The Workers' Advocate


Vol. 5, No. 2 May 15, 1975 15¢







Chairman Mao Tsetung's Solemn Statement of May 20, 1970:



On the Fifth Anniversary of the May 20th Statement





Comrade Ho Chi Minh on the Vietnamese Revolution



During the past month, the international working class was greeted with the historic news of the liberation of two nations in Indo-China.

Worker's Advocate sends a RED SALUTE to the liberation fighters of Cambodia under the Royal Government of National Union of Cambodia (RGNUC), the National United Front of Cambodia (NUFC), and the Cambodian People's National Liberation Armed Forces (CPNLAF), who freed their country of the U.S. imperialists and the Lon Nol clique of traitors on April 17!

Worker's Advocate sends a RED SALUTE to the liberation fighters of Vietnam who, under the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam (PRGSVN), the South Vietnam National Front for Liberation (SVNFL), the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV), and the Vietnam Worker's Party freed their country from the U.S. imperialists and the puppet Thieu government on April 30!

This proves, as Chairman Mao pointed out on May 20th, 1970:


These two earth-shaking events are of great importance not only to the Indo-Chinese people, but are victories to be celebrated by the whole world's people!

For over a decade, the American working class and people persisted in struggles to support the National Liberation wars and to oppose the U.S. aggressors in Indo-China:

1) Americans were martyred, jailed and beaten by the U.S. reactionary state authorities for their opposition to U.S. imperialism's aggression;

2) The American working class and people stood on a common front with the people of Indo-China against a common enemy, U.S. monopoly capital, which carried out its bloody wars of aggression abroad, while exploiting and suppressing the people at home;

3) The victory of the Indo-Chinese people is of practical significance to the American working class in its struggle for emancipation from U.S. monopoly capital. Comrade Stalin pointed out that "The colonial countries constitute the principal rear of imperialism. The revolutionization of this rear is bound to undermine imperialism, not only in the sense that imperialism will be deprived of its rear, but also in the sense that the revolutionization of the East is bound to give a powerful impulse to the intensification of the revolutionary crisis in the West."

4) Lastly. the victories of the Vietnamese, and Cambodian people against the mighty U.S. imperialist war machine further shatter the hegemonistic dreams of the two superpowers--the U.S. and the Soviet Union--who are rushing headlong into a new world war. The fate that awaits them at the hands of the world's people was previewed on the battlefields of Indo-China.

In light of the successful liberation struggles in Indo-China, we should intensify the revolutionary mass movements directed at the U.S. monopoly capitalist class and carry out what remains a decisive task--the building anew of a genuine Communist Party on the basis of Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tsetung Thought--in order to organize and prepare the American working class for proletarian socialist revolution. This is our proletarian internationalist duty!


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On April 10, President Ford delivered his so-called "State of the World Message." The speech was a re-assurance to the monopoly capitalists that Ford would represent their basic class interests and be their faithful flunkey.

The speech was made at a time of deepening all-round crisis faced by U.S. monopoly capital. Ford had to deal with the great military defeats inflicted on the U.S. imperialists by the Indo-Chinese liberation fighters as they neared final victory. Also, Ford had to deal with the question of how to cope with the growing contention for world hegemony from the Russian imperialists. There was also the question of how the Wall Street interests of Rockefeller-Morgan-Mellon could shift the burden of the growing crisis of the economy, finance, energy, raw materials, markets, etc. on to the shoulders of the American working class and people, as well as other countries and peoples world-wide. The point of bringing so-called allies, or previous allies into line, suppressing all opposition, liquidating all revolution, crushing all competitors, especially the Soviet social-imperialists, was upper-most in Ford's mind.

Overseeing the speech and giving his approval from behind the podium was Vice-president Rockefeller, direct member of the American financial oligarchy. Never before has the subservience of the U S. government to the interests of monopoly capital been shown in such naked and c1ear relief. The program for U. S monopoly capital, as outlined by Ford, basically called for fascism and imperialist war. The speech is part and parcel of the over-all attempts to prepare for war--it represents Wall Street's war program.


Ford reiterated what is now known as the "Ford Doctrine." It claims the right for U.S. imperialism to intervene anywhere in the world in the interests of U.S. monopoly capital and issues a warning to one and all: "Let no ally doubt our determination to maintain a defense second to none, and let no adversary be tempted to test our readiness or resolve. The use of the U.S. military machine to dominate and control so-called allies, while making feverish war preparations on their adversaries, especially the new czars in the Kremlin--this is the threat issued by the notorious war monger.

Ford's speech not only represents the aggressive war plots of the imperialists, but it also reflects the eternal weakness of the imperialist system. U.S. imperialism has just been defeated by two small countries in Indo-China, whose guns and technology were largely from the U.S. war masters themselves. The strength of a protracted people's war against imperialist aggression has been clearly shown. The "advanced" United States has been beaten by the "backward" countries of Indo-China. The inevitability of the final defeat of U.S. imperialism and the recline of the whole world imperialist system is exposed!

Furthermore, Ford barks:

"It has been said that the United States is overextended that we have too many commitments too far from home, that we must reexamine what our truly vital interests are and shape our strategy to conform to them. I find no fault with this as a theory, but in the real world such a course must be pursued carefully and in close co-ordination with solid progress toward over-all reduction in worldwide tensions.

"We cannot in the meantime abandon our friends while our adversaries support and encourage theirs. We cannot dismantle our defenses, our diplomacy or our intelligence capability while others increase and strengthen theirs.

"Let us put an end to self-inflicted wounds. Let us remember that our national unity is a most priceless asset. Let us deny our adversaries the satisfaction of using Vietnam to pit Americans against Americans. At this moment the United States must present to the world a united front. Above all, let's keep events in Southeast Asia in their proper perspective. The security and the progress of hundreds of millions of people everywhere depend importantly on us.

"Let no potential adversary believe that our difficulties or our debates mean a slackening of our national will.

"We will stand by our friends.

"We will honor our commitments.

"And we will uphold our country's principles."

This is the Ford Doctrine pure and simple. Its basic features are:

1. Prepare for war in the drive for world hegemony, especially against the Soviet social-imperialists.

2. Use political deception to cover the military adventures, and perpetrate the hoax of "close coordination" with the Soviet imperialists and "progress towards an over-all reduction in worldwide tensions."

3. Prop up every counter-revolutionary alliance, anti-communist "security pact," puppet and dictator, e. g. Lon Nol, Thieu, Israeli Zionists, etc., under the signboard of "not abandoning our friends."

4. Step up war preparations on all fronts, occupying other countries (so-called "allies") with military bases, using piratical "secret" diplomacy and intrigue, and increasing the use of the CIA, known agents of coup d'etats, counterrevolutions and fascist dictators, etc.

5. Furthermore, whip up the most reactionary, aggressive and nationalistic chauvinism, under the signboard of "putting an end to self-inflicted wounds," "National unity," "deny our adversaries the satisfaction of using Vietnam to pit Americans against Americans," "present to the world a united front." This is nothing but an out and out call to tie the American working class and people to the aggressive, fascist foreign policy of the Wall Street war mongers while suppressing the workers' struggles and and attacking their standard of living at home.


The so-called Ford Doctrine is nothing but the bared features of American fascism, including a foreign policy of chauvinism and war preparations, and a domestic policy of oppression of the working class and terrorism through the savage dictatorship of monopoly capital.

Isn't it a fact--while the U.S. imperialists are attempting to extend their profit-hungry hands to every corner of the globe, and are carrying out naked criminal aggressions, especially since the end of World War II under the successive doctrines of various presidents, at home there has been:

- the Watergate scandal

- the use of FBI and CIA surveillance, persecution and assassination of millions of Americans

- stepping up use of army/police/ultra-rightist organizations

- growing fascist movements such as the racist "anti-busing" struggle of monopoly capital with the aid of Ku Klux Klan

- book burnings by anti-communist "religious" movements

- large-scale deportations of undocumented workers

- the continued use of anti-labor court injunctions, police and courts to suppress day-today struggles of the working class.

In this period of growing economic crisis and the stepped up struggles waged by the U.S. and the Soviet Union for world hegemony, the U.S. monopoly capitalists are feverishly stepping up their arms race as well as militarization of the economy. It is a plain truth: to start a war, the U.S. reactionaries must first attack the American people. They are already attacking the American people.


According to Ford,

"The leadership of the United States of America, since the end of World War II, has sustained and advanced the security, well being and freedom of millions of human beings besides ourselves. Despite some setbacks, despite some mistakes, the United States has made peace a real prospect for us and for all nations. I know firsthand that the Congress has been a partner in the development and in the support of American foreign policy which five Presidents before me have carried forward, with changes of course but not of destination."

There can be little wonder why Ford harks back to the end of World War II and to the presidency of Truman. At that time the U.S. imperialists stepped into the shoes of the German, Italian and Japanese fascists and set out on a course of world domination for Wall Street. The U.S. imperialists were in their hey-day: Fort Knox was filled with gold and the warmongering military machine under Washington's direction was occupying Europe and Japan, and making preparations to seize new spheres in Asia, Africa and Latin America for colonies, and to smash up the newly established socialist countries and people's democracies. It was at this time that the democrat Truman put forward his notorious Truman Doctrine for the "containment of Communism," and world domination.


McCarthyism and the anti-communist witch-hunts were the rule at home, while the Marshall plan and preparations for world war were the case abroad. Since 1944, each succeeding president put forward "doctrines for monopoly capital." During the period of 1944-1970' s, over 80 wars, local and large-scale, were launched, many engineered by the U S imperialists. Truman attempted to conquer China, occupied China's province of Taiwan and launched a large-scale invasion of Korea.


Eisenhower, a "republican," following the "democrat" Truman, under the sign-board of "massive retaliation," carried out armed intervention of Laos and South Vietnam, continued pursuing aggression in Korea until U.S. defeat, engineered the counter-revolutionary fascist uprising in People's Hungary, invaded Lebanon (under the anti-communist so-called Eisenhower Doctrine) and, using puppet "U.N." troops, invaded the Congo (K).


The "democrat" Kennedy followed, under the signboard "flexible response," and launched an invasion of Cuba with CIA mercenary troops, continued and stepped up aggression in the Congo (K), Laos and south Vietnam, and pushed the Indian reactionaries to invade socialist China.


Johnson followed with his war cry of "escalation." He carried out suppression in the Congo(K), invaded the Dominican Republic with 30,000 troops, increased the invasion of South Vietnam with one-half million troops (and carried out extensive bombing of North Vietnam) and backed Israeli Zionist aggression in 1967.


The "republican" and arch anti-communist Nixon followed with his "Nixon Doctrine", carried out massive Indo-Chinese aggression, engineered the reactionary Lon Nol coup d'etat against the legitimate Sihanouk government, and followed this up with intense bombings and invasions of South Vietnam, North Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia."


And now Ford picks up the imperialist gauntlet with his "Ford Doctrine," a continuation of the hegenomistic plans expressed from the ''Truman Doctrine" through the "Eisenhower Doctrine" and the "Nixon Doctrine." And part and parcel of the war cries of each of these imperialist war mongers has been their chauvinist and fascist calls to attack the American working class and people. In the context of Truman's call against "internal subversion," "communism" and for "cold war"; Kennedy's Hitlerite call of "Ask not what your country can do for you, but ask what you can do for your country"; or Johnson's cry of "Nervous Nellies"--the imperialist presidents carried out attacks on Marxist-Leninists and progressives, on trade unionists, national minorities, etc., while preparing for and carrying out war abroad.

Ford promises to continue his basic imperialist policy, and their are certain important features to it:

1) Ford points out the basic policies of U.S. monopoly capital have not changed since WWII, they are policies of war and aggression under the imperialist hoax of "security, well-being and freedom," which should read aggression, plunder and fascism.

2) The Congress and the six presidents (from Truman to Ford), whether "democrat" or "republican" have supported basically the same imperialist foreign policy of U.S. monopoly capital.

3) The U.S. has suffered "setbacks," and foreign policy must be adjusted to this, namely that U.S. monopoly capital is no longer the number one imperialist power in the world, with a world monopoly, but now must contend with another super-power, Soviet social imperialism, for world hegemony, and this is leading the world to another war. Furthermore, the times have changed from when the vaults of Fort Knox were filled with gold and the U.S. army camped the face of the globe. By 1949, the U S. imperialists lost in China, and the Peoples' Republic of China was established. The U.S. was defeated in Korea, and then in one war and conflict after another. The U S. role of supremacy has steadily declined, and continues to do so today with the liberation of Vietnam and Cambodia.


No matter what defeats Wall Street and Washington sustain, they will not put down their guns, nuclear weapons, or gain a streak of sensibleness. They remain butchers and hangmen of world revolution until the end.

If there is any doubt about this, an examination of Ford's "global strategy" or what he refers to as "basic elements" or "solid foundations" of Wall Street and Washington's foreign policy will prove this. It must be remembered, though, that faced with economic, political and social crisis, and feverishly contending for world supremacy with the social-imperialists, the imperialist spokesmen become more degenerate. They resort to their two-sided, counter-revolutionary tactics of "priest-like deception" and butcher-like suppression more and more. Political deception is demagogically used to cover-up military adventure. Talk of "peace," "detente," etc., is used to cover up imperialist war plans.

