The following is the sixth in a series of articles under the title “Hold High the Bright Red Banner of Marxism-Leninism and Proletarian Internationalism”. The first five parts appeared in PCDN, Volume 7 Numbers 221, 222, 223, 224 and 225, dated, September 15, 16, 17, 19 and 20, respectively.
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The theoreticians of the “three worlds” allege: “In view of the erroneous ideas that existed in China and the world, Chairman Mao, by applying Marxist dialectics in the dauntless spirit of a thorough-going materialist, summed up both the positive and negative experience at home and abroad, gave the first scientific answer in the history of the International Communist Movement to this question of cardinal importance relating to the historical destiny of the dictatorship of the proletariat and founded the great theory of continuing the revolution under the dictatorship of the proletariat. On the basis of this theory, Chairman Mao formulated in 1962 the Party’s basic line for the whole historical period of socialism.”
Note the phrase “first scientific answer in the history of the International Communist Movement to this question of cardinal importance relating to the historical destiny of the dictatorship of the proletariat”! Thus, Marxism-Leninism has no role in guiding the thinking of the theoreticians of the “three worlds”!
The theoreticians of the “three worlds” further allege that Chairman Mao made the “contributions” in the same “field” as Lenin, that is, the field of the “theory of the proletarian revolution and dictatorship of the proletariat”. These contributions are:
1. Chairman Mao “revealed the law of development of socialist society, created the great systematic theory of continuing the revolution under the dictatorship of the proletariat, and clearly charted the true road to consolidating the dictatorship of the proletariat, preventing capitalist restoration and building socialism for the countries in which proletarian revolution has triumphed”. In other words, Chairman Mao presented a “great systematic theory” as to how to prevent “capitalist restoration” and how the final victory of socialism will be achieved in “the countries in which proletariat revolution has triumphed”. Thus, in the absence of this theory before 1962, capitalist restoration took place in the Soviet Union and in other ex-socialist countries! And, now all the socialist countries are safe from this possibility of capitalist restoration!!!
2. “Chairman Mao’s thesis of differentiating three worlds which he set forth in 1974”, gives “a correct orientation to the present international struggle and clearly defines the main revolutionary force, the chief enemies, and the middle forces that can be won over and united, enabling the international proletariat to unite with all the forces that can be united to form the broadest united front in class struggles against the chief enemies in the world arena. This strategic formulation conforms to the strategic requirements of the contemporary struggles of the international proletariat and the oppressed people and nations of the world and also of the struggle for the triumph of socialism and communism. It is the correct strategic and tactical formulation for the world proletariat in the present era and its class line in its international struggle. Practice in the last few years has proved that this thesis of Chairman Mao’s is entirely correct. With the passage of time, it will demonstrate its effectiveness even more powerfully.” Of course, “Lenin died too early”, so the question of presenting the “correct strategic and tactical formulation” for this “present era” did not arise.
Thus Chairman Mao has been alleged to have presented “the true road to consolidating the dictatorship of the proletariat, preventing capitalist restoration and building socialism for the countries in which proletarian revolution has triumphed” and the “strategic and tactical formulation for the world proletariat in the present era and its class line in its international struggle” which “conforms to the strategic requirements of the contemporary struggles of the international proletariat and the oppressed people and nations of the world and also of the struggle for the triumph of socialism and communism.” The correct line that Leninism is:
1. “ ... Marxism of the era of imperialism and the proletarian revolution”,
2. “... the theory and tactics of the proletarian revolution in general”, and
3. “ ... the theory and tactics of the dictatorship of the proletariat in particular” is no longer viable as Chairman Mao “since Lenin, inherited, defended and developed the teachings of Marx and Lenin”, etc., etc. The question arises that can the teachings of “Marx and Lenin” “since Lenin” be changed into its opposite by “inheriting”, “defending” and “developing” them? The theoreticians of the “three worlds” are such “dialecticians” that they believe that it is quite possible that like class society, which in its development is heading towards classless society, that is, turning into its opposite, in the same way the teachings of “Marx and Lenin” “since Lenin” may also turn into their opposite in the course of “inheriting”, “defending” and “developing”! But, we firmly believe that there is no danger of Marxism-Leninism turning into its opposite, as it is only the revisionists and opportunists of all hues who believe that they can convert Marxism-Leninism into clericalism and make it harmless for the imperialists, social-imperialists and reactionaries of all countries.
The Marxist-Leninist strategy and tactics are one whole and are applicable to all countries. Stalin pointed out:
...October Revolution...represents a model of the practical application of Lenin’s theory of the proletarian revolution.
He who has not understood this specific feature of the October Revolution will never understand either the international nature of this revolution, or its colossal international might, or the specific features of its foreign policy.
The question of the final victory of socialism in one or several countries where the proletariat has seized state power and has established the dictatorship of the proletariat and the question of the final victory of socialism all over the globe is one question and the strategy and tactics for both are the same. For example, without the victory of socialism in several countries, and vigorous development of the proletarian revolutionary movement in all the countries, we cannot talk about the final victory of socialism or of the final defeat of attempts at capitalist restoration. In the same way, the talk of the victory of proletarian revolution on the world scale is absurd without establishing and consolidating the dictatorship of the proletariat and building socialism in the country in which socialism has won victory, which is nothing but the base of world revolution. So the international proletariat has one strategy and tactics which are applied according to the concrete conditions in each country for the single aim of victory of proletarian revolution on the world scale and for bringing about the transition from capitalism to socialism and the final victory of socialism over capitalism and establishing the communist society all over the globe. The theoreticians of the “three worlds” confuse the entire matter.
