Encyclopedia of Trotskyism On-Line: Revolutionary History, Vol. 7 No. 3

Reader’s Notes

Soviet Union and Stalinism

Guardian, 20 March 1999: Tom Whitehouse, Stalin Inflamed Ancient Caucasian Rivalries.

Independent, 11 April 1999: Jeremy Atiyah, Stay a While in Stalin Country, the Stalin cult thrives in Gori. See also Hank Wangford, The Power and the Glory, Guardian, 4 September.

Sunday Times, 11 April 1999: Lenin Still in the Pink, the saga of Lenin’s mummy. See also Anna Blundy, Lenin “Needs Burial”, The Times, 27 May; David Hearst, One Foot in the Grave, Guardian, 28 July; Kremlin Says Lenin Will Be Buried, Independent, 4 August; Lenin Will Be Moved, Kremlin Insists, The Times, 4 August; David Hearst, Lenin to be Buried at Last – Official, Guardian, 4 August; Richard Beeston, Lenin Issue is Neither Dead Nor Buried, The Times, 5 August; Mark Franchetti, Yeltsin Plan to Bury Lenin Fills Loyal Embalmer with Gloom, Sunday Times, 8 August; Phil Reeves, The Endless Burial of Lenin, Independent, 26 August; Vote for Lenin, Sunday Times, 29 August – stop the burial by electing him to the Duma!

Guardian, 24 April 1999: Nina Khrushcheva, Russia’s Tarnished Icon, Khrushchev’s granddaughter tells of his views on Solzhenitsyn.

Guardian, 29 April 1999: Isabel Montgomery, Lenin’s Little Helpers, an exhibition of Russian avant-garde art.

Guardian, 1 May 1999: Mark Brown, Unsocialist Realism, the Stalinist counter-revolution in art.

Independent, 8 May 1999: Helen Womack, Works of Lenin Hid Yeltsin’s Bottles – say no more!

Observer, 9 May 1999: Laura Cumming, Red Squares, Stalin and the avant-garde.

The Times, 12 May 1999: Richard Cock, Rebel With a Lost Cause, Malevich and modernism.

Daily Telegraph, 26 May 1999: Norman MacKenzie, Stalin’s Crimes: A Word in My Ear, how a Bulgarian Communist leaked the news of de-Stalinisation in 1955 – and how Aneurin Bevan refused to believe it.

Marxist Review, May 1999: Mike Driver, The Historic Struggle Against Imperialism in Yugoslavia.

International Socialist Forum, May–June 1999: Hal Draper, The Myth of Lenin’s “Concept of the Party”, or What They Did to What Is To Be Done?

Independent, 5 June 1999: Michael Delahaye, From Karl Marx to a Big Mac, statues disappearing in the Eastern Bloc.

Independent, 6 June 1999: Teresa Pode, The Past is a Foreign Country in China, political repression since the 1850s.

Sunday Telegraph, 6 June 1999: Robert Matthews, Why Genes Were Outlawed, the story of Lysenkoism.

Weekly Worker, 10 June 1999: Barry Biddulph, Lenin, Kautsky and the Communist Party.

Sunday Times, 20 June 1999; Angus McQueen, Art of Darkness, a GPU colonel’s sketches of life in the Gulag.

Guardian, 26 June 1999: Lenin Rings the Changes, a bronze Lenin statue melted down for charity bells.

Informations ouvrières, 30 June 1999: 1905: Des Intellectuels avec la révolution.

Workers Power, June 1999: Jenny Scott, Lenin’s Fight Against Economism.

International Review, Second Quarter 1999: R.L., How We Became “Leninists”, early Bolshevism.

Weekly Worker, 1 July 1999: Phil Sharpe, Winning the Peasantry, against the dissolution of the Constituent Assembly in 1918; Dave Craig, Trotsky Versus the Left Trotskyists, Trotsky and Martynov.

Observer, 4 July 1999: James Meek, The Wasteland, the fate of GPU detainees in Norilsk.

Sunday Telegraph, 11 July 1999: John Preston, The Great Terror, the Gulag.

The Times, 19 July 1999: Anna Blundy, Rasputin was not the Great Lover He was Rumoured to be. According to New Research, He even had Bouts of Impotence, a look at Edvard Radzinsky, biographer of Stalin.

Independent, 23 July 1999: Paul Lashmar, Secret Files Tell of Final Terror for Romanovs, Foreign Office documents handed to Russia. See also Michael Evans, To Heal the Rifts of Past and Present, and Alice Lagnado, A Step Towards the Truth, The Times, same date.