Briefly stated, the U. S imperialists and the Soviet social imperialists collude with one another to crush countries seeking independence, nations wanting liberation, and people seeking revolution, and they contend for world hegemony. Behind a smokescreen of "detente" and "relaxation of world tensions" they are feverishly preparing for war with one another. The center of their contention is Europe, but it reaches every corner of the globe. The Middle East, eastern Mediterranean, the Balkans, and the Indian ocean are areas of feverish contention--these areas form the southeast flank of Europe.

Ford views certain areas of the world as key concerns for the U.S. imperialists. These include:

1) Asia, especially Japan, Korea and other SEATO countries.

2) Europe and the NATO alliance

3) Turkey, Greece and Cyprus;

4) Asia, Africa and Latin America;

5) Middle East;

6) Soviet Union;

7) People's Republic of China.

There is also the question of raw materials, and "energy, food, environment and the law of the sea." An examination of these areas for which Ford shows his imperialist "concern" will expose the "basic elements" of monopoly capital's program abroad.


Ford begins, "We must first of all face the fact that what happened in Indo-China has disquieted many of our friends, especially in Asia!" He continues by saying he has scheduled talks with the "leaders of Australia, New Zealand, Singapore and Indonesia." Further he talks about the importance of the "security treaty with Japan," as well as the "mutual security relationship with the 'Republic of Korea.'" What Ford is driving at is that since the U.S. imperialists have been inflicted with military defeat by the smaller and weaker nations of Indo-China, the "superiority"of the U.S. imperialists is called into question. Further, the U.S. imperialists initially carried out savage aggression against Indo-China in order to seize markets and sources of raw materials (e.g. rubber, tin, tungsten, oil, etc.) as well as to encircle the People's Republic of China, crush national liberation struggles in Southeast Asia and establish U.S. domination. The countries of Australia, New Zealand, Indonesia, Singapore, as well as Japan and South Korea, were forced into military alliances with the U.S. (such as through SEATO), as well as being economically dominated and controlled by the U.S. The U.S. has at heart the interest of 'reviving' the military alliances of the SEATO type in order to oppose future national liberation struggles, continue encirclement of People's China, and step up contention and preparation for war with the Soviet Union. The U.S. imperialists, in this time of economic crisis and the mad scramble for markets--in particular with the other superpower--want to completely subjugate these countries. This is what Ford has in mind for his "friends" in Asia.


Ford says, "More than ever, these times demand our close collaboration in order--to maintain the secure anchor of our common security in this time of international riptides; --to work together on the promising negotiations with our potential adversaries --to pool our energies on the great new economic challenge that faces us." This should read: bully and subjugate Europe, keep its markets open for the surplus products and capital of the U.S. and in general work to control western Europe, economically, politically, culturally, in order to shift the burden of the economic crisis created by the contention of the two superpowers onto the countries of western Europe. In addition, bludgeon the NATO countries into an anti-Soviet military alliance, under the threat of war with the Soviet Union and the Warsaw pact in Europe; and penetrate and contend with the Soviet social-imperialists in Eastern Europe. This is what Ford means by "close collaboration."


Going on with his arrogant plan for "masterminding" the affairs of the entire world, Ford talked at length about Turkey, Greece and Cyprus. This exposed the seriousness of the developing contention between the two superpowers in this area of the Mediterranean. What is most enlightening about Ford's statements is that he outlines the important role played by Turkey in the plans of U.S. imperialism:

Ford says, "Our long-standing relationship with Turkey is not simply a favor to Turkey; it is a clear and essential mutual interest. Turkey lies on the rim of the Soviet Union and at the gates of the Middle East. It is vital to the security of the Eastern Mediterranean, the southern flank of Western Europe, and the collective security of the Western Alliance. Our U.S. military bases in Turkey are as critical to our own security as they. are to the defense of NATO."

Turkey is wanted as:

1) a base against the Soviet Union

2) a base from which to control the Middle East

3) use by NATO

4) U.S. military bases

In other words, Ford "wants" Turkey as an out and out slave of Wall Street interests. This is what he means by "mutual interest." It is quite similar to the "mutual interest" demonstrated in U.S. relations with Greece and Cyprus--the high concentration of naval ships of both superpowers in the area, the continued interference in Cyprus, indicate that the area is one of intense contention between the two superpowers. In Ford's imperialist double-talk, "mutual interest" means that if the U.S. wishes to dominate a particular country, it necessarily follows that that country wishes to be dominated. The fact that the Turkish government' has not quite recognized its "mutual interests" with the U.S. is indicated by its recent denunciation of the U.S. imperialists for meddling in its internal affairs.


The greatest lies are told about the U S. imperialists' relations with the countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America. It is in these areas that for hundreds of years the most blood-curdling crimes ever known to humanity have been carried out. Today, faced with defeat after defeat and a growing loss of influence, the U.S. imperialists continue to wish for nothing less than complete control of Asia, Africa and Latin America through colonial and neo-colonial domination. They resort to every underhanded means of controlling the economies of these countries in order to extract the maximum capitalist profit. A clear example of this is the U.S. policy towards Latin America. Ford talks about a "new dialogue with Latin America," a "healthier hemispheric partnership." What he means is, on the one hand, that he wishes to force the Latin American countries into an 'alliance,' against the Soviet Union (while the Soviets try to win the support of these same countries in the name of "friendship," "trade," and "assistance"); while on the other hand he would like a "partnership" which allows U.S. imperialism to plunder the vast wealth of the area. For instance, in the 1960's the U.S. made a profit of $7.95 billion from privatexdirect investment in Latin America's oil and mining-metalurgical industries, which represented more than 60% profit on the $13 billion worth of direct investments in Latin America.

Ford also speaks of "closer relations with the nations of Africa." What does this mean? The U.S. has a secret "Operation Tar Baby" policy, which is to secretly support the white racist regimes in South Africa, while at the same time offering large amounts of aid to the independent African states if they will agree to stop assisting the liberation movements. This is to protect the interests of over 400 U S. corporations in the area.

Chile is a well known case of how the U.S. used the CIA to protect its own piratical aims in Chile, by overthrowing the elected Allende government and establishing a fascist dictatorship.


On the subject of the Middle East, Ford says "The interests of America as well as our allies are vitally affected by what happens in the Middle East. So long as the state of tension continues, it threatens military crisis, the weakening of our alliances, the stability of the world economy, and and confrontation with the nuclear superpowers." The U.S. imperialists have threatened military intervention in the Middle East in order to seize the oil fields. They back up the aggressive Israeli Zionists against the Arab nation, and in particular against the Palestinian liberation movement. They are jockeying for hegemony with the Soviet Union. This is the basis of a "state of tension" and a "confrontation with the nuclear superpowers." The U.S. used the so-called 'step-by-step' diplomacy of Kissinger in a vain attempt to gain 'official recognition' for the illegal state of Israel. Their intention is to smash up the growing Arab unity by dividing Arab against Arab and crushing the Palestinian resistance. The U.S. imperialists employed the 'Kissinger method' hoping to shove the Soviet Union out of the area. But it collapsed, and the "diplomatic contention" in the Middle East will now shift to the Geneva Conference, which is the method favored by the new czars in the Kremlin; U.S. imperialist interests in the Middle East are bound up with the consolidation and existence of' Israel, and this will inevitably give rise to fresh aggression against the Arab nations. The contention between the superpowers in the area has also, intensified, and spread from the Eastern Mediterranean to the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean. Their drive for domination of oil and strategic military positions in the area is what is leading to the "military crisis" of which Ford speaks, and imperialist war may break out.


Regarding the Soviet Union, Ford says:

1) the two superpowers" share an interest in lessening tensions" but

2) the Soviet Union is the U.S.'s "competitor in many parts of the globe"

3) "America will maintain its strength, its alliances and its principles--as a prerequisite to a more peaceful planet"

4) Ford "will not permit detente to become a license to fish in troubled waters."

In these comments Ford exposes the basic relationship between the two superpowers. First he claims that the U.S. imperialists are for "lessening tensions," but then adds that the Soviet Union is Wall Street's "competitor" and that, in order to maintain this stand as well as work for a more "peaceful planet," feverish war preparations must be carried out under the signboard of America maintaining "its strength, its alliances and its principles."

Examples of stepped up contention behind the detente smokescreen, centered in Europe, include:

--Both the U.S. and the Soviet Union have deployed 3/4 of their armed forces and military strength in Europe.

--The U.S. Army secretary announced that the level of combat forces in Europe will increase from 59% in 1972, to 62% at present, to 71% in 1977.

--Both the Soviets and the U.S. held recent military exercises in Europe, as well as their gunboat diplomacy in the Mediterranean and Black Sea area.

--The Soviet Union is reported to be increasing its army strength by tens of thousands in Central Europe, with newly equipped air force and artillery.

--The U.S. has recently prepared to send one brigade to the Federal Republic of Germany.

--The Soviet Navy includes, consistently, between 50 and 60 vessels, with the U.S. feverishly working to catch up. Russia has 54% of its submarines and 45% of its navy vessels concentrated in north European waters.

--The blunt U.S. war monger, Defense Secretary Schleisinger, said: "We must remember the prize is Western Europe. If Western Europe were to fall under Soviet power, it would be an unmitigated disaster to the United States."

--In a February report, Schleisinger said that "a powerful assault force" from the Soviet Union "stands poised near the heart of Western Europe," and "the emphasis of our (conventional forces) planning has shifted toward Europe." And, furthermore, "most of our forces already are or soon will be oriented toward a war in Europe." Here we have it--straight from the mouth of a saber-rattling militarist in Washington.

In their scramble for markets and world hegemony, the two superpowers cover up their evil designs through talk of detente. Their words are nothing but a camouflage for increased contention, as the following comment from Ford's speech shows:

"Central to U.S.-Soviet relations today is the critical negotiation to control strategic nuclear weapons. We hope to turn the Vladivostok agreements into a final agreement this year at the time of General Secretary Brezhnev's visit to the United States. Such an agreement would for the first time put a ceiling on the strategic arms race. It would mark a turning point in post war history and would be a crucial step in lifting from man-kind the threat of nuclear war."

Under their cover of demagogic slogans for "peace" and "arms control," these so-called strategic arms limitation talks are a farce, pure and simple. It is a reflection of the feverish. arms race and war preparations of the superpowers. For example, the "limit" is set at 2,400 strategic delivery missiles, including 1,320 which can be armed with multiple war heads. The number which the U.S. presently admits to possessing is only 2,205 missiles, including 822 multiple warheads. Therefore, tremendous arms expansion would be required on the part of the U.S. just to reach the "ceiling," which is well above its present stockpiles.

Such is the guise in which the two superpowers work to contend for hegemony and drive the world to war. They not only carry out aggression against other countries and people, but they very well might go to war with one another. They are the main enemies of the world's people. The situation between the two superpowers is clearly explained by the former Chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, Moorer, who said:

"The Soviet Union over the past 15 years has continued a substantial massive increase of its armed forces. A NATO war is by definition a war with Russia, and a war with Russia is instantly conveyed to the Pacific."

This is imperialist logic.


Ford claims that "Stability in Asia and the world require our constructive relations with one fourth of the human race." What he is referring to when he speaks of "stability in Asia" and "constructive relations" is the fact that, ever since the U.S. imperialists were forced to recognize the mighty socialist China, they have never stopped hoping for a chance of re-conquering it, or intervening, or turning China into a vast U.S. market. In other words, his statement is an example of political deception being used to cover up plans for military adventure, and the truth of this can be seen in the history of U.S. relations with China:

--Since the 19th century the U.S. expansionists were interested in China.

--Since the twentieth century, the U.S. imperialists have consistently contended for spheres of influence in China.

--The U.S. imperialists still occupy the Taiwan Province of People's China.

--U.S. Navy fleets still circle Chinese waters.

--The U.S. is still interested in maintaining various counterrevolutionary military treaties in the area, in opposition to People's China.

--The State Department, in a move to whip up chauvinism, recently canceled the tour of a Chinese performing troupe because the performance included a song dealing with the determination of the People's Republic of China to liberate Taiwan.

-- Ford used the occasion of the death of the criminal, Chiang Kai-shek, to deliver a counter-revolutionary eulogy.

--The U.S. imperialists still pin their hopes on a "peaceful evolution" of the great Socialist Republic to a state of capitalist restoration, such as happened in the Soviet Union, following the death of Stalin.

--Using an atmosphere of rumors, the U.S. is also egging on the Soviet Union to attack the People's Republic of China.

The report to the Tenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China pointed out that:

"The West always wants to urge the Soviet revisionists eastward to divert the peril towards China, and it would be fine so long as all is quiet in the West. China is an attractive piece of meat coveted by all. But this piece of meat is very tough, and for years no one has has been able to bite into it."

So much for Ford's "stability" and "constructive relations," and his pipe-dream of U.S. influence in the People's Republic.


Ford arrogantly claims:

"We have exercised international leadership in the great new issues of our interdependent world, such as energy, food, environment and the law of the sea."

