was confirmed in his possessions and the latter made Earl of Tyrconnel. Both of them were so closely watched by spies that Tyrone complained he could not drink a full carouse of sack, but the state was advertised thereof within a few hours after.
1607Land litigation between O'Neill Tyrone and Sir Donogh (Donald Ballagh) O’shane (O'Cahan), a neighbouring chief, before the Lord Deputy and an English court; this convinced Tyrone that he must either submit completely, or rebel again. But now there were English forts and garrisons in his possessions, and the clanship was weakened.
The existence of this plot strongly doubted even by SmithIreland herself was too weak, and salvation could come only from abroad. Hence a plot by Tyrone, Tyrconnel and Richard Nugent, Baron Delvin, to rebel with Spanish help.
[Irish History ...] p. 100. See [Excerpts] IX, [p.] 13.[243] The plot was betrayed by Earl Howth, who had just become Protestant. Tyrone and Tyrconnel were summoned before the Dublin Council, escaped to France and from there to Brussels. Introduction of English law and the many court charges instantly lodged against him brought home to Tyrone that it was all over now with chieftainship.
Finally, he went to Rome, where he died in 1616. The main branch of the Hy Nials ended shortly with the assassination of his son in Brussels.
James, meanwhile, found it necessary to declare publicly that the two earls did not flee religious persecutions, because never persecuted on religious grounds. But who would believe that?
1608Uprising by Sir Cahir O'Doherty, Chief of Irish-Owen, who captured Culmore Fort by a trick, attacked Derry, and held out for five months, until finally killed.
Plantation of Ulster, where the Crown acquired 800,000 acres (English) or almost all Donegal, Tyrone, Coleraine, Fermanagh, Cavan and Armagh (supremacy converted into land holdings!) through the forfeiture of Tyrone, Tyrconnel, O'Doherty, etc. Each holding was divided into lots of three classes: 1) 2,000 English acres for servitors of the Crown, either the great officers of state or rich adventurers from England; 2) 1,500 acres for servitors of the Crown in Ireland with permission to take either English or Irish tenants; 3) 1,000 acres for the natives.
The City of London received large grants in Derry on the condition of spending 20,000 for building the towns of Derry and Coleraine. A standing army was formed to guard the Colony. Thus, six out of 32 counties were expropriated and thoroughly plundered.
The Brehon Laws[244] were simultaneously completely abolished and replaced by English law, but, as if to render the state of outlawry of the Irish complete, while thus forbidden the use of their own country’s law, they were still shut out as aliens and enemies from the law of their masters.
1613The first Parliament in 27 years, and the first to represent more than just the Pale, opened in Dublin. Since the previous Parliament 17 new counties were constituted and 40 boroughs incorporated, of which most were mere villages consisting of a few houses built by Ulster undertakers.[245] Though the lords of the Pale remonstrated, new boroughs were constantly fabricated to as sure a Protestant majority, the manoeuvre proving eminently successful. This caused recusant members to secede, but the matter was later settled. No anti-Catholic bills were tabled, but in recompense the Catholics voted for bills of attainder against Tyrone, etc.-This was a despicable thing to do, because nothing had been proved, but it justified the confiscations in Ulster. —
Further, a bill was passed whereby all laws against Irish enemies were abolished and all put under the jurisdiction of English law.
1623Royal proclamation that all Catholic priests secular and regular had to leave the Kingdom in 40 days, after which all persons were prohibited to converse with them.
1613 See O'Conor,18, 2.[246]Commission instituted to inquire into defective titles to land in Ireland and escheated lands. It declared all land between Arklow and Slane rivers and many estates in Leitrim, Longford, Westmeath, King’s and Queen’s counties, totalling 82,500 acres, as Crown property. All was confiscated and granted to English and Irish colonists as in Ulster.
A feeling of general insecurity arises among landholders, because resumption by the Crown under Henry VII of all land granted since Edward I, as well as the land of absentees, and various other similar juridical discoveries were now used to contest every thing. Besides, many titles to land had either been lost or defective. A whole class of “discoverers” (of flaws in titles) appeared, consisting of “needy adventurers from England”; whenever the jurymen decided against the King, they were locked up. The Attorney-General declared that, with all Irish having been expelled when possession was first taken of the Pale, no Irish could have even an acre of freehold[247] in the five counties.
Wholesale resettlement of clans followed.
Seven clans moved from Queen’s County to Kerry; 25 landowners, mostly O'Ferrels, were expropriated without compensation.
Instructive was the case of Byrnes of Wicklow (from Carte’s Life of Ormonde in Matthew O'Conor’s History of the Irish Catholics).[248]
1625CHARLES I. Very short of money, he lost no time in coming to terms with the Catholic lords and gentry in Ireland. For three years they paid him 40,000 annually, in return for which he granted the following “graces”: “Recusants[249] to be allowed to practise in courts of law, and sue the livery of their lands out of the Courts of Wards, on taking an oath of civil allegiance instead of the oath of supremacy; that the claims of the Crown (to defective titled lands) should be limited to the last 60 years; that the inhabitants of Connaught be permitted to make a new enrolment of their estates,” i.e., that their estates should be assured for them (etc., etc., 51 points in all), “and that a Parliament should be held to confirm these graces and establish every man in the undisturbed possession of his own land.” Further, reforms of all kinds, extortions through courts of law and soldiers, monopolies and penal laws against religion, and promise of an “act of oblivion and general pardon” (see O'Conor).
Lord Falkland convened Parliament to confirm these graces, but not under the Great Seal of England (as required by the Acts of Henry VIII and Elizabeth); the English Council protested and Parliament did not take place.
The Lords justices indulged in flagrant persecutions, confiscating 16 monasteries because the Carmelites had held public services.
1633Sir Thomas Wentworth, later Earl of Strafford, Lord Deputy. At that time the Irish Channel teemed with pirates, and he could not cross without being escorted by a warship. He quickly alienated everybody.