Socialist Worker, 24 July 1999: Sam Ashman, As Long as I Breathe, I Hope, Trotsky’s My Life.

Sunday Telegraph, 25 July 1999: Michael Leidig and Karl Peter Kirk, Hungary’s Rebels Strike Back, victims of Stalinist repression in 1956 sue the Hungarian Socialist Party.

Spectator, 31 July 1999: Hugh Thomas, King’s Move, Tito and James Klugmann. See also Ian Fraser, Tito, Traitors and Treachery, in 14 August issue; David Turner, Communist in the SOE, in 21 August issue.

Socialism Today, July-August 1999: Manny Thain, New Art for a New Era, a Russian avant-garde art exhibition in London.

Independent, 3 August 1999: Anthony Summers, Tsar Secrets, the file on the Tsar’s death.

Guardian, 30 July 1999: Seumas Milne, Communists go to War with Captain Corelli, defending the wartime reputation of Greek Stalinism. See also Mike Parker, A Greek Tragedy, Observer, 8 August.

Informations ouvrières, 11 August 1999: Jean-Jacques Marie, Hommage à Léon Sedov.

Guardian, 13 August 1999: John Gittings, Preserving Mao Put Doctors in a Jam, Mao’s pickling in a pickle.

Guardian, 23 August 1999: Kate Connolly, Communist Leader’s Mausoleum Defies Attempt to Blow it Up, Dimitrov’s tomb still stands. See also Tomb Defies Democracy, Independent; Tough Tomb, Observer; Mausoleum Bomb, Sunday Times, all 22 August.

The Times, 31 August 1999: Michael Binyon, Stalin’s Return, memories of Stalin by his grandson.

Marxist Review, August 1999: Dave Wiltshire, The Importance of Lenin’s What Is To Be Done?.

The Times, 13 September 1999: “What a Fuss” Says the Old Spy Laughing Over a Cuppa, Melita Norwood’s father, Alexander Sirnis, translated Liebknecht’s Militarism and Anti-Militarism into English, along with works by Lenin and Trotsky.

The Times, 20 September 1999: Soviet Theory and Practice, German miners return disgruntled from the Soviet Union, from 20 September 1930 issue.

Sunday Times, 26 September 1999: Michael Sheridan, Mao’s Legacy Stirs Trouble for Beijing, the Mao cult endures.

Informations ouvrières, 29 September 1999: Glinski, Des Profondeurs du peuple Russe, a peasant describes the formation of the soviet in the Kuban gubernia.

Rouge, 30 September 1999: Pierre Rousset, La Chine ébranle le monde, the history of Red China.

Independent, 2 October 1999: Isabel Cook, Mao’s Words Were Unforgettable, the Chinese republic proclaimed, 1949.

The Times, 8 October 1999: Alice Lagnado, Moscow Court May Exonerate Beria.

Guardian, 9 October 1999: Special Reprint Issue, includes Revolution? Street Fighting in St Petersburg, 23 January 1905; The Revolt in Odessa, 8 August 1905; Days of Terror, 6 November 1905, the pogroms; Russia’s Parliament, 11 May 1906; Duma Dissolved by the Tsar, 17 July 1907.

Guardian, 12 October 1999: Nick Thorpe, Four in Court for Hungarian Uprising Massacre, István Dudas and his soldiers on trial for the Magyarovar massacre on 26 October 1956.

The Times, 12 October 1999: Mao’s Choice as Heir, a 56-part document nominating Jiang Qing.

Guardian, 16 October 1999: Special Reprint Issue, includes How the Bolsheviks Took the Winter Palace, 27 December 1917; The Tsar’s Death, 2 September 1918; An Interview With Lenin, 21 October 1919.

The Times, 18 October 1999: Trotskyist? Fascist? Racialist? – Many Guesses, Pravda blames Lee Harvey Oswald’s assassination of Kennedy on Trotskyism, from 18 October 1963 issue.

Independent, 19 October 1999: Stephen Castle, Nordic City Where Lenin First Met Stalin, the Lenin Museum in Tampere, Finland.

Informations ouvrières, 20 October 1999: André Morizet, Instruction, Alphabétisation; le gouvernement des Soviets au travail, early Soviet education.

Evening Standard, 22 October 1999: George Walden and Nikolai Bukharin, How One of Stalin’s Victims Cries Out from the Grave, Bukharin’s last letter to Stalin, plus introduction.

Guardian, 23 October 1999: Arthur Ransome, Death of Lenin, from 23 January 1924 issue.

Independent, 23 October 1999: Hungary’s Moment, photographs from the 1956 Revolution.