This should read, the Wall street imperialists are leading the pack in the plunder and robbery of the world's raw materials and the countries which own them. As Lenin said, "Monopolies have stimulated the seizure of the most important sources of raw materials." What Ford has in mind is the continued drive to dominate all sources of raw materials. The methods used for control include:

1) Forcing oppressed nations to produce or export only one or a few raw materials, while

2) also forcing them to import from the imperialist countries necessary food stuffs, etc.

3) Furthermore, the U.S. imperialists keep various countries dependent by controlling all production, transportation and marketing of the raw materials.

4) U.N. statistics show that between 1952--1962 the export prices of primary products of the developing countries dropped 28%, agricultural raw materials dropped 46% and continued to remain low in the 60's and 70's. The export price of manufactured goods from the industrialized countries increased greatly. Through such unequal trade, for example, in 1971 the developing countries were robbed of $23.3 trillion.

Further examples of imperialist plunder of raw materials can be seen in the 'oil question.' Imperialism cannot exist without exploiting for its own use the natural resources of other countries. The scramble for oil by U.S. imperialism has led to the double-edged tactics of, on the one hand, threatening armed intervention against the Arab oil producing countries on the false claim that they are the cause of the present crisis; while on the other hand enjoying tremendous super-profits through their plunder of the same oil which these countries are producing.

Facts show the following:

--Between 1945 and 1972 U.S. oil monopolies drew more than $40 billion of oil from the developing countries.

--During the so-called 'energy crisis' the profits of the oil monopolies continued to soar. For instance, in the first 9 months of 1974 (when the 'energy crisis' was most intense) the profits of Shell Oil and of Standard Oil of Indiana increased by 83% and 203% respectively over the same period in 1973.

--In 1973, extraction of one ton of Middle East oil cost the U.S. monopolies 75¢, but profits brought them $20 to $22 per ton. All of this is what Ford had in mind when he talked of how the U.S. gives "international leadership" on the question of raw materials.


Ford characterizes the present situation as "a world of economic uncertainty, political unrest and threats to the peace." Ford is obviously referring to the desperate situation in which the imperialist bloodsuckers of Wall street find themselves:

--Indo-Chinese liberation fighters score decisive militaryvictories.

--Socialism is being consolidated in China, Albania, and elsewhere.

--The Third World is rising up to oppose the hegemonism of the two superpowers.

--Other imperialist and capitalist countries are no longer completely under the domination and jackboot of the two superpowers.

--The Soviet Union is going all out to gobble up markets and spheres of influence controlled by the U.S.

--A broad international United Front against superpower bullying and hegemonism is coming into being.

The "economic uncertainty" to which Ford refers is the uncertainty of whether he and his class will have markets to enslave and people to exploit world-wide as they feverishly try to throw the burden of the economic crisis onto the backs of others.

His comment about 'political unrest' is an obvious reference to the growing historic current of countries wanting independence, nations wanting liberation, and people wanting revolution, which stands directly in the way of the U.S. plan for global hegemony.

The reference to "threats to the peace" is a demagogic cry against all nations and people who are battering away at U.S. imperialism and Soviet social imperialism, who are tearing the cover off the concept of "imperialist peace"--that is, the incessant talk of 'peace' and 'detente' under which the two superpowers wish to hide their diabolical and criminal plans for aggression and war.

The problems faced by the American working class and people--the problems of economic crisis, fascism and imperialist war--are quite different from the problems faced by Ford and his class brothers.

The solution which Ford offers to the problems of U.S. monopoly capital are summed up as follows: "Our world... does not allow the luxury of abdication or domestic discord." In plain and simple terms, this means more imperialist war abroad and more fascism at home. This is no solution for the working and oppressed people, but only an increase in the burdens already being shifted onto their backs. The Ford Doctrine offers nothing new to the American working class and people, only more of the same exploitation and oppression they have always faced under U.S. monopoly capitalist rule. It cannot be any different. Economic crisis and war are inevitable products of the monopoly capitalist system. The present economic crisis and the drive towards world war is the direct consequence of the contention between the two superpowers.


It is important to understand the basis for the Ford Doctrine in the real world. To do this it will help to briefly examine the nature of imperialism, and how war is rooted in the imperialist system.

Lenin called imperialism the highest stage of capitalism; he called it moribund or dying capitalism. Lenin characterized imperialism as follows:

1. The concentration of production and capital developed to such a stage that it creates monopolies which play a decisive role in economic life;

2. The merging of bank capital with industrial capital, and the creation, on the basis of this 'finance capital,' of a financial oligarchy;

3. The export of capital, which has become extremely important, as distinguished from the export of commodities;

4. The formation of international capitalist monopolies which share the world among themselves;

5. The territorial division of the whole world among the greatest capitalist powers is completed.

By the beginning of the twentieth century, American capitalism had reached its highest stage, and a small number of lords of finance (e. g. Rockefeller, Morgan, Du Pont, Mellon, etc.) dominated the whole economic life of the country and were forced to carry out feverish imperialist expansion and the export of surplus capital. This was marked by the Spanish-American war, the seizure of the Philippines, Cuba, Puerto Rico, etc., and the defeat of colonial Spain. Latin America was dominated. A foothold was obtained in Asia. This had nothing to do with the 'prayers' of President McKinley to God, who 'replied' that U.S. imperialism must uphold its 'manliest destiny' in conquering other peoples and nations. It was the need of U.S. monopoly capital, which has so thoroughly exploited 'the home market' and accumulated such vast sums of capital, to find new markets to exploit, new sources of raw materials to plunder, and new colonies to seize, or face imminent doom and collapse under the crisis of 'overproduction.' As Lenin pointed out:

"Gigantic crashes have become possible and inevitable, only because powerful social productive forces have become subordinated to a gang of rich men, whose only concern is is to make profits."

Roughly speaking, the situation developed as follows: By the twentieth century, capitalism had created a world market, and it was completely divided up and partitioned between several imperialist Great Powers (American capital was not the only one to develop to the stage of imperialism). The world market was divided among a handful of monopoly groups and countries, and could only be re-divided or repartitioned among the Great Powers. This was absolutely necessary, because the drive for new markets for the export of capital, for more sources of raw materials, for cheaper labor to exploit, is a never ending need for imperialist existence. The method of 're-division' is world war, and this drive for re-division has given rise to two world wars so far, and is leading the world towards a third world war.

It was the first imperialist world war, followed by the Great October Socialist Revolution in Russia, which gave rise to the general crisis of capitalism. The socialist revolution in Russia removed one-sixth of the world's area from the world capitalist-imperialist system.

Capitalism had ceased to be the sole and all-embracing system of world economy. Furthermore, the imperialist war and the socialist revolution have shaken the foundations of imperialism in the colonial and dependent countries, giving rise to national liberation struggles. Along with the general impoverishment of the masses, these factors all aggravated the problem of the shrinking markets of imperialism. The development of national liberation struggles, and of socialist countries detaching themselves from the world imperialist system, also contributed to the general crisis of capitalism. This further gave rise, in the capitalist countries, to enterprises which chronically work under-capacity, and a large and permanent army of unemployed. The reason for this is that if expansion of production always proceeded at maximum speed, the shrinking markets would be hopelessly glutted and overproduction crisis would set in.

What did this mean for the imperialists? First, the contention and struggle for markets, raw materials and export of capital is greatly intensified by the shrinking markets. This mad scramble can lead to world war as the "logical way" for re-division. This is what is taking place today between the two superpowers.

Second, the financial sharks, like the Rockefellers and Morgans, who control everything through their banks, employ "other methods" for accumulating capital and securing maximum profits, rather than just expanding production to the maximum; namely, they rely on "clipping coupons" and financial manipulations. One such method, called "Keynesian economics," is the development of state-capitalism for example by militarizing the economy. The government is used to funnel large amounts of money, which has been expropriated from the people through various means, into the parasitic armaments industry. This tremendous arms build-up also directly contributes to world war.

To sum up: The Ford Doctrine is the doctrine of U.S. monopoly capital, and it reflects their needs to "secure maximum capitalist profit" through stepped up contention with Soviet social imperialism, in order to re-divide the world between the two superpowers, and seek world hegemony for Wall Street through a world war.

The Ford Doctrine is based on the drive for more markets and the stepped up militarization of the economy (the defense budget will be close to $110 billion this year.) The methods outlined by Ford to carry out these nefarious activities include using vast armaments and arms races, war threats, chauvinist propaganda, protectionist trade acts (such as the 1974 Trade Act), demagogical pacifist slogans to cover up war preparations suppression of democratic rights of the American people, use of the CIA, use of "weapons" such as genocidal population controls taking such forms as artificially created famines, etc., "aid," embargoes, counter-revolutionary military alliances, blackmailing diplomacy, etc., right up to and including world war. End.

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From this year onward, April 17 will be a worldwide day of celebration of the time when the Cambodian liberation fighters marched into Phnom Penh and made Cambodia the first nation in Asia to be totally liberated from imperialist domination and exploitation. The arrival of the Cambodian People's National Liberation Forces into Phnom Penh was greeted by cheers from thousands of Cambodians, including those who had formerly been press-ganged into Lon Nol's puppet army. They ran to hug the liberation fighters in the streets of Phnom Penh, and red flags and Cambodian colors flew from windows, roof tops and rifle barrels. Samdech Sihanouk was quoted as saying "the liberation of Phnom Penh is the most glorious page in Cambodian history." Joyful celebrations were held throughout the city--and throughout the world. There is no doubt that it was a day the world's people will never forget.

The working and oppressed people in the U.S. joined the rest of the world in celebrating the liberation of Cambodia. Since the initial invasion of Cambodia by U.S. imperialism in 1970, they have come forward in hundreds of thousands to oppose U.S. aggression and interference and to show unconditional support for the Cambodian people. Throughout North America and elsewhere the youth and student movement in particular gave all out support to the Cambodian people, despite threats and attacks by armed police and state agents. At Kent State University on May 4, 1970, and at the Chicano Moratorium in Los Angeles on August 29, 1970, lives were laid down during demonstrations opposing the U.S. invasion of Cambodia, sealing in blood the fighting unity between the American and Cambodian people.

It is "our" imperialist government that is one of the two most vicious imperialist powers of all time. It is "our" government that is responsible for unspeakable crimes against the people of Indo-China, crimes which have been committed in the face of direct opposition from large sections of the American people. It is the responsibility of the workers in the advanced capitalist countries to support the struggles of the oppressed nations of Asia, Africa and Latin America, and it is our special responsibility to oppose the crimes of U.S. imperialism in these areas, which form the main force in the struggle of the world's people against U.S. imperialism, Soviet Social-imperialism, and all reaction.

The liberation of Cambodia is a tremendous step forward for all the oppressed nations of Asia, Africa and Latin America. The Cambodian people have shown that a small nation can defeat a big nation, and that it can do so without coming under the domination of either superpower. The Cambodian people have been self-reliant, opposing both U.S. aggression and the intrigues and interference of Soviet social-imperialism. At the present time, when the two superpowers are getting ready for a world war, and are fighting furiously to divide up the world and dominate its people, the path of the Cambodian people has pointed out the way that all of these oppressed nations and peoples are taking or inevitably will take. This is a big defeat for the superpowers.


While celebration after celebration is being held throughout the world, there are a few crying crocodile tears and saying that great disaster has happened in Indo-China. They say that "refugees" are running in "terror" from the Communists (an assertion which was proved ludicrous by the emotional welcomes given the liberation fighters when they entered Phnom Penh and Saigon). This is the "BIG LIE" technique used by Nazi propagandists in WWII. It was an attempt to divert public opinion from the imperialist crimes which were taking place in South East Asia and create the impression that the communists and national liberation fighters are enemies of the people. The treacherous "babylift" and pictures of the dead bodies of children and old people who were victims of the forced evacuation before fleeing puppet troops represent further attempts by the imperialists to dig up material to back up their "BIG LIE" that national liberation is somehow a tragedy. If the agents of U.S. imperialism could not beg, bribe or terrorize anyone into making statements against the liberation forces, they were not above making up their own "first hand accounts." One of their most outrageous activities, which is still continuing, was to set up a phony "Cambodian" radio station just outside the border of Cambodia. Immediately following the liberation of Phnom Penh, this station began broadcasting accounts of "beheadings" and "mass executions"--which the imperialists then "intercepted" and fed to the bourgeois press as fact. Anyone who attended high-school in the U.S. and remembers history books with pictures of nazi atrocities during WWII--with captions attributing them to "communists"-- is familiar with the imperialist technique of rewriting history. Norodom Sihanouk reported that these false radio reports were attempts to discredit Cambodia internationally and sabotage "our task of general reconstruction of the nation and homeland of the Khmers." He said the radio station was operated by the CIA in a country neighboring Cambodia.