Only a few members of the Privy Council were admitted to sittings. Ireland was ruled in accordance with the theory of the absolute royal prerogative. Catholics and Protestants .alike were compelled by threats and cajolery jointly to pay 20,000 more in voluntary taxes. An order was issued that no one of any rank could leave Ireland without the permission of the Lord Deputy, and that no complaint could be lodged against him before the English royal court unless first submitted to him.
Finally, however, a Parliament was necessary to obtain money, however much Wentworth dreaded it due to the question of graces, and particularly the restriction of Crown claims to 60 years, which made a difference of 20,000 annually.
Wentworth saw to it that many army officers were chosen, which placed him in a position to tilt the scales between the Catholics and Protestants and thereby squeeze money out of both by threats.
1634Parliament opened. Wentworth insisted on subsidies at once for a number of years and the Commons foolishly conceded six subsidies, whereupon a convocation of the clergy also conceded eight subsidies of 3,000 each.
The lords, however, demanded redress of grievances and confirmation of graces, to which Wentworth replied brazenly that he had never even sent them to the King (which was untrue).
The same Parliament passed the two Statutes of Wills and Uses, whereby the Crown was allowed to interfere in the upbringing of the “heirs apparent” of big landowners, hoping thus gradually to convert them to Protestantism.
1635 Wentworth intended to drive out all Connaught landowners and recultivate the whole province. Leland, Vol. III, quoted by O'Conor.Violation of graces begun in Connaught.
Wentworth came before the Grand jury of Roscommon, where all landowners were gathered (“being anxious,” he said, “to have persons of such means as might answer the King a round fine in the castle chamber in case they should prevaricate”), and told them that the best means of enriching the county was a plantation like Ulster; hence, they should investigate the King’s title to the estates concerned. A proclamation was issued “that by an easy composition they should be allowed to buy indefeasible titles.” The Justices of the Peace all being bribed (“more or less in the pound of the first year’s rent were bestowed by the King upon the Lord Chief Justice and Lord Chief Baron of Ireland”) while the juries were either packed or intimidated, the verdicts always favoured the King, as in the case of Sligo and Mayo.
In Galway, however, there was resistance and the juries decided against the King, but Wentworth importuned and harassed the landowners so that they finally transferred title to their estates to the King and pleaded for mercy. But Wentworth now wished the jury to announce it had judged falsely and admit perjury. This was rejected, whereupon the Sheriff was fined 1,000 and the members of the jury 4,000 each and were to be held in Dublin Castle until payment and remorse.
Furthermore, people were imprisoned right and left for harmless speeches and brought before military courts, which naturally found them guilty.
1636To protect the English wool trade Wentworth banned wool exports even to England, except against licenses sold by himself, pocketing much money in this way; he introduced cultivation and weaving of flax successfully in Ireland (but with profit for himself).
Wentworth’s principle was to rule Ireland so that she could not exist without the Crown. Hence, a government salt monopoly was introduced.
1640When the Scottish war broke out,[250] Wentworth was made Earl of Strafford and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, a title no one had held since Essex. A new Irish Parliament voted in four new subsidies. Strafford recruited 8,000 infantry and 1,000 cavalry to reinforce the troops in Ireland. However, these 9,000 were nearly all Catholics.
Each subsidy of about 40,000.In June, Parliament reconvened and since most officers were away, the Catholics were in the majority. It was now agreed 1) to reduce incomes of the priesthood, 2) to redistribute the subsidies for this reason, because the Lord Lieutenant’s distribution was unlawful and unjust.
Meanwhile(end of 1640) Long Parliament convened, whose opposition began. Charles ordered the page on which these decisions were recorded to be torn out of the Journal of the Commons and Lords.
1641 February See O'Conor.[251]But Parliament decided to send to Charles a deputation with a Remonstrance of Grievances. Despite Strafford’s objections, the deputation arrived in England. Apart from the delay in confirming the graces, the grievances listed arbitrary interventions and decisions by the Lord Lieutenant; chicanery of the courts of law, heavy penalties to suppress freedom of speech and press; unlawful powers of special tribunals; insecurity of person and property, and monopoly; total of 16 items.
Strafford indicted by Long Parliament and executed. His various tyrannies in Ireland were held up against him, including the charge that he had established a tobacco monopoly for his own profit. As to the charge that he had collected taxes with military help and applied martial law, he maintained that this had always been so in Ireland and that the Provost Marshal had always hung people “who were going up and down the country and could not give a good accord of themselves” (what good was it, therefore, to introduce English law if it worked against the nation and could only be applied per martial law?).
All that could be said for Strafford was that he had applied the Penal Code against Catholics solely to extort money (for the Crown).
A new conspiracy in the north: Roger O'Moore, whose ancestors had been driven out of Offaley (in Edward’s and Mary’s reigns), Lord Maguire, Baron of Iniskillen, who still had remnants of his clan in Fermanagh, Hugh McMahon, Tyrone’s grandSon, Colonel Byrn and Sir Phelim O'Neill, strongly supported by Irish driven out by the plantation. Also supported by many Connaught chiefs recently expelled by Strafford. Earl Antrim plotted with them in the name of the King, who would, since the Irish Government gravitated towards Parliament, deal with them and the Lords of the Pale, and would depose that government.
1641 Dublin Castle was to be captured first, October 23, but the conspiracy was betrayed and Sir William Parsons, one of the Lords justices, had everyone within reach arrested (McMahon, Maguire, etc.), while O'Moore and others escaped.
Meanwhile, fighting broke out in Ulster and Phelim O'Neill, ass and pig (see O'Conor[252]), captured Charlemount by treachery; all other castles in the eight northern counties were attacked and captured, or quickly starved out. In eight days everything was captured and Phelim had gathered 30,000 men.