Socialist Worker, 23 October 1999: Hazel Croft, Lenin on the Revolutionary Paper.

Independent, 26 October 1999: Laurence Rees, When It Comes to Mass Murder, Stalin Had the Edge Over Hitler, the post-Second World War deportations.

The Times, 30 October 1999: Oliver August, Security Stepped Up to Protect Mao’s Tomb, defending Mao’s mummy from Falun Gongists.

Workers Liberty, October 1999: Sean Matgamna, The Fate of the Revolution; Jack Ranger, Where Did Chinese Stalinism Come From?, from New International, February 1949; Chris Reynolds, Rizzi Not a Device for Demonisation, Bruno Rizzi again.

Workers Power, October 1999: John McKee, Socialism in a “Backward” Country, Russia and the theory of Permanent Revolution; Colin Lloyd, A Workers’ Army Built From Scratch, the formation of the Red Army.

Sunday Telegraph, 7 November 1999: Marcus Warren, Collective Farm Girl as New Cash Cow, a steel statue once accused of resembling Trotsky.

Guardian, 8 November 1999: R.J. O’Hara Murray, Left Out, how the Guardian published reports by Malcolm Muggeridge and Gareth Jones on the Ukrainian famine in 1933.

Independent, 8 November 1999: Last of the Stalins Dies at 57, Stalin’s granddaughter dead.

Guardian, 13 November 1999: Special Reprint Issue, includes Victor Zorza, How Moscow Broke the News of Stalin’s Death, 7 March 1953; Hungary: Revolution and Soviet Tanks Crush Resistance, 5 November 1956.

Guardian, 20 November 1999: Special Reprint Issue, includes Victor Zorza, The Purgers Now Under Fire in Peking Struggle, 4 January 1967; China’s “Cultural Revolution” Continues, and Joseph Carroll, Paris Gripped by Insurrection, 25 May 1968.

The Times, 22 November 1999: Ben Hammersley, Changing Faces with a Pandora’s Box of Tricks, how Trotsky was removed from Soviet photographs.

Independent, 30 November 1999: Linton Chiswick, Retouched by the Hand of God, David King’s The Commissar Vanishes as a musical!

Workers Power, November 1999: Paul Morris, The Dress Rehearsal, 1905 in Russia.

The Marxist, November–December 1999: Valentina Tikhonova, Art and Life in the Gulag.

Weekly Worker, 2 December 1999: Gerry Downing, Permanent and National Revolution, the Bolshevik experience.

Guardian, 6 December 1999: Kate Connolly, Soviet Theme Park to House Fallen Idols, redundant Soviet statues in a park in Lithuania; Enver Hoxha’s Hour Returns, a surplus of watches depicting Hoxha.

Weekly Worker, 9 December 1999: Barry Biddulph, Trotsky, his struggle against Stalin.

Marxist Review, December 1999: Stuart Eames, Avant-Garde Art from the Russian Revolution, an exhibition at the Royal Academy of Arts; Dave Wiltshire, Lenin’s State and Revolution: Its Importance in 1917 and Today.

Workers Power, December 1999–January 2000: Kuldip Sandhu, The Russian Revolution of 1917.

Labour Movement

Prométhée, Fourth Quarter 1998: special issue on Rosa Luxemburg: Émile Fabrol, Le Socialisme un et indivisible, on her ideas; Marie Karman, La Révolution d’octobre 1917 et Rosa Luxemburg; Michel Vaysse, Notes introductive pour un projet d’étude sur L’imperialsme; Raymond Deborde, Parti et masses: Luxemburg contre Lénine en 1905; Jean-Jacques Karmon, J’étais, Je suis, Je serai!, ou l’originalité de Rosa; Yannicke Villars, Militante et femme: ou parcourant les lettres de Rosa Luxemburg; plus an extract from Luxemburg’s speech to the founding congress of the German Communist Party.

Workers Action, January–February 1999: Nick Davies, Fighting Against Catastrophism, introduction to the Revolutionary Communist Party’s critique of the Fourth International’s 1946 perspectives, and the RCP’s amendments.

Independent, 21 March 1999: Imre Karacs, Row Over Grave of Revolutionary Rudi, Rudi Dutschke’s memorial threatened by developers.

La Commune, March 1999: Jean-Yves Lesage, Du côte de chez Marx, du côte de chez Freud.

The Times, 16 April 1999: Marchers Fight Police, 72 Held, a CND march, from 16 April 1963 issue.

The Times, 19 April 1999: The Cost of a Strike, AJ Cook warns of the consequences of a general strike, from 19 April 1926 issue.