It is well known to the world's people that the five year war, with its yet-to-be revealed toll in human suffering and death, would have been over almost as soon as it had started if there had been no aid or intervention by the U.S. imperialists. The history of U.S. aggression in Cambodia goes back to 1970 when, unable to win in Vietnam and Laos, they embarked on a policy of widening the war in Indo-China. In March of that year, they launched a coup d'etat in Cambodia, installing the Lon Nol puppet regime, sent troops into Cambodia and resumed their bombing of North Vietnam. On March 23rd, 1970, Prince Norodom Sihanouk issued a statement to the Cambodian nation calling for the formation of the NUFC and the RGNUC and for the overthrow of the Lon Nol clique of national traitors. On April 24-25, 1970, the Summit Conference of the Indo-Chinese Peoples declared that "The present situation is more favorable than ever to the Indo-Chinese peoples in their struggle against American aggression for national salvation;" they would "make full use of their position of having the initiative and being on the offensive and persistently carry on and intensify the struggle in all fields and will certainly win complete victory." This conference laid the basis for the present historic achievements of the Indo-Chinese peoples. Immediately following the Summit Conference Chairman Mao Tsetung issued his Solemn Statement of May 20, 1970, "'People of the World, Unite and Defeat the U.S. Aggressors and all their Running Dogs." Following this a massive upsurge occurred throughout the world against the crimes of the U.S. imperialists.

By 1974, the RGNUC and the NUFC, which Sihanouk had called for on April 23, 1970, controlled 97% of the territory of the country comprising 85% of the population.

On February 25, Secretary of State Kissinger admitted that the imperialists were running into serious setbacks In their war of aggression when he said in a press conference that "If supplemental aid is not voted within the next few weeks, it is certain that Cambodia (i. e. the Lon Nol clique) must fall because It has run out of ammunition." In order to fool the American public and convince Congress to vote for extra aid, the Ford administration then attempted to pass off its plans to escalate aggression in Cambodia as a "humanitarian" and "moral" gesture. "This is a moral question that must be faced squarely," he said in a letter to the house of representatives. "Are we to deliberately abandon a small country In the midst of its life and death struggle?" At the same time, Ford was claiming that the purpose of escalating aid to the Cambodian traitors was to "strengthen the chances for a negotiated settlement," possibly involving a "coalition government with the communists." But the real motive behind these pleas for aid can be seen in statements made by Ford in his January 15 State of the Union address to Congress, which reaffirmed Washington's plans to establish world hegemony and to use force against people's and countries-who stand In the way:

"... international security cannot be taken for granted."

"...More than ever before our own well being depends on America's determination and leadership in the world."

....the U.S. will not abandon its commitments to "allies and friends" in the 'Middle East, Europe and Asia.

....It must have "tools to do the job," namely "strong and ready" military forces and "fully adequate conventional and strategic forces" accompanied by "effective diplomacy."

A few weeks later in a press conference, he repeated his threats of "the use of force in Southeast Asia," the possibility of "American military intervention in Indo-China to come to the aid of its puppet regimes in Saigon and Phnom Penh.

If Ford's motives were the least bit "humanitarian" or "moral" or "peaceful," as he was so fond of saying in the last "desperate days" (for the imperialists) before the liberation of Phnom Penh, he would simply have stopped all aid to the traitor government and ended all aggression and interference in Cambodia. But instead, at a time when the CPNLAF and the people of Cambodia were pressing ahead against the U.S. backed clique of traitors, Ford was repeatedly sending delegates on emergency visits to Phnom Penh to try to improve the situation of Lon Nol and demanding the Congress to step up aid. During all the long-winded debate in the House and Senate over whether or not to comply with Ford's requests for aid, the issue of existing shipments of aid, provisions and material was rarely referred to.

In the end, while politicians in Congress bickered on and on over whether to send "humanitarian" or "military" aid to Lon Nol's lost cause, the airport just outside the capital was already in the hands of the CPNLAF, finishing the U.S. airlift to Phnom Penh, and the U.S. puppets were falling over each other to get out of the city and evade the just fate the Cambodian people have in store for them.


Special attention should be paid to the treachery and interference of Soviet Social-imperialism in the Cambodian People's war of national liberation. They are now trying to say that they have always stood on the side of the Cambodian people and will continue to do so, but in reality they continued to recognize the bankrupt Lon Nol government as the ''Cambodian government" even alter other capitalist countries withdrew their embassies from,the besieged Phnom Penh. During the course of the war, they carried out the following underhanded activities:

--In January, 1971, Radio Moscow called Cambodian Head of State Sihanouk "former head of state of Cambodia."

--In October, 1972, at the 17th session of the U. N. educational, scientific and cultural conference, the Soviet Union voted in favor of the Lon Nol clique attending the session as the Cambodian "representative."

--They unsuccessfully tried to create a third force in Cambodia out of a group of anti-communist elements that had made compromises with the Lon Nol clique-to try to split the NUFC;

--Supplied aid to Lon Nol under the guise of "medical deliveries."

--Plotted with the U.S. to keep the RUNUC out of the UN (the final vote was 55-54).

--Ordered flunkey parties throughout the world not to support demonstrations in support of Cambodia.

--Pushed the U.S. plan for "negotiations" with the traitor clique.

--Insured (through a major Soviet Insurance firm) the delivery of arms shipments to Phnom Penh.

--created confusion by claiming to support the Cambodian people and not doing so.

--hurriedly expelled the "embassy" of the Lon Nol clique from Moscow only when they saw that its certain defeat was imminent--and this was an attempt to pave the way for future intervention as the "real friends" of Cambodia.


In the final days before his defeat, the acting "head of state" of the phoney "Khmer republic" in desperation warned the U.S. that if U.S. imperialism could not find a way of saving the traitors, the traitors would appeal to the Soviet Union for military assistance. But the U.S. imperialists in Phnom Penh were in too big of a hurry packing their bags to listen to the whining of their running dogs. At the last minute France rubbed a little more salt in the wounds of the U.S. by announcing it had broken diplomatic relations with the Lon Nol clique and was establishing them with the RGNUC.

But even in death agonies, the Lon Nol clique managed to commit further crimes against the people. Two examples are the burning or concentration camps on the edge of Phnom Penh to force the people into the path of the advancing CPNLAF so that the traitor troops could get away, and attempts by the Lon Nol and Thieu cliques between them to loot 16 tons ($576 million) worth of gold and to ship it to Switzerland.

But then the situation turned to joy as the CPNLAF fought its way into the city. Soldiers of the puppet clique turned their guns on their officers and began opposing the traitors on their own initiative.

And so the world once again enjoyed the sight of the "mighty" military machine of U.S. imperialism receiving, a beating at the hands of the world's people. Once again U.S. imperialism stood naked, for everyone to see what a puny giant it is. The victory of the Cambodian people and their honor of being the first country in Asia to completely liberate its territory in the era of imperialism is a great lesson to the rest of the world; that a small nationcan defeat a large power. This fact of life is haunting U.S. imperialism's dreams of world conquest, and it is inspiring the other oppressed nations and peoples of the world to continue and escalate their struggles.

U.S. imperialism has all sorts of excuses to "explain away" this fact of life, but all of their excuses amount to blaming some factor external to Cambodia for the U.S. defeat, such as "communist aggressors" or "North Vietnamese regular troops." But the answer to the question of how little Cambodia has defeated the largest imperialist power can only be found by looking to the Cambodian people themselves.

The American working and oppressed people should take the experience of the Cambodian people to heart. U.S. imperialism will not give up without a vicious fight--the fascist mentality that carries out 200 days of carpet bombing of Cambodia--with a tonnage equal to that of seven Hiroshima-type bombs--leaves no room for thinking that it would not act with even greater ferocity against those of us who have in the heartland of U.S. imperialism. And the Soviet social-imperialists and their agents here will also make every attempt to sabotage the people's struggle against imperialism. We should study the glorious pages that the Cambodian people have added to the history of people's war, so that we will be prepared for the bloody attacks that the U.S. monopoly capitalist class is preparing to launch against the American people.

[Photo: Samdech Norodom Sihanouk, Head of State of the Royal Government of National Union of Cambodia, and Khieu Samphan, Deputy Prime Minister and Commander-In-Chief of the Cambodian People's National Liberation Armed Forces.]

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[Photo of Ho Chi Minh]

On April 30, 1975, at 11:30 A. M., the heroic South Vietnam Liberation Armed Forces, striking with the momentum of an avalanche and the force of a thunderbolt, liberated Saigon and thoroughly crushed the U.S. puppet ruling clique in South Vietnam. Following the total victory based on the general offensive of the people's armed forces and the widespread uprisings of the people of South Vietnam, the whole of South Vietnam is now liberated. The liberation of Saigon and the surrounding Mekong River Delta, as well as Central Nam Bo, marked the culmination of the earth-shaking "Ho Chi Minh Campaign," the final assault of the South Vietnamese freedom fighters on the reactionary U.S. backed puppets of Saigon for their crimes of violating the Paris Agreement, refusing to realize national concord and rabidly massacring the South Vietnamese people. By persisting in carrying out a protracted revolutionary armed struggle, the South Vietnamese patriots have won, a great victory for the people of Vietnam, for all of Indo-China, and for the whole world's people, including the American people.

The gun-toting bluster of the U.S. imperialists, the hated enemy of the entire world's people, has been exposed again. The fascist U.S. ruling class, with its mighty military machine and billions of dollars of so-called "aid", has suffered a decisive defeat on the military front by a small country in Indo-China. Their bloody dreams of dominating South East Asia and using it as a base from which to attack the rest of Asia, including great Socialist China, received a rude awakening, and their plans for world hegemony were seriously shaken up.

Not one, but two small countries in Indo-China-- South Vietnam and Cambodia-- who courageously persisted in armed-struggle against all odds, handed the U.S. aggressors a decisive military defeat.


The present offensive and victory of the South Vietnamese people was initiated as self-defense against the counter-revolutionary U.S. backed Theiu administration in Saigon for their gross violations of the Paris Peace Treaty. The Paris Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam was formally signed in Paris on January 27, 1973. The U.S. imperialists were forced to sign the agreement after they could not force the Vietnamese people into submission, despite the use of 500,000 ground troops, the Seventh fleet, including aircraft carriers, thousands of aircraft, the dumping of nearly 2 million tons of bombs and over $200 billion for U.S. military expenditure. According to the Peace Agreement, the U.S. was supposed to

--respect the independence, sovereignty, unity and territorial integrity of Vietnam;

--withdraw all its armed forces and military personnel and those of its allies from South Vietnam within 60 days;

--discontinue its military involvement, or intervention in the internal affairs of Vietnam, and

--recognize the South Vietnamese people's right to self-determination.

The South Vietnamese people were to:

--decide themselves the political future of South Vietnam through general elections;

--and carry out the reunification of Vietnam step by step by peaceful means.

No sooner was the ink dried on the agreement, than did the U.S. imperialists, with the aid of the puppet Thieu clique, proceed once again to carry out their criminal and underhanded imperialist designs in South Vietnam.

For example, following the collapse of the Saigon regime, a cohort of Thieu' s made headlines in the U.S. by exposing several documents with Nixon's official signature. These letters promised the South Vietnamese reactionaries "full protection," and guaranteed further aggression by the U.S. through military retaliation against both North and South Vietnam. This shows clearly that the U.S. imperialists fully intended to reduce the Agreement to nothing but a scrap of paper, and to continue further sabotage and interference against the agreement.

Further facts came to light during U.S. imperialism's last days in Vietnam, again exposing the naked aggressive way in which the U.S. planned to scrap the Paris Agreement and continue aggression in Vietnam. At a time when the South Vietnamese patriotic armed forces were winning great victories and severely punishing the Nguyen Van Thieu clique for violating the Pans Agreement, the U.S. government created an "issue" involving the so-called "refugee" question and a so-called "evacuation" question; and used these "issues" to send over 20 warships, including missile carrying cruisers, aircraft carriers, destroyers, etc., and thousands of "ready-to-fight" marines into the waters of South Vietnam. Both of these so-called "issues" are further exposures of U.S. imperialism's designs in Vietnam:

1) The "refugee issue" was an attempt to whip up anti-communism and pro-American sympathy, but the facts showed it was only the Thieu clique and its puppet troops who, at the point of a gun, killed thousands of Vietnamese, ruined their homes and "created a refugee question;" all obvious violations of the Paris Agreement.

2) Similarly, the so-called "plan for evacuation" of Americans was another vicious design of the U.S. aggressors. It is a well known fact that the U.S. government, in violation of the Paris Agreement, sent to South Vietnam over 20,000 military personnel in the guise of civilians as a pretext for the continued intervention and sabotage of the agreement.

These are among the reasons for the historic Ho Chi Minh campaign to punish the violators of of the Paris Agreement. These facts go to prove the just struggle of the Vietnamese people is bound to win against imperialism and all reaction. They further prove that U.S. imperialism is not about to change its nature, and show the truth of Chairman Mao's words: "Make trouble, fail, make trouble again, fail again... till their doom; that is the logic of the imperialists and all reactionaries the world over in dealing with the people's cause, and they will never go against this logic. This is a Marxist law. When we say 'imperialism is ferocious,' we mean that its nature will never change, that the imperialists will never lay down their butcher knives, that they will never become Buddhas, till their doom."


The continued interference and use of brute force and terror tactics of the U.S. imperialists m South Vietnam is a continuation of their policy in South East Asia for over three decades now. The aggressive, degenerate and fascist nature of U.S. imperialism stands out in clear relief when its role over this period of time is examined.