(The Lords Justices and generally the now dominant party in Ireland planned to exterminate all Irish and Anglo-lrish Catholics and replace them with English and Scottish Protestants-see Cromwell’s plan.) After outbreak of the revolt in Ulster, a company was formed in London in February [1642], petitioning Parliament to sell the ten million acres to be confiscated in Ireland, using the proceeds to prosecute a war of annihilation; the company offered to be middleman.
The whole story sounds apocryphal, resting on the hearsay evidence of Dr. H. Jones; the congregation seems never to have taken place, or to have been of a different nature. After outbreak of the rebellion in October, a large congregation of Catholics in Multifarnam Abbey, Westmeath County, debated the policy of whether to kill or simply drive out the Protestants. Phelim settled the issue by having Lord Charlemount and his other prisoners killed, and by letting all Englishmen and Scots be massacred in three parishes; furious over the fall of Newry he also ordered the burning of the town and cathedral of Armagh despite its surrender, and had 100 people killed. It is possible, however, that the killing of the Catholics of Island Magee at Carrickfergus by government troops occurred earlier and provoked the Catholics.
Leitrim (the O'Rourkes), the O'Ferrells of Longford (where plantations were also laid out) and the O'Byrnes of Wicklow rebelled on October 12; Wexford and Carlow, the Tooles and Cavanaghs, that is, all the Irish clans driven out by James, joined the rising and advanced to the walls of Dublin.
Evidently, the rising was due to the refusal to convene Parliament. See O'Conor.[253] All quiet in Munster until December, but Lord President Sir William St. Leger provoked the gentlemen to rise under Philip O'Dwyer by his arrogance and by calling them all rebels. They captured Cashel.
In Connaught, where Lord Ranelagh was Lord President, the rising was also general, compelling Ranelagh to resign. Galway alone was saved for the government by Lord Clanricarde (the same Clanricarde whose property Wentworth and his tribunals had ravaged), but he, too, was put under restraint by the Lords Justices. The rising was just what the latter wanted; they wished no submission save in battle, for that entailed forfeiture of lands. Except Galway and a few castles in Roscommon all Connaught was engulfed by the insurrection.
Phelim O'Neill now beleaguered Drogheda; at Julian’s Town Bridge, three miles from Drogheda, he drove a small force sent to relieve the besieged back to Dublin, causing much fear there; regiments went over to the rebels and Sir Charles Coote, then besieging Wicklow, was hastily recalled.
The lords and gents of the Pale, whom the government had supplied with some arms but who were at once required to return them as Catholics and told to leave Dublin and go to their estates, where they could do nothing unarmed but submit to the insurgents and thereby become traitors, could not hold out any longer. Sir Charles Coote, Governor of Dublin, roamed up and down the Pale and did nothing but “kill, burn, and destroy” in accordance with his instructions. Men of estate were taken along as prisoners to assure the King’s escheats upon attainders, while the rest of the population were executed under martial law, including a Catholic priest, Father Higgins, who was under Earl Ormond’s protection and had a safe-conduct.
The Lords Justices ordered the prisoners, McMahon and others, to be tortured to determine whether the King was behind the rebellion, but in vain.
Drogheda was bravely defended by Sir Henry Tichbourne, a soldier of the Cromwell school. He repulsed an escalade. Whereupon the town was merely blockaded, its food stores running low. Finally in February [1642], after a three months’ siege, Marquis Ormond with 3,000 infantry and 500 horsemen arrived to relieve the beleaguered town and the Irish withdrew at once.
In view of the ravages inflicted by government troops in the Pale, even by Ormond, the Catholic Lords of the Pale arranged a meeting with Roger 0 Moore, Byrn and McMahon, whereupon, following the Irish plea that they had risen for the King’s rights and that his Irish subjects should be just as free as those in England, an alliance was concluded-the first between Irish and Anglo-Irish of the Pale-and the Pale revolted. This was followed by the desertion of those few Catholics outside the Pale who had hesitated.
It appears that from March to October the clergy and gentry were dominant, and from October on the Commons were also represented. See O'Conor. Catholic priests reappeared from hiding, holding synods in Kells on March 22, 1642, and particularly in Kilkenny in May 1642, deciding to send envoys to the Emperor, the King of France, and the Pope. Soon there then the after money, arms, equipment and officers clergy and (mostly Irish who had served in foreign armies) arrived from all parts of Europe to help the Irish. A General Assembly was then instituted in Kilkenny in October with two chambers: a Council of 12 persons to govern the judiciary, the judges, etc., and a Supreme Council, serving as the provisional government. Supreme Commanders were appointed for the provinces: Owen O'Neill, the Spanish colonel, in Ulster, Preston in Leinster, Garret Barry in Munster and Colonel John Burke in Connaught.
The people of the Pale were still craving for peace with the government and made frequent approaches. The Irish also demanded a reversal of attainders. An address was sent to the King, setting forth the grounds for the movement and the wishes of the Irish Catholics, in which they called themselves the National Assembly.
Owen O'Neill had been commander of Arras during the French siege in 1640 and in contrast to Sir Phelim O'Neill was closely enough related to the royal family to be declared The O'Neill. Besides, he was a good officer.
Thomas Preston, brother of Lord Gormanstown, Colonel in Imperial and Spanish service, had distinguished himself during the Dutch siege of Lowen. He brought three ships, cannon, small arms and equipment, with four colonels, several engineers and 500 other Irish officers.
At this time, Ormond defeated an Irish detachment under Lord Mountgarret in Kildare (at Kilrush). Thereafter, Preston was defeated at Tymahoo and some other (?) detachment at Raconell. In spite of this, the insurgents were doing well. Finally, Charles, who needed support against the English Parliament, authorised Ormond to negotiate a year’s armistice. The negotiations began, and an armistice followed. Meanwhile, the Lords Justices continued to act in the spirit of the Parliament. “The parliament pamphlets were by them received as oracles, their commands obeyed as laws, and the extirpation preached as a gospel.” And to leave the rebels no avenue of escape, submissions by individuals were turned down. Even the quietest Catholics of the Pale, Lord Dunsany, Sir J. Netterville, and others, were imprisoned, tortured and arraigned whole sale for high treason on the strength of thus obtained confessions. Estates were seized en masse and their owners flung into gaol. More than “1,000 indictments were found by a Grand jury against such men in two days,” and another about 2,000 were “in reserve on the record.”