Informations Ouvrières, 21 April 1999: Nicole Bossut, L’Humanité, de Jean Juarès à aujord’hui, L’Humanité from Juarès to the French Stalinists daily, continued in 27 April issue.

Workers Liberty, April 1999: Boris Souvarine, Remaking Socialism, part 1, the crisis of the Second International during the First World War; part 2 in June issue.

The Times, 12 May 1999: The Peace of Frankfurt, the Paris Commune, from 12 May 1871 issue.

Against the Current (USA), May–June 1999: Paul LeBlanc, The Passions of Rosa Luxemburg. (Whatever next, Rosa Luxemburg: The Lesbian Years?)

International Review, Second Quarter 1999: 1920: The Programme of the KAPD; The Communist Left and the Growing Conflict Between the Russian State and the Interests of the World Revolution.

News and Letters (USA), June 1999: Raya Dunayevskaya, A Restatement of Some Fundamentals of Marxism Against “Pseudo-Marxism”, a polemic against Joseph Carter, from the Workers Party Internal Bulletin, March 1944.

New Interventions, Spring 1999: Annelies Laschitza, Rosa Luxemburg and the Socialist Movement; Leo Jogiches, A Letter from Prison, from September 1918.

Socialist Worker, 3 July 1999: Albert Einstein’s Socialist principles, extract from a Monthly Review article, 1949.

Guardian, 7 July 1999: What Children Should Be Watching, the British Film Institute recommends Land and Freedom as a fit vehicle for historical study. See Cathy Bazalgette, Out of Focus, for the BFI’s denial, in 9 July issue.

Informations ouvrières, 7 July 1999: À l’aube du siècle, le 1 Mai, Fourmiés, a demonstration for an eight-hour day fired on in 1891.

Guardian, 9 July 1999: Jamie Wilson, Art Rallies Spain’s Republic, posters from the Civil War. See also Bill Alexander, On Display, in 13 August issue. (Alexander omits to say what his Stalinist pals were doing to the CNT/FAI, two of whose posters are displayed.)

Informations ouvrières, 21 July 1999: Pour tous les producteurs, la propriété commune des moyens de production, French Socialist Party’s 1910 manifesto.

Socialist Worker, 24 July 1999: Hassan Mahamdallie, All In It Together Against Fascism?, the Second World War.

Informations ouvrières, 28 July 1999: J.A. Pozo, Espagne 19 Juillet 1936: La Révolution contre le fascisme.

Marxist Review, July 1999: Dave Wiltshire, Eighty Years Ago: 1919 – A Year of Revolutionary Convulsions.

Socialist Review, July–August 1999: Ian Birchall, Leipzig, 13 August 1871, the birth of Karl Liebknecht.

Observer, 8 August 1999: Nigel Williams, And Then We Grew Up, predictable memories of 1968.

Freedom, 21 August 1999: Steve Cullen, Some More Thoughts on Spain, was it military inferiority or Stalinist sabotage that lost the Civil War?

Informations ouvrières, 11 August 1999: Jean Juarès, Affaire Dreyfus: le Combat de Juarès.

Informations ouvrières, 18 August 1999: Roger Martin du Gard, Été 1914: la guerre n’était pas fatale, the anti-war demonstration of 27 July 1914.

The Times, 7 September 1999: Joanna Hunter, Suffragette Protest Ends with Cup of Tea, the release of Sylvia Pankhurst from jail in 1921 (not for suffragettism). See also Richard Pankhurst, Pankhurst’s Pacifism, The Times, 14 September.

Informations ouvrières, 8 September 1999: Pierre Roy, Les conférences socialistes internationales de Zimmerwald (1915) et de Kienthal (1916).

Rouge, 9 September 1999: Claude Weill, Rosa Luxemburg et la question nationale.

The Times, 14 September 1999: Joanna Hunter, How Industrial Strife Gripped the Nation, the General Strike of 1926.

Guardian, 16 September 1999: Gary Younge, When the Party’s Over..., happy days in the Communist Party. See also Robert Hunter, John Spencer and Charlie Van Gelderen, Old Communists, For and Against, in 18 September issue.

Sunday Times, 26 September 1999: Matthew Campbell, Reagan Was “Too Dim” to be a Red Under the Bed, Ronald Reagan’s failed attempt to join the US Communist Party.

Weekly Worker, 30 September 1999: István Mészáros, Communism is no Utopia, Marxism and utopianism.

Action for Solidarity, September 1999: Cath Fletcher, Educating the Militants, a history of the National Council of Labour Colleges.

Marxist Review, September 1999: William Westwell, The Working Class, Trades Unions and Revolution.