Immediately following WWII, when the U.S. imperialists had stepped into the shoes of German, Italian and Japanese fascism, they began a ruthless strategy of capturing Asia as part of an over-all plan to dominate the whole world. Under the sign-board of "containment of communism" and the "domino theory" the U.S. imperialists set out to accomplish their hegemonistic dreams. But they met crushing defeat in China, which successfully liberated itself in 1949. Acheson, an arch-criminal, decreed at the time that:

"You will please take as your assumption that it is a fundamental decision of American policy that the U.S. does not intend to permit further extension of Communist domination on the continent of Asia or in the South east Asian area." (Read: U.S. intends to encircle People's China, crush socialism, smash up any genuine national liberation struggle or attempts to oppose imperialism in Asia or in the Southeast Asia area. --Ed.)

Furthermore, the National Security Council said:

"The extension of communist authority in China represents a grievous political defeat for us; if southeast Asia also is swept by communism we shall have suffered a major political rout the repercussions of which will be felt throughout the rest of the world, especially in the Middle East and then in critically exposed Australia."


The history of U.S. imperialism's war of aggression against Vietnam is the history of a big imperialist power being defeated by a small country. This history reveals that the seemingly "huge monster" is essentially a paper tiger.

The Geneva Agreement on Indo-China was signed in 1954, after a decisive victory led by Ho Chi Minh at Dien Bien Phu. Replacing the French colonialists, (during the Eisenhower period the majority of French military expenditures were financed from the U.S., under the signboard of "fighting communist aggression" and safeguarding the "safety of the free world") the U.S. imperialists immediately set about violating the Agreements. And this is precisely what led to the direct U.S. military intervention in Vietnam and the rest of Indo-China. First, Eisenhower established the aggressive South East Asia Treaty Organization, with the following fascist guidelines:

"A. Commit each member to treat an armed attack on the agreed area (including Laos, Cambodia and South Vietnam) as dangerous to its own peace, safety and vital interests, and to act promptly to meet the common danger in accordance with its own constitutional processes.

"B. Provide so far as possible a legal basis to the President to order attack on Communist China in the event it commits such armed aggression which endangers the peace, safety and vital interests of the United States.

"C. Ensure that, in such event, other nations would be obligated in accordance with the treaty to support such U.S. Action.

"D. Not limit U.S. freedom to use nuclear weapons, or involve a U.S. commitment for local defense or for stationing U.S. forces in Southeast Asia. The U.S. would continue to provide limited military assistance and training missions, wherever possible, to the states of Southeast Asia, in order to bolster their will to fight, to stabilize legal governments, and to assist them in controlling subversion. (United States-Vietnam Relations, 1947-1967. Book 10, page 722.)

In other words:

A) Create a fascist military bloc, which under the imperialist lies of "aggression by an outside force," occupies a Southeast Asian country or attacks a national liberation struggle.

B) Carry out occupation of China's province of Taiwan as a military base, encircle China, and prepare for armed aggression against China.

C) Bludgeon other countries of SEATO into supporting and carrying out this imperialist aggression under the U.S. jackboot.

D) "Sanctify" aggression by means of nuclear weapons (already used on Hiroshima and Nagasaki), invade and occupy south eastern Asian countries in the name of "so-called local defense" set up reactionary puppet governments and have then caught m the snares of "aid," etc.

This imperialist foreign policy in Southeast Asia is more than twenty years old, and continues with small variations until today.

(Today, Ford is frantically looking for ways to keep alive the US military pacts in the area in order to have a foot hold for domination of south east Asia, continue to encircle China and to have a base against the Soviet imperialists.)

The U.S. imperialists created a puppet regime in Saigon and began slaughtering the people. In 1961, Kennedy launched the "special war," in which the U.S. supplied the money, guns and so-called "advisers" while the puppet regimes supplied the cannon fodder. The plan was to annihilate the liberation forces in 18 months. The "special war" ended in failure.

But U.S. imperialism is inherently aggressive and did not resign itself to defeat. When Johnson come to power, the U.S. invaded Vietnam with its own troops. In August, 1964, the imperialists concocted the Bac Bo Gulf incident (Tonkin) and sent planes to attack the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, spreading the war from south to north. From 1965 to 1967, the U.S. increased its forces from 200,000 to more than 500,000 troops, using approximately one half of its total ground troops, one-fifth of its air force and one-fourth of its navy. It spent $30 billion every year with every modern weapon, except nuclear bombs.

Johnson's escalation was doomed. Trying to extricate himself from defeat, Johnson used two-faced tactics of first "escalation" to "force capitulation" and then "de-escalation" and "temporary pause." Neither terror nor deception overcame the Vietnamese. Johnson was defeated.

Nixon followed, asserting that "The U.S. is a Pacific power. Both our interests and our ideals propel us westward across the Pacific." He was continuing the basic U.S. imperialist policy of encircling People's China, crushing the national liberation struggles and establishing U.S. military and economic domination in the area, in line with the imperialist drive tor world domination. It is a continuation of Acheson's "defensive perimeter of the U S. in the Pacific", put forward in January, 1950. Also, U.S. monopoly capitalists were drooling at the mouth to go and plunder the natural resources of Southeast Asia. Reflecting this, the Chairman of the Bank of America, Peterson, said at the time that "There is no richer or vaster area for resource development. " (imperialist plunder. --Ed.) In time, the Saigon puppets of U.S. imperialism would sign away Vietnam's oil completely under the so-called "law 011-70 on petroleum prospecting and exploitation." No matter--these evil plans were bound to come to no good end.

Nixon tried to continue the U.S. aggression under slogans of "ending the war" and a "just peace." He introduced the "Nixon Doctrine," the so-called "Vietnamization of the war, using the old counter-revolutionary plot of making "Vietnamese fight Vietnamese."

All these war plots and aggressions failed. The U.S. invaded Cambodia to try to escape the impasse they faced in Vietnam and Laos, but this did nothing but cement the unity and solidarity of the three Indo-Chinese peoples, and assured the final defeat of the U.S. imperialists.

Forced to sign the Paris agreement in the face of defeat, the intention of the imperialists was to "withdraw troops," introduce "military personnel" in the guise of "civilians," support the Saigon puppet regime, and continue their aggression. Ford's policies did not differ from these in any way.


From the Anti-Japanese Resistance, to the August Revolution, to the protracted war of resistance against the French colonialists, to the national liberation struggle against the U.S. imperialists-- the Vietnamese freedom fighters have advanced from victory to victory. The victory in Vietnam that came with the liberation of Saigon is a great inspiration to the working and oppressed people of the world. This is a great defeat for the U.S. imperialists. Furthermore, the naked features of U.S. imperialism were clearly exposed to the world's people, including the American people, during the U.S. aggression in Indo-China. The U.S. imperialists never gave up their fond hopes of dominating the Southeast Asian area, and persisted right up until the last day in raving about "military stabilization and negotiated settlement."

The world's people learned a profound lesson from this criminal activity: Neither the U.S. imperialists (nor the other superpower, Soviet social-imperialism, for that matter) will ever give up the drive for worldwide hegemony, until they are thrown out of every country, and until their fascist rule is defeated through socialist revolution here. The South Vietnamese people have set us a brilliant example!

[Photos: South Vietnamese People's Liberation Armed Forces soldiers swear to fight the U S invaders to the end.]

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Chairman Mao Tsetung's Solemn Statement of May 20, 1970:



A new upsurge in the struggle against U.S. imperialism is now emerging throughout the world. Ever since World War II U.S. imperialism and its followers have been continuously launching wars of aggression and the people in various countries have been continuously waging revolutionary wars to defeat the aggressors. The danger of a new world war still exists, and the people of all countries must get prepared. But revolution is the main trend in the world today.

Unable to win in Vietnam and Laos, the U.S. aggressors treacherously engineered the reactionary coup d'etat by the Lon Nol-Sirik Matak clique, brazenly dispatched their troops to invade Cambodia and resumed the bombing of north Vietnam, and this has aroused the furious resistance of the three Indo-Chinese peoples. I warmly support the fighting spirit of Sampech Norodom Sihanouk, Head of State of Cambodia, in opposing U.S. imperialism and its lackeys. I warmly support the joint declaration of the Summit Conference of the Indo-Chinese Peoples. I warmly support the establishment of the Royal Government of National Union under the leadership of the National United Front of Kampuchea. Strengthening their unity, supporting each other and persevering in a protracted people's war the three Indo-Chinese peoples will certainly overcome all difficulties and win complete victory.

While massacring the people in other countries, U.S. imperialism is slaughtering the white and black people in its own country. Nixon's fascist atrocities have kindled the raging flames of the revolutionary mass movement in the United States. The Chinese people firmly support the revolutionary struggle of the American people. I am convinced that the American people who are fighting valiantly will ultimately win victory and that the fascist rule in the United States will inevitably be defeated.

The Nixon government is beset with troubles internally and externally, with utter chaos at home and extreme isolation abroad. The mass movement of protest against U.S aggression in Cambodia has swept the globe. Less than ten days after its establishment, the Royal Government of National Union of Cambodia was recognized by nearly 20 countries. The situation is getting better and better in the war of resistance against U.S. aggression and for national salvation waged by the people of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. The revolutionary armed struggles of the people of Korea, Japan and other Asian countries against the revival of Japanese militarism by the U.S. and Japanese reactionaries, the struggles of the Palestinian and other Arab peoples against the U.S. - Israeli aggressors, the national liberation struggles of the Asian, African, and Latin American peoples, and the revolutionary struggles of the people of North America, Europe and Oceania are all developing vigorously. The Chinese people firmly support the people of the three Indo-Chinese countries and of other countries of the world in their revolutionary struggles against U.S. imperialism and its lackeys.

U.S. imperialism, which looks like a huge monster, is in essence a paper tiger, now in the throes of its death-bed struggle. In the world of today who actually fears whom? It is not the Vietnamese people, the Laotian people, the Cambodian people, the Palestinian people, the Arab people or the people of other countries who fear U.S. imperialism; it is U.S. imperialism which fears the people of the world. It becomes panic-stricken at the mere rustle of leaves in the wind. Innumerable facts prove that a just cause enjoys abundant support while an unjust cause finds little support. A weak nation can defeat a strong, a small nation can defeat a big. The people of a small country can certainly defeat aggression by a big country, if only they dare to rise in struggle, take up arms and grasp in their own hands the destiny of their country. This is a law of history.

[Photos: The ever-vigilant fighters of South Vietnam. The People's Armed Forces of National Liberation of Cambodia growing stronger in fighting.]

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[Photo: Portrait of the late Tung Pi-wu]

Peking, April 3, 1975(Hsinhua) - Obituary notice issued by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress and the State Council of the People's Republic of China

The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress and the State Council of the People's Republic of China announce in deep grief: Comrade Tung Pi-wu, member of the C.P.C. Central Committee, Member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the C.P.C. Central Committee and Vice-Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, died of illness at 07:58 on April 2, 1975 in Peking at the age of 90.

Comrade Tung Pi-wu was one of the founders of the Communist Party of China, a fine member of the Communist Party of China, a great revolutionary fighter of the Chinese people and one of the outstanding leaders of the Party and the State. Comrade Tung Pi-wu made an immortal contribution to the Party and the people in long revolutionary struggles and won the whole-hearted love and respect of the whole Party, the whole army and the people of the whole country.

The whole Party, the whole army and the people of the whole country should learn from Comrade Tung Piwu his revolutionary spirit and noble qualities and, under the leadership of the Party Central Committee headed by Chairman Mao, unite as one, adhere to the Party's basic line, persevere in continuing the revolution under the dictatorship of the proletariat and strive to consolidate and strengthen the dictatorship of the proletariat and build our country into a powerful modern socialist state.

Comrade Tung Pi-wu, a great proletarian revolutionary of the Chinese people is immortal!

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On the Fifth Anniversary of the May 20th Statement

On May 20, 1970, Chairman Mao Tsetung issued his historic statement, PEOPLE OF THE WORLD UNITE AND DEFEAT THE U.S. AGGRESSORS AND ALL THEIR RUNNING DOGS! The statement came at a time when U.S. imperialism was carrying out its barbaric aggression in Indo-China and when a revolutionary mass movement against the U.S. imperialist policies of war and aggression had swept the globe.

Today, five years later, Vietnam and Cambodia are liberated. Chairman Mao pointed out that "a weak nation can defeat a strong" one. This is further proof of the relevance of Chairman Mao's statement. It gives many facts to show the degenerate nature of U.S. imperialism, which looks outwardly "strong" but which is actually in its death-bed throes, fighting for its very existence. Chairman Mao shows why the enemy should be taken strategically with contempt, but should be taken seriously on the tactical front. The U.S. imperialists are faced with all-round crisis--economic, political, cultural, etc.--and this invariably gives rise to greater military adventure (including world war) and more degenerate political deception to cover up their criminal aims.