Scarampi, the Pope’s legate, arrived in Kilkenny with troops and military supplies.
He reinforced the old Irish party, which primarily proposed to restore the Catholic religion to its full splendour, refused to trust the King, denounced the armistice, paid none of the subsidies demanded by the King and meant to fight the King and the English Parliament. the King was not to be trusted for had he not betrayed Strafford after promising that not a hair on his head would be touched.
1643The Anglo-lrish moderates were opposed to this, finally bringing about a year’s armistice on the basis of previously negotiated articles (their content?). When billets had been arranged for the respective armies and the armistice ratified by the Lords Justices and the Council on September 19, 1643, the Irish agreed to pay the King 30,000, half in money and half in cattle.
At once, five regiments were dispatched from Ireland to reinforce the King’s army in England.
Indignation ran high in Ireland, as in England, over this armistice (that is, among the Catholics in Ireland and the Parliament party in England). The Lords justices and the Council in Dublin, likewise opposed, obstructed it in every way they could. English Parliament pronounced Marquis Ormond “traitor against the three kingdoms.” The Cavaliers,[254] too, were discontented. The 20,000 English and Scots in Ulster “vowed to live and die in opposition to the cessation.”
Meanwhile, a new Remonstrance to the King was drawn up by the Catholics in Trim, enumerating their grievances, demanding redress and then placing 10,000 troops at the King’s disposal.
That was the famous Remonstrance of Trim.
However, simultaneously, Ormond marched on Rossa and defeated General Preston (what about the armistice?).
Four parties in Ireland: 1) Irish Catholic, 2) Anglo-Irish Catholic (the bulk of the Confederates was recruited from these two parties), 3) the King’s party, and 4) the Puritans.
For all this see O'Conor. While Ormond negotiated with the Confederates in Kilkenny to extort money for the King and, if possible, hoodwink them over the agreed points, the King invited Confederate delegates to Oxford. The delegates arrived with brusque demands: complete freedom of religion and repeal of the penal laws against Catholics; a free Parliament with suspension of Poynings’s Law of 1494 while it sat (because it said nothing could be done without the English Council); repeal of all Irish Acts and Ordinances since August 1641; also a general amnesty and an Act of Limitation for Security of Estates; offices should be impartially granted to Catholics; passage of an Act establishing the independence of the Irish state and Parliament from the English; investigation of the massacres (committed by both sides during the war). The delegates of the Irish Protestants (who also came to Oxford) demanded, on the other hand, that all penal laws be preserved, the Catholic priests banned and Catholics excluded from all offices. The Solemn League and Covenant[255] was established at this time; Monroe and his Scots in the north accepted it at once, and so did most officers and men of the King’s army under Ormond. English Parliament put Monroe in command of all troops in Ulster and he captured Belfast, where there were many Royalists, in a surprise attack.
Ormond, in the meantime, obtained the King’s permission to amnesty “as to life and lands” all rebels returning into the King’s service, as the chief means of breaking up the Confederation, which succeeded in many respects. O'Neill was now so badly off in the north that he had to plead for arms and equipment in Kilkenny, which he received; he was also appointed commander in Connaught, while Lord Castlehaven was made Supreme Commander.
Rinuccini, Archbishop of Fermo, was now the Pope’s nuncio, arriving with considerable arms and equipment.
1645Charles commanded Ormond to conclude peace with the Irish at any cost, in order to release the army for England. He was quite willing to suspend Poynings’s Act “for such bills as might be agreed upon” and to abolish the penal laws. But Ormond baulked, possibly because he was too much a Protestant, but probably because he knew that it was farthest from Charles’s mind to keep his word. (?) Hence,
1646Lord Herbert, Earl of Glamorgan, was sent to Kilkenny, concluding a treaty with the Confederates whereby the latter remained in possession of all churches and church revenues that had not in fact passed into Protestant possession and were allowed to hold public church services; the Catholic clergy was not to be punished for exercising their jurisdiction over their parishes. In return, 10,000 men under Glamorgan were placed at the King’s disposal and two-thirds of the church revenues for three years were allotted for the upkeep of this army. For this Glamorgan was empowered by Charles above his signature and private seal. The treaty consisted of two parts, one public and the other secret (which contained the stipulation on religion). It was farthest from Charles’s mind ever to ratify the treaty. As Hallam said, “his want of faith was not to the Protestant but to the Catholic.”
But the secret was soon out. Sir Charles Coote, a Puritan, was sent to Connaught to capture Sligo, in which he succeeded, but M. O'Kelly, Catholic Archbishop of Tuam tried to recapture it, falling in battle. A copy of the secret treaty was found in his belongings and made public at once.
The situation became extremely confused.
Limerick, for example, stood neutral, because preoccupied with internal conflicts. In Connaught, three Presidents: one for the King, another for English Parliament (Coote) and one more for the Supreme Council of the Confederation.
The King disavowed Glamorgan, the treaty therefore became null and void, and the peace earlier concluded by Ormond was ratified by the Irish Commissioners on March 28.
Naturally, this did not suit the Covenanters, and Monroe had 60 men and 18 women massacred in Newry. O'Neill with 5,000 infantry and 500 cavalry marched against Armagh towards the end of May and stationed himself at Benburb, where on June 5 he was attacked by Monroe, whom he totally defeated, whereupon Monroe, who had lost all his artillery, abandoned Portedown, Downpatrick and other places.[256]