They are talking about “strategic and tactical formulation for the world proletariat in the present era.” What is this “present era”? Do we follow the “teachings of Marx and Lenin” on this question? Lenin teaches: “Imperialism is the eve of the socialist revolution.” Comrade Enver Hoxha has pointed out:
The fundamental features of our epoch, as the epoch of the transition from capitalism to socialism, of the struggle of two opposing social systems, as the epoch of the proletarian and national liberation revolutions, of the collapse of imperialism and the liquidation of the colonial system, as the epoch of the triumph of socialism and communism on a world scale, are becoming more pronounced and more clearly obvious each day.
What do the theoreticians of the “three worlds” say about the nature of our era? On account of their demagogy and sophistry, it is difficult to fathom what they say about this question, but, in spite of their chameleon features and slippery texture, their analysis of the “nature of our era” comes quite clear in black and white. Here is what they state: “We should enhance our unity with the socialist countries and with the proletariat and the oppressed people and nations throughout the world, enhance our unity with the countries of the third world, unite with all countries subjected to aggression, subversion, interference, control and bullying by imperialism and social-imperialism and form the broadest united front against the hegemonism of the two superpowers, the Soviet Union and the United States.” Thus the main struggle is against the “hegemonism of the two superpowers”. And about imperialism, they merely state that “Imperialism means aggression, imperialism means war”. And they create confusion on the question of war and revolution by invoking the name of Chairman Mao: “As Chairman Mao taught us, so long as the social system in the imperialist and social-imperialist countries remains unchanged, war is inevitable – either a war between them or a revolution by the people, and there cannot be lasting peace”. As we have shown from the thesis of Lenin on proletarian revolution “the intensification of the struggle on the third front, the inter-capitalist front, weakens imperialism” and he concluded from this “that under imperialism wars cannot be averted, and that a coalition between the proletarian revolution in Europe and the colonial revolution in the East in a united world front of revolution against the world front of imperialism is inevitable”.
But the theoreticians of the “three worlds”, instead of following Lenin on the question of proletarian revolution, have concocted their renegade thesis and they shout of their treachery from roof-tops without any shame. They say: 1) “We stand firmly with the developing countries of Asia, Africa, Latin America and other regions and staunchly support their just struggle to win and defend national independence, safeguard state sovereignty and develop the national economy”. 2) “We support the second world countries, such as the European countries and Japan, in their struggle against control, intimidation and bullying by the superpowers”. Thus, the “coalition between the proletarian revolution in Europe and the colonial revolution in the East in a united world front of revolution” is treacherously abandoned and an open call has been given that the reactionaries of the whole world, save of course the Soviet social-imperialists, who are the “most dangerous”, should form a coalition against the socialist country of Albania, against the revolutionary movement of the proletariat and against anti-imperialist and anti-feudal revolutions in Asia, Africa and Latin America.
This clearly shows why they had to concoct the thesis that Chairman Mao gave this “correct strategic and tactical formulation for the world proletariat in the present era” because they first and foremost would like to attack Stalin. In attacking Stalin, they are attacking Leninism and finally they want to use the empty words “Mao Tsetung Thought” under which they can present any vulgarizations and distortions of Marxism-Leninism they like and commit every kind of infamy. But the life and work of Chairman Mao cannot be used by them, as Chairman Mao was a great Marxist-Leninist.Chairman Mao personally launched a campaign to study the works of Marx, Engels and Lenin on the dictatorship of the proletariat in early 1975. People’s Daily of February 22, 1975 and Red Flag No. 3, 1975 carried the following “Editor’s Note”, and printed quotations from Marx, Engels and Lenin on the dictatorship of the proletariat:
Our great leader Chairman Mao recently gave important instructions on theory. Chairman Mao said: ’Why did Lenin speak of exercising dictatorship over the bourgeoisie? Lack of clarity on this question will lead to revisionism. This should be made known to the whole nation.’
Speaking of the socialist system, Chairman Mao said: ’In a word, China is a socialist country. Before liberation she was much the same as a capitalist country. Even now she practices an ’eight-grade wage system, distribution according to work and exchange through money, and in this differs very little from the old society. What is different is that the system of ownership has changed.’
Chairman Mao pointed out: ’Our country at present practices a commodity system, the wage system is unequal, too, as in the eight-grade wage scale, and so forth. Under the dictatorship of the proletariat such things can only be restricted. Therefore, if people like Lin Piao come to power, it will be quite easy for them to rig up the capitalist system. That is why should do more reading of Marxist-Leninist works.’
“Chairman Mao also pointed out: ’Lenin said that “small production engenders capitalism and the bourgeoisie continuously, daily, hourly, spontaneously, and on a mass scale.” They are also engendered among a part of the working class and of the Party membership. But within the ranks of the proletariat and among the personnel of state and other organs there are people who take to the bourgeois style of life’.
Thus, Chairman Mao’s instruction to the entire nation that they should study the works of Marx, Engels and Lenin on the dictatorship of the proletariat clearly shows that he never put forward the atrocious notion that “Lenin died too early . .. and it was impossible for him to answer the question clearly and definitely”. If this had been the case then Chairman Mao was clearly mistaken in calling upon the entire nation to study the works of Marx, Engels and Lenin on the dictatorship of the proletariat, as according to the theoreticians of “Lenin died too early . .”, he should have called upon the nation: “Please throw away the works of Marx, Engels and Lenin because they are not alive today. Throw away the works of Stalin as well, because he made the grave ’mistake’ of defending Marxism-Leninism throughout his entire life. Let us get on with the work and study my works, because I have seen everything with my own eyes.” This is precisely what the “successors” of Chairman Mao Tsetung are telling the whole world. Forget about Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin and the historical experience of the International Communist Movement and follow us and every distortion we present in the name of Mao Tsetung!