Everything reactionary is the same: if you don't hit it, it won't fall. No matter how weak the U.S. imperialists are becoming, they are also becoming that much more vicious, and they will not "put down their butcher knives" of their own accord. As the two small nations of Vietnam and Cambodia have shown, it is only by organizing and carrying out revolutionary struggles that the people of the world can assure victory against the most hated imperialism of all time.

The May 20th Statement is a programmatic call, giving guidelines and orientation to the struggle of the world's people against U.S. imperialism, Soviet social-imperialism and all reaction. Over the past five years it has been studied and applied by the revolutionary forces around the world. Right in the heartland of U.S. imperialism the statement was repeatedly carried in Worker's Advocate and People's America Daily News, newspapers of the American Communist Worker's Movement (Marxist-Leninist), a forerunner of the Central Organization of U.S. Marxist-Leninists. Elsewhere in North America, in Canada, the Communist Party of Canada (Marxist-Leninist) widely distributed this statement through its newspapers, and also in meetings and demonstrations.

There are several points in relation to the statement which are of particular importance today:


In general, the situation in the world today is getting better for the people and worse for the imperialists, daily. Economic crisis is hitting all the capitalist countries. It is the worst since the 1930's. All the fundamental contradictions of the contemporary world are intensifying. All the talk about "detente" and "peace" by the two superpowers is nothing but a smokescreen to cover up their rabid war preparations and lull the people of the world to sleep. The giant historical current of COUNTRIES WANTING INDEPENDENCE, NATIONS WANTING LIBERATION AND PEOPLE WANTING REVOLUTION is developing. The two superpowers are colluding against the liberation struggles and peoples of the world, and are contending for world hegemony. This contention is developing and has extended to every corner of the globe, with the main focus being in Europe.

There are two possibilities of what will arise out of this contention: one is world war, which will give rise to revolution; the other is that revolution will prevent the war. We live inside one of the two main superpowers battling for world hegemony today, and the U.S. Marxist-Leninists should be prepared for the possibility of world war; they should oppose war preparations and all policies of war and aggression, and support all opposition worldwide to the hegemonism of the two superpowers.


The statement shows the relationship between the imperialist policy of war and aggression abroad and fascism at home, where a "quiet home front" is essential to facilitate war preparations. This is why, while the U.S. aggressors run rampant throughout the world, they do massive propaganda for national chauvinism at home on the one hand, and on the other hand pass all sorts of reactionary legislation, launch attacks on the working class and other sections of society, attempt to subvert and physically suppress the mass movements and split the ranks of the Marxist-Leninists--and generally carry out militarization of the whole economy. The U.S. monopoly capitalist class also carries out its exploitation of the workers both at home and abroad. The struggle of the American working class and people is in no way separate from the national liberation struggles raging against imperialism throughout the world. Here in the U.S., the task of upholding proletarian internationalism and rendering direct support to the national liberation struggles, stands together with the task of waging direct struggles against the U.S. monopoly capitalist class.


The experience of the world's people and the victories they have achieved in the past five year by following the guidelines of the May 20th Statement proves that China is the bastion of world revolution and the firm ally of revolutionaries everywhere. The basic lesson of the protracted Chinese revolution, both the People's Democratic Revolution and the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was that by basing revolution on the application of Marxism-Leninism to the concrete conditions of China under the leadership of their Communist Party, both imperialism and social imperialism could be defeated and capitalist restoration prevented. This lesson is of international significance and is not just applicable to "Chinese experience." It is important to uphold and apply the lessons of the People's Republic of China, the Communist Party of China, and Chairman Mao to the concrete conditions in the U.S., in order to take up the revolutionary path to overthrow capitalism.

Chairman Mao ends his famous call with" PEOPLE OF THE WORLD UNITE AND DEFEAT THE U.S. AGGRESSORS AND ALL THEIR RUNNING DOGS!" A decisive step for U.S. Marxist-Leninists, in light of this call, is to unite into one Party, built on the basis of Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tsetung Thought and upholding proletarian internationalism, in order to lead the revolutionary mass struggles against U.S. monopoly capital and carry out the proletarian socialist revolution.

[Photo: ENVER HOXHA, founder and leader of the Albanian party of Labour]

Excerpts from a speech delivered by Comrade Enver Hoxha on October 3, 1974, to a meeting of electors of the #209 precinct in Tirana, Albania.

" ... The Albanian people and all the peoples of the world nurture an ardent love and place deep trust in great socialist China, in her glorious Party and in Mao Tsetung, the great and beloved leader not only of the Chinese people and communists, but also the dear and respected leader of all the peoples and communists of the world. This infuriates modern revisionism which, with the Moscow renegades at its head, and in collusion with U.S. imperialism, is waging a fierce and diabolical struggle to oppose the peoples and China. This comes to us as no surprise; this is in conformity with their logic. The greatest enemy of U.S. imperialism and of Soviet social-imperialism are the peoples of the world, with great Mao Tsetung's China at the head. The struggle is being waged between freedom and socialism, on the one hand, and slavery and aggressive imperialism of the two superpowers on the other. All the peoples of the world have pinned their hopes of liberation, independence and well-being on their efforts and on Mao's China. They are not mistaken, and their conviction is not based on propaganda but on a great reality which shines like the light of the sun on the construction of socialism in China, which is being carried on in a correct way; according to the doctrine of Marx and Lenin and the teachings of Mao Tsetung, it is based on the determined stand of the People's Republic of China in the international arena, on the concrete moral, political and economic help it gives the peoples of the world.

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Following are excerpts from a speech by Tapson A. Mawere at a meeting in Chicago on the evening of March 27, 1975. Mr. Mawere is the Chief representative of the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) in the United States, Canada, and the Caribbean. He also serves as ZANU liaison to the United Nations and its specialized agencies.

Comrades and friends, sisters and brothers, I am extremely happy to be here with you tonight. You will bear with me--my spirits are definitely heavy. I am trying to be as happy as I can, but I am a little unable to accomplish this. Just recently, on the 4th of March, our president, Comrade Ndabaningi Sithole who languished in prison for the last ten years, was rearrested by the Rhodesian government. Two weeks after that, our national chairman, Comrade Herbert Chitepo who had heroically led the liberation army, ZANLA--this comrade was assassinated. The circumstances of his assassination we have not yet been able to ascertain. But these are definite setbacks. We are not happy that we have setbacks. But they are definitely to be expected. That is what our enemies are trying to do, they are trying to cause setbacks in our struggle. In spite of that, ZANU is still determined to go ahead and accomplish our goal. I know most of you--all of you-join us in this goal. AND THIS GOAL IS TO DEFEAT IMPERIALISM IN THIS WORLD! ZANU IS DETERMINED!

I do not want to bother all of you by too much detail about ZANU. I know most of you know it. I want to emphasize certain aspects of the complex situation in Zimbabwe, which remains a nation which has decided to go the way of armed struggle. The complex situation in Zimbabwe derives from the colonial situation. The colonial situation as you know, was brought about in Zimbabwe by that lowly liar, gangster, hoodlum--Cecil John Rhodes. He is hated by our people. His name is the embodiment of imperialism itself. This man manipulated his way through the hierarchy, and was determined to get a charter in order to invade the country with the blessings of the British government. The British government gave him its blessing to invade the whole territory for the purpose of making profit. In fact, records show the British government saying that "The Rhodes Company, which is about to enjoy the profits, shall also bear the burden of governing the people." So Rhodes went out to devour the great profits with the blessings of the British government. Now here it is--the roots of what we have suffered all these years under British colonial rule. We have been exploited with the blessing of the British government, without the British government saying so, with the British government telling the world they were the administering authority of the Rhodesian colonial rule. When Rhodesia came into effect, they never determined what was going on, they never exercised control, they never really governed the country. They have always been able to stand aside and watch. This came to a climax in 1965 when the Rhodesian government set itself independent of Britain, and we were left in the cold. We were left alone to do what we pleased. It was definitely a victory for the Rhodesian government.

Prior to 1962, we didn't quite see that the British government was deceiving us; we hoped we would get a lot of things from the British government. So each time we organized the civil rights movement we made petitions. We sent people to talk to the British government, hoping that we would get some real consideration from them. But nothing. The British gave us nothing all through the years.

On closer examination of some of the facts of the situation in Rhodesia, we find that on the board of directors of the British South African Company were members of the British parliament. And going down the list we find that most were veteran members of the British Colonial Service...

So we see the British Government deceiving us all through the years. After we realized that in 1962, we decided we were deceiving ourselves. Each time we asked the British government to listen to us, we really were playing into their hands. Each time we went to them, they listened very nicely, but we found they were only playing for time. The first company of mercenaries that came to Zimbabwe numbered 200, and because they were armed we were necessarily defeated. But over the years their number was increasing. The number of white persons was increasing. The British government was playing for time in order to increase the amount of the white population for reasons that we did not know.

One thing that I can point out, one thing that Cecil Rhodes made very, very clear, was that he needed other resources. He definitely went out and invited missionaries.Not mercenaries--sometimes I confuse the two words-missionaries. And one thing I heard later which I won't forget, was that Rhodes wrote to the missionaries and said he wanted them to come to Rhodesia because one missionary can do the job of 50 policemen. So, whereas the mercenaries came and killed people, wounded people, drove them out, the missionaries came and mopped up. Mopped up. Appeased. "Knock and it shall be opened to you." "Seek and you shall find." But no violence...

From 1962 to 1964 we decided that we would stand and organize the resistance. I would like to emphasize to you that our situation, the colonial situation, was complicated because it was a racial situation. Because the few settlers who came in had the right of ownership to land. In fact, the 200 mercenaries were each given 3,000 acres of land free. Free rights to the land. But the indigenous people were displaced from those lands and were not even allowed to own land. These people were pushed into reserves for a source of labor. And inhabitants could not buy land, whereas it is a matter of law that the government will help a white person to buy land if he wants to.

Just last year, in 1974, the government invited over a million people of European stock to come to Rhodesia. They would be given a free ticket and be able to own land. Iwould like to own land, but I am Black. The Land Apportionment Act, which delineates certain areas as European areas and other areas as African areas, is the basis of all discrimination in Rhodesia. If you are Black, you can't live here, you live there. If you are Black, you go to this school, you can't go to that school. This is a racial situation. This is the fundamental issue upon which our revolution was launched. We wanted to overthrow the white minority rule. And we are fighting to overthrow the white minority rule.

In the development before our revolution, we found that we were confronted with a system which had created certain Black people who are favored by the status quo, who would rather preserve the status quo. In Africa, we find there are Black people who are living in houses I haven't seen even here in the U.S.--big mansions with two cars. Why? Because the Rhodesian government is trying to show the world that they allow full participation in the governing of the country. They appoint a few Black people to become members of the parliament-literally appointed, not elected by the people. If you visited the Rhodesian Parliament today, you would see Black people in the House of Parliament. These have not been elected by the people; they have been appointed by the government.

Later on, because of our struggle, the government granted a franchise which would permit a few Black people to qualify to vote. Thus you can see that, out of the 5,750,000 Africans, only about 8,000 are qualified. Of the 270,000 whites, everybody qualifies. So in the case of electoral politics the whites are in the majority, whereas in actual figures the Africans are 96% of the whole population. Why can't we qualify? We cannot qualify because you have to have a certain amount of education and you have to have a certain amount of income, about $840 a year. This sounds very low. Let me say that the average wage for a worker, a worker who works for GM, Union Carbide, Ford Motor Co., General Electric... the average wage would be $386 a year. That's less than half of the income needed for qualification. Of those who work on the farms, the average wage is $186 a year. UN statistics say that families of four in Zimbabwe need $100 a month to live. Because of this wage structure, it means these people can't afford to send their children to school, and you can't qualify without education. Now this alone would prevent us from qualifying, but another requirement is ownership of property, and we are not allowed to own land. So because of this racist system we cannot qualify to vote.

Maybe some of you can say, how come people would want to work for only $186 a year? or $386? Why can't they demand more? Rhodes established a system in which Africans are not allowed to be in trade unions, and it is illegal to strike. It is illegal for Africans to strike. Africans don' t have the fundamental democratic rights of a worker to go on strike and demand higher wages. That is to say, complete denial of civil rights in terms of income, participation in government, and many other things. The African is denied his rights violently. He has seen his people going on strike and and being shot by the police--10, 12, 17 unarmed men being killed because they are fighting for the right to strike. I AM SAYING, PEOPLE HAVE TO BE PAID THAT LOW BY THE USE OF FORCE.

This situation, this status quo, is very injurious to human rights, human dignity, human freedom. But it is also very conducive to profiteering, and there are people who profit legally from this system. I seem to have read in some of the state journals how most of the companies are so happy to invest in Southern Africa because their returns are so very high. General Motors pays $200 per worker per week in the U.S. Here, when they open their assembly in Port Elizabeth, they pay $10! Sure, it is profitable! So what has happened? We have now over 400 U.S. corporations in Southern Africa. These corporations support the regimes in Rhodesia and in South Africa, and they go on to influence the U.S. to support the racist system in Southern Africa. This is so. The Kissinger papers, in the "Operation Tar Baby" policy statement, say openly that the U.S. policy is to secretly support the white racist regimes in Southern Africa, and at the same time offer aid to the African independent states if they will agree to stop helping the liberation movements. Smith, to us, is at the head of a management team that manages the economic and financial affairs of the western countries. Britain and the U.S. are on the top of the list...