Notes for Chronology

224. The Anglo-Saxon King AtheIstan defeated the Danes of Northumberland, and the Normans and Irish who came to their assistance, in the battle of Brurianburh (Central England) in 937.

225. In the “Chronology of Ireland” Engels refers to this important landmark in Ireland’s history only in general outline; a detailed description of the beginning of the conquest of Ireland by the English is given in his other excerpts and notes. The Anglo-Norman barons from South Wales were the organisers of the first aggressive campaigns. The most influential among them, Richard de Clare, Earl of Pembroke (nicknamed Strongbow), consented to return the crown to Dermot, the King of Leinster, who had been banished from Ireland, on condition that the latter would give him his daughter in marriage and appoint him his successor. In May 1169, troops under the Anglo-Norman barons Fitzstephen and Prendergast landed on the south-eastern coast of Ireland. The next spring, troops under Maurice Fitzgerald and Raymond Le Gros invaded Ireland, and in August of the same year Pembroke himself captured Dublin. More and more feudal adventurers landed in Ireland in later years in search of booty. In October 1171, King Henry II invaded Ireland at the head of an army. Henry not only wanted to subjugate Ireland, but also to make the Anglo-Norman barons amenable to his wishes and foil their intention of creating a kingdom of their own. Henry forced the barons and the Irish chiefs to recognise him as the “supreme ruler” of Ireland, and placed his garrisons in the strong points of Wexford, Waterford and Dublin. He left Ireland in April 1172, leaving a Governor behind (Hugh de Lacy was the first).

In the fierce battles against the Anglo-Norman invaders, the Irish clans suffered defeat because of the lack of unity among their leaders and the enemy’s superiority in arms and tactics. The establishment of the Anglo-Norman colony in Ireland marked the beginning of the age-long struggle between conquerors and local population.

226. Magna Carta Libertatum (the Great Charter of Liberties) — a deed the insurgent barons of England, supported by the knights and townspeople, forced King John Lackland to sign on June 15, 1215. Magna Carta introduced certain limitations to the royal prerogative primarily in the interests of the big feudal lords, and made the latter’s privileges secure. Some concessions were also granted to the knights and townspeople.

227. Geraldines — Anglo-Irish aristocratic family descending from the first conquerors of Ireland, the Anglo-Norman nobles from South Wales. In Ireland the Geraldines became related with the clan chiefs, thereby acquiring considerable connections and influence. At the same time they participated in the wars of conquest against the indigenous Irish. From the beginning of the 14th century, two branches of the Geraldine family — the Earls of Desmond and the Earls of Kildare — played a particularly prominent role. Both were descendants of Maurice Fitzgerald, the leader of one of the first armies of the Anglo-Norman barons to invade Ireland in 1169-71.

228. Engels is referring to his excerpts from Thomas Moore’s The History of Ireland. Regarding the 1295 Acts of Parliament, they say the following: In 1295 Irish Parliament. Acts:

“1) ... a new division of the kingdom into counties ...
"2) ... all such marchers as neglected to maintain their necessary wards should forfeit their lands....
"3) ... all absentees should assign [thus, already so early!], out of their Irish revenues, a competent portion for that purpose [for the maintenance of a military force.]
"4) ... no lord should wage war but by licence of the chief governor, or by special mandate of the king. ...
"5) ... an effort was made at this time to limit the number of their retainers, by forbidding every person, of whatever degree, to harbour more of such followers than he could himself maintain; and for all exactions and violences committed by these idle men ... their lords were to be made answerable.”

Engels’s remark (in italics) notes a feature typical of later times: the English owners of Irish estates did not reside in Ireland.

229. In 1286, following the death of the Scottish King Alexander III, King Edward I of England laid claim to the Scottish crown and succeeded in annexing Scotland. In 1297, an uprising flared up against English rule, and in 1306 it developed into a full-scale war of independence. The revolt was headed by Robert Bruce, a remarkable soldier. In 1314, the army of Edward II was defeated and Scotland once again became an independent kingdom.

230. On July 24, 1314, the Scots led by Robert Bruce defeated the far bigger English army at Bannockburn, thereby liberating Scotland from English rule.

231. In 1367, the Parliament of the English colony in Kilkenny adopted the famous Statute of Kilkenny — a code of prohibitions designed to protect the colonists from the spread among them of Irish customs and habits. The adoption of the Statute was prompted by the desire of the English authorities to intensify their policy of conquest in Ireland and to legalise the inequality of the Irish population in the vanquished part of the island, as well as to counteract the separatist tendencies of the Anglo-Irish nobility, whose strength lay in their ties with the Irish clan chiefs. The racialist, colonialist Statute demanded that the Irish be treated as enemies and their laws (the laws of the Brehons, the keepers and commentators of ancient Irish law) as the customs of an inferior race. In the excerpts from Thomas Moore’s The History of Ireland Engels interprets the content of this Statute as follows (Engels’s own remarks are italicised): “The Statute of Kilkenny, 1367, directed against Irelandisation. Intermarriages with the natives, or any connection with them in the way of fostering or gossipred (see E. >Spencer, [A View of the State of Ireland)) should be considered and punished as high treason: — that any man of English race, assuming an Irish name, or using the Irish language, apparel, or customs, should forfeit all his lands and tenements: — that to adopt or submit to the Brehon law was treason ... that the English should not permit the Irish to pasture or graze upon their lands, nor admit them to any ecclesiastical benefices or religious houses... (Where were the Irish of the Pale to pasture their stock? At that time it was their main occupation!).”

232. Bonaght — a duty which the supreme and local kings, and also major clan chiefs in Ireland, levied on the smaller vassal chiefs for the maintenance of the troops. After the English conquest it was often paid to the English crown and its representatives in Ireland.

233. Coynye, livery-taxes in kind the rank-and-file members of Irish clans paid to their chiefs in the form of food and equipment for the troops.

234. A reference to the participation of Irish troops in the Hundred Years’ War between England and France, which lasted, with interruptions, from 1337 to 1453. At the end of the 14th century only a few strongholds in France remained in English hands, but in 1415 King Henry V launched a new invasion, beating the French knights at Agincourt and capturing the entire north-western part of the country. In the course of a stubborn struggle, attended by a great upsurge of patriotic feeling (,loan of Arc), the French halted the advance of the English and gradually drove them from their land.

235. At Wakefield, the army of Richard, Duke of York, claimant to the English crown, was beaten on December 27, 1460, by the supporters of the ruling house of Lancaster. The battle was one of the episodes in the Wars of the Roses (1455-85), caused by the struggle for the English throne between the houses of York and Lancaster. The war was so called after the white and red roses, that were the emblems of the Yorkist and Lancastrian parties respectively. The war was attended by the destruction of the feudal nobility and ended in the accession of the new, Tudor dynasty.

236. Degenerate English — the name given to members of the Anglo-Irish families, who had long since settled in Ireland, become related to the clan elite, and assimilated many Irish customs.

237. In the 15th century the power of the English colony in Ireland was at a low ebb. The English feudal lords were exhausted by the Hundred Years’ War, and later owing to their feuds in the Wars of the Roses, the settlers in Ireland had great difficulty in withstanding the onslaught of the Irish clan chiefs. In order to get the latter to refrain from raids into the Pale they paid them an annual tribute, which became known as the “Black Rent.”

238. The Reformation begun in England under King Henry VIII (Act o f Supremacy, which declared the King the head of the Church in place of the Pope, and other Acts) was completed under Elizabeth I (the adoption, in 1571, of the “39 articles” of the Anglican Church — a variety of Protestantism). The introduction of the Reformation to Catholic Ireland was a means of subjecting her to the English absolute monarchy and expropriating her population in favour of the English colonists on the pretext of struggle against Catholicism.

239. A reference to County Laoighis (Leix) in Central Ireland, which, in 1557, following the confiscation by the Tudors of the lands of local tribal communities (the clans), was renamed Queen’s County in honour of Mary Tudor, the English Queen. The neighbouring Offaley County, the population of which had also fallen victim to the expropriation policy of the English colonial authorities, was renamed King’s County in honour of Mary’s husband, Philip II of Spain.

240. In view of the advance of the Reformation in England and the anti-Catholic policy of the government of Elizabeth I, Pope Pius V issued a special bull in February 1570, excommunicating Elizabeth and releasing her subjects from their oath of allegiance. Other acts of the Papal Curia against Elizabeth followed, and in 1576 she was deprived of her right to the Irish crown.

241. A reference to the restitution by James I of the Act of Uniformity passed in 1559 during the reign of Elizabeth I. The Act confirmed the principles of the Anglican Reformation and decreed that worship was to be conducted according to a Book of Common Prayer sanctioned by the sovereign, as the head of the Church of England.