I want to emphasize the fact that ZANU has been very victorious, and continues to be victorious. Many questions have been asked, such as: "If you win independence, what will you do to the white settlers who are in Rhodesia?" This is a very difficult question to answer. We open it up to you, to indicate that we want to be friendly; but let's have a friendship that will last. This is very difficult for us. People are dying, fighting the liberation struggle, while Union Carbide through Rhodesian embassies in both the U.S. and Britain is recruiting mercenaries to go to Rhodesia to fight and kill people. When we see these people taking over our land and our resources, we are put in a situation where it is difficult for us to look upon the Union Carbide as a friend. It is not a question I can answer. It is a question I would like to hear you answer in light of what the Union Carbide will do.

You can see that the system that was introduced by Rhodes is rooted upon color. We allowed these people to come. They said they wanted to help us and we let them come. We welcomed the European whites. We were friends, we opened. When they came they fought us, defeated us, and then created these divisions along the lines of color. That is a situation which is not accidental--it was provoked. But in spite of all that, in spite of all our knowledge of what American corporations are doing we still come to you, and talk to you, and open up. We want to try to make friends because we believe you will see that this system is bad, that something must be done. Hopefully together we can defeat them. We in Zimbabwe are capable of cutting off the tentacle that is within our reach. In Indo-China they are cutting off a tentacle (prolonged applause). In many places they are cutting off the tentacles. But this belly, which is right here, it will not die. Someone must pierce the heart. Who can do it? We are too far. We are too far. As long as the octopus survives, remains alive, he has ways of growing some more tentacles. We will never defeat it completely until its very heart is pierced. Who can we look up to? Who can we look up to to do that? I don't know how happy you are to live in this belly... I hope you are comfortable. If you are not comfortable, and want to shake yourselves out of it, it is all up to you. YOU. Just like we in ZANU say, "We ourselves are our own liberators." So also you, yourselves, can shake yourselves out of this belly. WE INVITE YOU TO JOIN US! LET'S GO!


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(Speech presented at Eritrean Night, February 15, 1975, by a representative of Eritreans for Liberation in North America (Chicago Chapter)

Eritrea, a small nation at the horn of Africa has an area of 45,750 square miles and a population of 3 million. Stretching for about 1,000 miles along the African coast of the Red Sea, betweenthe Sudan and the Somali, Eritrea has historically played a very important role in the scheme of imperial piracy and plunder, otherwise known as international trade and commerce. Thus, from very early in history, Eritrea's geographic location at the confluence of Africa, the Middle East and Asia had attracted the persistent attention of territorial imperialism of the old type. Indeed, this strategic position has made Eritrea a tempting victim of Pharonic Egyptians, Alexandrite Greeks, Sabean Arabs and Asian traders. With the rise of modern imperialism, Eritrea has suffered from the colonial oppression of the Ottoman Turks, fascist Italians, the British, and at present Ethiopian colonialism.

During the 15th century the Portuguese, as leaders of European colonialism, went along the Atlantic and Indian Ocean coasts of Africa, and also spread along the Red Sea coast. They were confronted by the Ottoman Turks who at that time controlled the whole of North Africa, northeastern Africa and the Middle East. The Turks found the upper hand in their war with the Portuguese and thus Massawa and the hinterland along the coastal region of Eritrea came under the control of the Ottoman empire from 1557-1865. Shortly after the Turkish occupation was over, a small Pharonic Egyptian rule which established itself along the Red Sea area, expanded over the lowlands of the eastern and western parts of Eritrea until 1884. The Egyptian rule not only exacted tribute but also reorganized the nationalities of Agordat, Keren and Massawa, bringing them under a national government. With the opening of the Suez canal in 1869, the horn of Africa attracted the attention of European powers in their search for new markets, and sources of raw materials. Military control over the Red Sea meant not only assurance and safe flow of commercial activities and transfer of wealth from Africa and Asia to Europe, but also a military spot to weaken competitors. wealth from Africa and Asia to Europe, but also a military spot to weaken competitors.

The struggle for control of the Red Sea and the horn of Africa involved the major colonial powers: Britain, France and Italy. In their race for colonial supremacy in Africa, Britain and Italy formed a joint alliance to curb French expansion from Djibuti in the east and Chad in the west. Thus in 1882, with the support of Britain, Italy was able to establish a protectorate at Asab, a major port in the southeastern part of Eritrea. By 1885, Italy intensified its aggression and took control of Massawa, another port in the northeastern part of Eritrea. The Eritrean people waged a fierce resistance to repulse this aggression and to preserve their independence by inflicting heavy losses on the enemy. A 500-man Italian garrison was completely wiped out at Dogali, a few miles inland from the port of Massawa. A four year resistance of the people was brutally crushed and Eritrea became an Italian colony in June, 1889.

In 194l, during the world peoples' fight against fascism, the Eritrean people rose up once again to drive the Italians out and to liberate their country. The results of this uprising were stopped by the British, who pretended to liberate Eritrea from the Italians but nevertheless occupied it themselves. As soon as the occupation was completed, the British began to reveal their true intentions about Eritrea's political future. The Eritreans began to understand that the British had not come to liberate the country, but just to defeat an enemy. The British, in order to create a cluster of colonies under one administration, developed a new plan for Eritrea according to which the Eritrean lowlands were to be merged with the Sudan and the highlands with their ally, Ethiopia. They created political dissension between the Moslem and Christian communities and they used the situation as a pretext for their partition plan. The Eritreans were victorious in their bitter struggle in as much as they foiled all the imperialist conspiracies. They resisted all political and economic pressures and intrigues; they unanimously rejected the British plan of partition which was secretly approved and supported by Ethiopia. Yet international imperialism was very much alive and the struggle continued both in Eritrea and in the U.N.

In 1946 a peace treaty for the former Italian colonies was initiated by the then big powers: Britain, Russia, United States and France. After a series of failures they brought solution to all except for the Eritrean question, which they handed over to the General Assembly of the U.N. The fourth session of the U.N. General Assembly decided to send a commission of inquiry to Eritrea to ascertain the wishes of the people regarding their political future. The commission consisted of representatives from Pakistan, Guatemala, Burma, Norway and South Africa. As soon as they arrived in Eritrea they discovered the genuine and impressive strength of different political parties and their determination to defend the right and dignity of the country. They saw the economic possibilities of the land and found that Eritrea had every prerequisite for a self-supporting independent state. In their report to the U. N. Secretary General on June 8, 1950, four of the five members of the commission agreed on the most important point that the country should not be annexed to Ethiopia. Only the delegate of Norway supported the Anglo-American plan for the annexation of the eastern part of Eritrea to Ethiopia and the retention of the western part by Britain. When the five-member commission's report was examined by the General Assembly, the representative of the United States strongly opposed the proposal for the independence of Eritrea. He argued that it did not satisfy Ethiopia's claims and made the following statement:

Independence for Eritrea is not practicable either now or in the future because it ignores the legitimate interests of Ethiopia and would only increase tension in east Africa.

This was an absurd and one-sided judgment, unworthy of the representative of a great country. When it came into voting, the U.S. which had then a tremendous influence in the General Assembly, managed to obtain 46 votes for its draft resolution, with 10 states opposing and 4 states abstaining. Thus the resolution for Ethiopian-Eritrean federal union was adopted December 2, 1950.

The worst came when the U. N. General Assembly sent a commission to Eritrea to implement the federal resolution. Contrary to the universally accepted theory of constitutional federalism and repeated references in the federal act for a distinct federal government, the commissioner decided to identify the Ethiopian government with the federal government. An absolutely irrational and disloyal decision flagrantly violated all the avowed intentions of the General Assembly and turned the U.N. resolution into a meaningless document. In fact, if one of the members of a federation can be identified with the government of the same federation, it is senseless to speak of federal government, federal organs, and federal matters, unless one wishes to deliberately deceive the people who have faith in justice and understanding. But that was exactly the position taken by the U.N. commissioner, who greatly contributed to the creation of a sham federation between Ethiopia and Eritrea.

Eight months after the federation was established, the U.S. was paid for its conspiracy in the General Assembly. A mutual defense pact was signed between the U.S. and Ethiopia, and thus the Kagnew station was built in Asmara, the capital of Eritrea. The 70 million dollar base was the largest high frequency base outside of American domestic facilities and was used to spy on African liberation movements and against the Arab people. In violation of the federal act, the Ethiopian Government sent a representative to Eritrea. This representative, followed by 20,000 soldiers and arms, ultimately neutralized all the democratic safeguards of the federal act and paralyzed the autonomous functioning of the Eritrean government.

--Labor unions were dissolved, freedom of the press was ruthlessly suppressed and the Eritrean courts were deprived of their authority.

--In 1958 Eritrean workers staged a massive nationwide demonstration of protest, which paralyzed the neo-colonial urban economy for 4 days. Haile Selassie's response was to order the barbaric massacre of the workers in which 9 people were killed and 543 wounded.

--In November 1969, the Eritrean flag was removed and the Ethiopian flag was hoisted in its place.

--In the second half of 1966 the seal of the Eritrean government was withdrawn and its inscriptions were changed from the "Government of Eritrea" to "Eritrean administration."

--On November 14, 1962, a simple written statement was read by the chief executive to the members of the Eritrean parliament:

"The statement that I am going to read to you is a final issue of the Eritrean case, and there is nothing you can do other than accepting it as it is. We have rendered the federation null and void and are henceforth completely united with Ethiopia."

This was read in Ethiopian language, which most of the parliament did not even understand. This was the way the U.N. General Assembly's decision was nullified by completely disregarding a referendum in which the people's voices could have been heard. The Eritrean people tried to resist this crude strangulation of their autonomy and the imminent political murder of their country through peaceful means such as public demonstrations and petitions to the U.N. What they found was a deaf ear from the U.N. and more barbaric action from the Ethiopian army. This signified the end of any hopes for a peaceful solution of the Eritrean case and pointed to armed struggle as the only way out of the colonial oppression and imperialist exploitation of the country. The armed struggle which erupted from the Eritrean liberation movement is therefore a continuation of the heroic resistance of the Eritrean people. The Eritrean liberation movement was later named the Eritrean Liberation Front and has been fighting the Ethiopian occupation army for the last 14 years. During this period the armed struggle had to go through a series of setbacks which originated from certain reactionary elements in the leadership. They created a non~existent specter of religious and tribal intolerance in the Front and caused a civil war. Thus in 1970 it was divided into two, namely, the Eritrean Liberation Front General Command, and the Eritrean People's Liberation Forces. They stayed divided until very recently when efforts were made from all corners of the country to start negotiations towards the creation of a United Front. After several meetings with the people's representatives they reached an agreement under one slogan: "Let us point our guns toward our common enemy and find a democratic solution to our contradictions."

The recent crimes and atrocities committed by the Ethiopian occupation army are not new to the Eritrean people:

--In 1970 the town of Keren was savagely bombarded and 2,000 people were brutally killed. During the same year Haile Selassie ordered a state of Martial Law in Eritrea and since then 100,000 people fled their homeland to languish in refugee camps in the Sudan and neighboring countries.

--In August, 1974, 250 civilians were massacred in Urn Hajer and hundreds drowned while running away from the sight of terror.

--The inhuman poisoning of Eritrean waters caused the death of hundreds of human lives and countless loss in livestock.

--In December, 1974, the bodies of 50 Eritrean students strangled by piano wire were found in driveways. These are but few of the innumerable crimes committed by the fascist Ethiopian government.

The fascist military junta of Ethiopia, in desperate attempt to crush the struggle of the Eritrean people for independence, has once again unleashed a new wave of terror against the Eritrean people. Since the beginning of the month of February the junta using U.S. supplied arsenal has been carrying out air raids over Eritrean villages near Asmara. So far several villages have been leveled to the ground, thousands have been killed and many left homeless. In Asmara, the Ethiopian troops have undertaken a rough house to house search. There are reports that bands of undisciplined, ill-trained Ethiopian soldiers have begun to loot and shoot in the city. People have been shot down indiscriminately all over the place. Moreover, the junta is detaining hundreds of Eritreans in Addis Ababa and is driving them into concentration camps where they could be held as hostages. United as it stands, the liberation struggle in Eritrea is raging fiercely. Eritrean freedom fighters have stepped up their attacks on the 20,000 Ethiopian troops whom they completely encircled and isolated from their re-enforcement. In the heavy battles of the last two weeks, none of the additional 15,000 Ethiopian soldiers were able to reach Asmara. The freedom fighters have already shot down five U.S. supplied Ethiopian F-5 fighters and three spotter planes.