242. Tanistry — a system regulating the inheritance of chieftainship of the Celtic clans and septs (tribes) in Ireland. Like many other Irish customs, it was a relic of the tribal system. According to this custom, the successor of the clan chief, the tanist, was appointed during the lifetime of the chief from a definite family in the clan, whose members were considered the “eldest and worthiest.”

Gavelkind — a term borrowed from the common law of the inhabitants of Kent and applied by English jurists to the Irish rules regulating the passing of the lands of a deceased member of the clan or sept into other hands. Ever since the time when tribal relations prevailed, land was regarded by the indigenous Irish not as private property but as a temporary tenure. Thus, after the death of its owner it did not pass to his descendants but was distributed among all free male kinsmen, including his sons out of wedlock. Although the lands of the chiefs and members of the clan elite were by that time no longer parcelled out after their death, they were not regarded as their private property and were not inherited by the family but passed to new ownership in accordance with the described tanistry principle.

243. Engels is referring to his excerpts from the book: G. Smith, Irish History and Irish Character, Oxford, London, 1861. The excerpts have never yet been published.

244. The third volume of this publication, comprising the conclusion of the collection Senchus Mor (The Great Book of Old), appeared in 1873, after Engels had written the passage in this book. Senchus Mor is one of the most detailed written records of the laws of the Brehons, the guardians of and commentators on laws and customs in Celtic Ireland.

245. The name given at that time to landowners among the colonists, and also to land speculators.

246. A reference to Engels’s work, published in 1948 in Russian in the Marx-Engels Archives, Vol. X, under the heading “Excerpts on the History of Ireland in the 17th and 18th Centuries.” These excerpts are based on material contained in the book: Matthew O'Conor, The History of the Irish Catholics from the Settlement in 1691 with a View of the State of Ireland from the Invasion by Henry II to the Revolution, Dublin, 1813. Engels supplemented this material with facts from many other works.

In particular, the reference is to the following passage (Engels’s own remark is italicised): After the confiscation carried out in Ulster, the estates of the native Irish, in other parts of the kingdom, were invaded on the score of defective titles. “The confusion of the civil wars, and the uncertainty and fluctuation of Brehon tenures rendered them an easy prey to the rapacity of the administration; 66,000 acres between Dublin and Waterford, the properties of the Cavanaghs, Nolans, Byrnes, and O’tooles were by inquisitions of office found to be the King’s, and although a considerable portion of these escheated lands was regranted to the natives, yet the establishment of an English Protestant colony on 16,500 acres gave new vigour to old animosities, and inflamed the old proprietors with implacable hatred to the spoilers” (p. 22). This happened apparently in 1612 or 1613.

In 1614, “A commission issued to inquire into titles in the King’s and Queen’s counties, in Westmeath, Longford, and Leitrim, the counties of the O'Mulley’s, O'Carroll’s, M'Coughlan’s, O'Doyne’s M'Geoghegan’s, and O'Mallachlin’s, 385,000 acres were in those districts found in the King, and planted as Ulster had been” (p. 24)

247. Freehold — a category of small landownership which had come down from medieval England. The freeholder paid the lord a comparatively small rent in cash and was allowed to dispose of his land as he saw fit.

248. Engels is referring to the following place in his notes from O'Conor’s book (the latter having borrowed the facts from Th. Carte, A History of the Life of James, Duke of Ormonde, vols. I-III, London, 1736):

“The incident with Phelim Bearn and his sons Brian and Turloug is illustrative. They owned the place of Ranelagh in County Wicklow according to a grant by Elizabeth (after the death of old Feag Bearn it had been regranted to Phelim) and James had issued orders on two occasions, one after another, that their rights should be accordingly respected. Nevertheless, Sir Richard Graham used counterfeited documents and invoked his connections in Dublin to seize part of the land belonging to Phelim, while Sir James Fitzpearce Fitzgerald tried to seize Brian’s share for himself in like manner but did not succeed. At long last the case was submitted to a commission in England where Sir William Parsons, who had formerly in his capacity of judge in Dublin said that the contested land belonged to Phelim and not to any dummy freeholders of Graham, now asserted that the opposite was true. Since things still did not go smoothly enough, Graham and Parsons (who had by that time also become interested) declared that the land belonged to the crown. This put the matter in a new light. Lord Esmond gave evidence in their favour. A commission headed by Sir William Parsons was immediately appointed to investigate the matter. Although the King had ordered that the case should be heard in the last instance also by the English Council, Sir William Parsons succeeded in gaining possession of Phelim’s land. He did not succeed, however, in seizing Brian’s land. After all attempts had failed, Parsons, Esmond and others succeeded in having the two brothers, Brian and Turloug, gaoled in Dublin Prison on grounds of false evidence given by criminals and other persons who were forced to perjury by torture. The main accusation was that they had concealed several runaway Irish rebels. From 1625 to 1628 there were unceasing attempts to have them convicted by resorting to false evidence and by reshuffling, lie composition of the jury, until, finally, Sir Franc s Ennesli later Lord of Mountnorris, and others came to their defence and a commission was appointed to investigate the charge. In December 1628, the commission found them not guilty and liberated them. However, the larger part of their possessions, notably Carrick Manor in Ranelagh, had by that time, by a grant of August 4, been handed over to Sir William Parsons, and they did not get it back!

All the above has been taken from Th. Carte (Life of Duke of Ormonde, Vol. I).”

249. People who refused to conform to the established religion. In Ireland the name was applied to Roman Catholics, who were opposed to the Anglican Church.

250. In 1639, the war between England and Scotland ensued from an uprising of the Scots following the attempts by Charles I and his counsellors to extend absolutist ways to Scotland and introduce the Anglican prayer book to which the Scottish Calvinists, or Presbyterians, objected. After a series of Scottish victories Charles was obliged to conclude a peace treaty in the autumn of 1639 in Berwick. Meanwhile, however, he made secret preparations for revenge. In desperate need of money for his military schemes, Charles called a Parliament (the Short Parliament) in the spring of 1640, dissolving it almost immediately, upon its refusal to grant war subsidies. Thereupon he called a new Parliament — known as the Long Parliament. The King’s conflict with that body eventually led to civil war — the English bourgeois revolution. Early in 1641, the Long Parliament declared the need for the establishment of lasting peace and closer union with Scotland.

251. A reference to the following passage Engels took from Matthew O'Conor’s book: “1641. February. The deputies submitted to the King a remonstrance of grievances. There were complaints about fines, imprisonments and punishments in various shapes of torment and dishonour, for not joining in the established worship; the execution of martial law in the midst of profound peace; proclamations and acts of state made paramount to acts of the legislature; infringements of proclamations punished by imprisonment, by mutilation of members, and by confiscations, the constitution of Parliament subverted by the disfranchisement of cities and boroughs at the will of the court, the subversion of titles, and insecurity of all property by state inquisitions, by persecution of juries’, etc.”

252. Engels is referring to the following passage in his notes from Matthew O'Conor’s book , which repudiates the slanderous inventions about “cruelty,” “treachery,” “conspiratorial tricks,” etc., of the Irish rebels and their Ulster leader — Phelim O'Neill (Engels’s own remarks are italicised):

“As regards the beating up of Protestants by Catholics, O'Conor maintains that the populous towns in the north remained in the hands of the English and thus served as refuges for the Protestant population of rural areas; many (Protestants) got safe to Derry, Enniskillen, Coleraine, and Carrickfergus, besides several thousands got safe to Dublin, 6,000 women and children were saved in Fermanagh, the Scots in Ulster did not come to harm, the capitulation of Bellyaghie was faithfully observed by the Catholics and generally at the commencement of the uprising no murders were committed (p. 33).

“Sir Phelim O'Neill was no coward; this can be seen from his constancy and fortitude in his last moments, his rejection of life and pardon, proffered to him on the terms of heaping dishonour and infamy on the grave of the late King’. (Carte, Ormonde, Vol. I,)

“The fact that at first (in October-December 1641) only the Irish who had been deprived of their possessions by James and ousted by the English settlers participated in the rebellion shows how badly it had been prepared.”

253. A reference to the following passage in Engels’s notes from Matthew O'Conor’s book: “To all intents and purposes the government drove the English of the Pale and the Anglo-Irish lords of Munster into the rebel army to have reasons for new confiscations. The Catholics of the Pale kept their faith to the King particularly zealously and with all their power resisted participation in the uprising but had to [join it]. The situation became particularly clear to them when the Irish Parliament which was to convene on November 9 and to confirm the ‘graces’ was suddenly, and contrary to the King’s orders, postponed by the Lords Justices a few days before the date set for its convocation (p. 39). The session of Parliament was to have lasted only one day and it had been decided to submit to the King a remonstrance proposing that he should allow (the Irish Parliament) to suppress the uprising by its own forces. Lord Dillon, a Protestant who was sent to England, was arrested there by the (Long) Parliament and the remonstrance was destroyed. The impudence of the Lords justices could be explained by the fact that the English Commons had voted 20,000, 4,000 foot, 2,000 horse for fully squashing the resistance in Ireland and the reinforcements were expected (Resolution of November 3, 1641).”

254. The roundheads — the name given to the supporters of Parliament during the English bourgeois revolution in the 17th century because of their puritan custom of cutting their hair close, while the cavaliers — supporters of the King — wore their hair long.

255. Name of the agreement signed on September 25, 1643, between the Long Parliament and the Scottish Presbyterians; it reaffirmed the rights of the Scottish Calvinist Church and the freedoms and privileges of the Parliaments of both kingdoms; the terms of the agreement extended also to Scottish settlers in Ireland.

256. Owen Roe O'Neill’s success at Benburb, which temporarily tipped the scale in the Irish Confederation in favour of radical elements who wanted to break not only with the Long Parliament but also with the King’s party, was a major victory of the Irish rebels. However, as a result of the incessant quarrels and the clashes of interests in the Confederate camp, the moderate Anglo-Irish aristocrats soon gained the upper hand and signed a new agreement with

Ormond, the commander of the Royalist forces. This enabled Cromwell and his followers (who had by now defeated the Royalist forces in England, proclaimed a republic and beheaded Charles I) to organise a punitive expedition to Ireland on the pretext of destroying a Royalist stronghold. The true aim of the expedition was the colonial subjugation of the country. On August 15, 1649, Cromwell’s army landed in Ireland and commenced the brutal suppression of the Irish rebellion, which was continued by Cromwell’s successors the Republican Generals Ireton and, later, Fleetwood. The last centres of resistance by the Irish, who had taken to guerilla warfare, were subdued in 1852.