Why do the Eritrean people persist in this bitter struggle? Ho Chi Minh has already answered this question: "Nothing is more precious than independence and freedom." The freedom fighters will continue their struggle until final victory is won. The Ethiopian junta, on the other hand, which claims to be building socialism, has arrogantly declared that it will fight until the last drop of blood. It is racing troops and U.S. supplied tanks, armored cars and planes into Eritrea. How can a socialist country insist on forcibly suppressing the right of a nation to determine its destiny? This, and its suppression of the democratic rights of the Eritrean people shows that the Ethiopian junta is not socialist but fascist. The Eritrean people would have long ago defeated the feudal government of Ethiopia had it not been for the massive economic and military aid given by the U.S. U.S. involvement in Eritrea, which possesses abundant oil resources and a strategic location at the mouth of the Red Sea, has to be seen within the context of the whole situation in the Middle East and the horn of Africa. It is evident that the U.S. imperialists and Israeli Zionists have been conspiring to undermine and crush the Palestinian revolution. The same forces, in collaboration with reactionary local governments like the Shah of Iran and the Ethiopian junta, are trying to wipe out the liberation movements of Oman and Eritrea. The U.S., using the Omani island of Masirah as a base, is trying to gain control of the entrance into the Arabian Gulf. It is arming the Omani reactionaries while Iran has invaded the liberated areas in Dofar and Oman. In Eritrea the U.S. was using the Kagnew military base along with Israeli bases in the Eritrean island of Haleb and Fatma in its efforts to control the southern entrance to the Red Sea.

The Eritrean struggle is an integral part of the worldwide struggle against imperialism. Under the vanguard of the United Front, Eritrea has very recently achieved what it could not get through peaceful means. Now Eritreans will go shoulder to shoulder with all the progressive movements throughout the world, to liquidate imperialism and reserve the rights of nations to lead their own destiny.




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The kerosene lamp overhead makes a steady buzzing sound like an incandescent hive of bees. Mud walls. Mud floor. Mud bed. White paper windows. Smell of blood and chloroform. Cold. Three o'clock in the morning, December 1, North China, near Lin Chu, with the 8th Route Army. Men with wounds. Wounds like little dried pools, caked with black-brown earth; wounds with torn edges frilled with black gangrene; neat wounds, concealing beneath the abscess in their depths, burrowing into and around the great firm muscles like a dammed-back river, running around and between the muscles like a hot stream; wounds, expanding outward, decaying orchids or crushed carnations, terrible flowers of flesh; wounds from which the dark blood is spewed out in clots, mixed with the ominous gas bubbles, floating on the fresh flood of the still-continuing secondary haemorrhage.

Old filthy bandages stuck to the skin with blood-glue. Careful. Better moisten first. Through the thigh. Pick the leg up. Why it's like a bag, a long, loose red stocking. What kind of stocking? A Christmas stocking. Where's that find strong rod of bone now? In a dozen pieces. Pick them out with your fingers; white as a dog's teeth, sharp and jagged. Now feel. Any more left? Yes, here. All? Yes; no, here's another piece. Is this muscle dead? Pinch it. Yes, it's dead. Cut it out. How can that heal? How can those muscles, once so strong, now so torn, so devastated, so ruined, resume their proud tension? Pull, relax. Pull, relax. What fun it was! Now that is finished. Now that's done. Now we are destroyed. Now what will we do with ourselves?

Next. What an infant! Seventeen. Shot through the belly. Chloroform. Ready? Gas rushes out of the opened peritoneal cavity. Odor of feces. Pink coils of distended intestine. Four perforations. Close them. Purse string suture. Sponge out the pelvis. Tube. Three tubes. Hard to close. Keep him warm. How? Dip those bricks into hot water.

Gangrene is a cunning, creeping fellow. Is this one alive? Yes, he lives. Technically speaking, he is alive. Give him saline intravenously. Perhaps the innumerable tiny cells of his body will remember. They may remember the hot salty sea, their ancestral home, their first food. With the memory of a million years, they may remember other tides, other oceans, and life being born of the sea and sun. It may make them raise their tired little heads, drink deep and struggle back into life again. It may do that.

And this one. Will he run along the road beside his mule at another harvest, with cries of pleasure and happiness? No, that one will never run again. How can you run with one leg? What will he do? Why, he'll sit and watch the other boys run. What will he think? He'll think what you and I would think. What's the good of pity? Don't pity him! Pity would diminish his sacrifice. He did this for the defence of China. Help him. Lift him off the table. Carry him in your arms. Why, he's as light as a child! Yes, your child, my child.

How beautiful the body is: how perfect its pads; with what precision it moves; how obedient, proud and strong. How terrible when torn. The little flame of life sinks lower and lower, and with a flicker, goes out. It goes out like a candle goes out. Quietly and gently. It makes its protest at extinction, then submits. It has its day, then is silent.

Any more? Four Japanese prisoners. Bring them in. In this community of pain, there are no enemies. Cut away that blood-stained uniform. Stop that haemorrhage. Lay them beside the others. Why, they're alike as brothers! Are these soldiers professional man-killers? No, these are amateurs-in-arms. Workman's hands. These are workers-in-uniform.

No more. Six o'clock in the morning. God, it's cold in this room. Open the door. Over the distant, dark-blue mountains, a pale, faint line of light appears in the east. In an hour the sun will be up. To bed and sleep.

But sleep will not come. What is the cause of this cruelty, this stupidity? A million workmen come from Japan to kill or mutilate a million Chinese workmen. Why should the Japanese worker attack his brother worker, who is forced merely to defend himself. Will the Japanese worker benefit by the death of the Chinese? No, how can he gain? Then, in God's name, who will gain? Who is responsible for sending these Japanese workmen on this murderous mission? Who will profit from it? How was it possible to persuade the Japanese workmen to attack the Chinese Workman -- his brother in poverty; his companion in misery?

Is it possible that a few rich men, a small class of men, have persuaded a million men to attack, and attempt to destroy, another million men as poor as they? So that these rich may be richer still? Terrible thought! How did they persuade these poor men to come to China? By telling them the truth? No, they would never have come if they had known the truth, Did they dare to tell these workmen that the rich only wanted cheaper raw materials, more markets and more profit? No, they told them that this brutal war was The Destiny of the Race, it was for the "Glory of the Emperor, it was for the Honour of the State, it was for their King and Country."

False. False as hell!

The agents of a criminal war of aggression, such as this, must be looked for like the agents of other crimes, such as murder, among those who are likely to benefit from those crimes. Will the 80,000,000 workers of Japan, the poor farmers, the unemployed industrial workers -- will they gain? In the entire history of the wars of aggression, from the conquest of Mexico by Spain, the capture of India by England, the rape of Ethiopia by Italy, have the workers of those victorious countries ever been known to benefit? No, these never benefit by such wars. Does the Japanese workman benefit by the natural resources of even his own country, by the gold, the silver, the iron, the coal, the oil? Long ago he ceased to possess that natural wealth. It belongs to the rich, the ruling class. The millions who work those mines live in poverty. So how is he likely to benefit by the armed robbery of the gold, silver, iron, coal and oil from China? Will not the rich owners of the one retain for their own profit the wealth of the other? Have they not always done so?

It would seem inescapable that the militarists and the capitalists of Japan are the only class likely to gain by this mass murder, this authorized madness, this sanctified butchery. That ruling class, the true state, stands accused.

Are wars of aggression, wars for the conquest of colonies, then, just big business? Yes, it would seem so, however much the perpetrators of such national crimes seek to hide their true purpose under banners of high-sounding abstractions and ideals. They make war to capture markets by murder; raw materials by rape. They find it cheaper to steal than to exchange; easier to butcher than to buy. This is the secret of war. This is the secret of all wars. Profit. Business. Profit. Blood money.

Behind all stands that terrible, implacable God of Business and Blood, whose name is Profit. Money, like an insatiable Moloch, demands its interest, its return, and will stop at nothing, not even the murder of millions, to satisfy its greed. Behind the army stand the militarists. Behind the militarists stand finance capital and the capitalist. Brothers in blood; companions in crime.

What do these enemies of the human race look like? Do they wear on their foreheads a sign so that they may be told, shunned and condemned as criminals? No. On the contrary, they are the respectable ones. They are honoured. They call themselves, and are called, gentlemen. What a travesty on the name, Gentlemen! They are the pillars of the state, of the church, of society. They support private and public charity out of the excess of their wealth. They endow institutions. In their private lives they are kind and considerate. They obey the law, their law, the law of property. But there is one sign by which these gentle gunmen can be told. Threaten a reduction on the profit of their money and the beast in them awakes with a snarl. They become ruthless as savages, brutal as madmen, remorseless as executioners. Such men as these must perish if the human race is to continue. There can be no permanent peace in the world while they live. Such an organization of human society as permits them to exist must be abolished.

These men make the wounds.

"Comrade Norman Bethune,a member of the Communist Party of Canada, was around fifty when he was sent by the Communist Parties of Canada and the United States to China; He made light of travelling thousands of miles to help us in our War of Resistance Against Japan. He arrived in Yenan in the spring of last year, went to work in the Wutai Mountains, and to our great sorrow died a martyr at his post. What kind of spirit is this that makes a foreigner selflessly adopt the cause of the Chinese people's liberation as his own? It is the spirit of internationalism, the spirit of communism, from which every Chinese Communist must learn. Leninism teaches that the world revolution can only succeed if the proletariat of the capitalist countries supports the struggle for liberation of the colonial and semi-colonial peoples and if the proletariat of the colonies and semi-colonies supports that of the proletariat of the capitalist countries.Comrade Bethune put this Leninist line into practice."...from IN MEMORY OF NORMAN BETHUNE by Chairman Mao Tsetung


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Speech by Comrade Hardial Baines Chairman of the Communist Party of Canada (Marxist-Leninist) Delivered in Montreal to Usher in the New Year

(EXCERPT) "...The central point to grasp on this front is the following: the storm centers of world revolution are in Asia, Africa and Latin America, where the four main contradictions which exist on the world scale are concentrated. The four main contradictions which exist on the world scale are: the contradiction between the oppressed nations on the one hand and imperialism and social imperialism on the other; the contradiction between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie in the capitalist and revisionist countries; the contradiction between imperialist and social imperialist countries and among the imperialist countries; and the contradiction between socialist countries on the one hand and imperialism and social-imperialism on the other.

Because of the concentration of these contradictions in Asia, Africa and Latin America, the struggles in these oppressed nations have become the motive force of world revolution. The workers in Canada and Quebec and throughout North America must not be detached from the struggles of the oppressed nations and people of Asia, Africa and Latin America and they must raise the banner of proletarian internationalism and provide active assistance to the struggles of the oppressed nations and people. In actual terms what must be grasped is the fact that because the four main contradictions are concentrated in Asia, Africa and Latin America and the vast majority ofthe people there are brought into the revolutionary struggle, the imperialists and social imperialists see in the proletariat in their own country their mortal enemy. In order to launch wars of aggression against the peoples of Asia, Africa and Latin America, the imperialists and social imperialists must first and foremost suppress their own people. To achieve this they must do massive propaganda for national chauvinism, they must create a maximum number of splits and divisions amongst the revolutionary people as well as amongst the working class itself and they are forced to pass the most repressive rules and regulations against communism. They must try to physically suppress the revolutionary parties, subvert them from within, support opportunism, etc. To misunderstand this and say "Well, the enemy is just looking towards Asia, Africa and Latin America and leaving us in peace here in Canada" is to make a serious mistake..."

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Comrade Ho Chi Minh on the Vietnamese Revolution




"It is essential to have the leadership of a genuine revolutionary party of the working class, wholeheartedly devoted to the service of the people. Only the leadership of a party which knows how to apply Marxism-Leninism creatively to specific conditions of its country can take the national liberation revolution to victory and the socialist revolution to success."


"All Party members should strive to study Marxism-Leninism, strengthen their proletarian class stand, grasp the laws of development of the Vietnamese revolution, elevate their revolutionary morality, vigorously combat individualism, foster proletarian collectivism, be industrious and thrifty in the work for national construction, build close contacts with the laboring masses, and struggle wholeheartedly for the interests of the revolution and the Fatherland."


"With regard to the Trotskyites there can be no compromise, no concession. We must do everything possible to unmask them as agents of fascism and annihilate them politically."


"The revolution in the colonial and semi-colonial countries is a national democratic revolution. To make it successful, it is possible and necessary to form a very wide national front, uniting all social strata and classes longing for liberation from colonialist yoke. In particular, one should bear in mind that the role played by the bourgeoisie in colonial and dependent countries in general is not similar to that played by the bourgeoisie in capitalist countries. The national bourgeoisie can be won to participate actively in the national-democratic revolution.

The revolution in the colonial and semi-colonial countries is first and foremost a Peasant revolution. The alliance of the broad Peasant masses with the working class is the fundamental base on which a wide and firm national front can be formed. Consequently, agrarian reform is a fundamental task of the national democratic revolution.

To lead the national revolution to victory and to cover the successive stages of the development of the national democratic state, the working class and its Party must take up their role of leading the revolution."


"There should be association of patriotism and proletarian internationalism in both the national liberation revolution and the socialist revolution. In our time, the national liberation revolution is an inseparable part of the world proletarian revolution; the national liberation revolution must develop into the socialist revolution if it is to achieve complete victory. The success of the struggle for independence and freedom of the peoples is inseparable from the active support and assistance of the socialist camp and the worker's movement in the capitalist countries.




[EXCHANGE OF OUT FITS-Cartoon (1966)]

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