Socialist Review, September 1999: John Charlton, London, 28 September 1864, the founding of the First International.

Workers Liberty, September 1999: Eric Lee, An End to “Lost Texts”, Shachtmanism on-line; Sean Matgamna, Introduction to Hal Draper on Bruno Rizzi; Hal Draper, Anatomy of the Rizzi Myth and Bruno Rizzi as Pro-Fascist.

International Socialism, Summer 1999: John Rees, The Socialist Revolution and the Democratic Revolution.

The Times, 7 October 1999: Streets Blocked With Traffic, aftermath of the 1919 railway strike, from 7 October 1919 issue.

Guardian, 9 October 1999: Special Reprint Issue, includes A New Labour Party, 28 February 1900; Dreyfus: Complete Exoneration at Last, 13 July 1906; Murderers’ Siege in London, 4 January 1911, the Sydney Street siege.

Sunday Telegraph, 10 October 1999: Justin Webster, Anti-Franco Fighters Demand a Pension, Valencia Civil War heroes fight on.

The Times, 19 October 1999: The Police and the Mob, unemployed demonstrations and the law, from 19 October 1887 issue.

Guardian, 23 October 1999: Special Reprint Issue, includes Communists Routed at Southport, 29 March 1921, Independent Labour Party conference; An Electoral Bombshell, 25 October 1924, the Zinoviev Letter; General Strike To Go On, 4 May 1926; End of the General Strike, 13 May 1926.

Guardian, 25 October 1999: Jonathan Jones, Revolutionary Reading Rooms, state funding for the Marx Memorial Library.

Guardian, 30 October 1999: Special Reprint Issue, includes Civil War in Spain: Rising in Malaga, from 12 August 1936 issue; Prisoners Shot as Reprisals for Air Raids, from 31 August 1936 issue, including slanders that Anarchists worked as Fascist agents.

Action for Solidarity, October 1999: Max Shachtman, The Democratic Workers’ Revolution, a speech from 1948.

Socialist Outlook, October 1999: When Social Democracy Turned its Back on Internationalism, the Second International’s anti-war manifesto of 1912.

Workers Liberty, October 1999: Ted Crawford, Finishing Touch on the Winter War, Trotskyists and the Finnish Winter War.

World Revolution, October 1999: The Development of the Left in the Social Democratic Federation; Cajo Brendel Meetings in Germany: Defending the Heritage of the Communist Left.

The Times, 5 November 1999: The Socialists and Lord Mayor’s Day, a Social Democratic Federation manifesto, from 5 November 1886 issue.

Guardian, 22 November 1999: Stephen Moss, A Great, Brave Soldier, an attempt to salvage Stalinism’s reputation in the Spanish Civil War.

Workers International Press, November 1999: Dot Gibson, Struggle in Britain for the Fourth International, John Archer’s career as a Trotskyist.

World Revolution, November 1999: The Friends of Durruti: Lessons of an Incomplete Break with Anarchism; Discussions on Revolutionary Organisation, defending Left Communist abstentionism in the Spanish Civil War.

International Review, Third Quarter 1999: Germany 1923: The Bourgeoisie Inflicts a Decisive Defeat.

International Socialism, Autumn 1999: Andy Durgan, Freedom Fighters or Comintern Army: The International Brigades in Spain.

New Interventions, Autumn 1999: Aleksander Golub, Balkan Federation; Theodor Bergmann, Rosa Luxemburg and Isaac Deutscher.

1917, no. 21, 1999: Tom Riley, Marxism and the General Strike.

What Next?, no. 13, 1999: Eva Eisenschitz, A German Communist in the Spanish Civil War; Ernie Haberkern, Two Notes, Victor Serge and Max Shachtman; Hal Draper, The ABC of National Liberation Movements; Mike Jones, Rosa Luxemburg on Lenin’s Concept of the Party; August Thalheimer, Strategy and Tactics of the Communist International: What Are Transitional Slogans?.

What Next?, no. 14, 1999: Jim Higgins, Locusts, Cankerworms, Caterpillars and Palmerworms Will Get You if You Don’t Watch Out, a history of the left; Bob Pitt, Red Flag Over St Pancras.


News and Letters (USA), January–February 1999: Raya Dunayevskaya, Rough Notes on Hegel’s Science of Logic, part one; parts two, three and four in March, April and May issues.

Independent, 3 April 1999: Plot to Kill Mussolini, an Italian businessman, a friend of George Orwell, Sylvia Pankhurst and Ramsay MacDonald, who supported an Anarchist assassination attempt.

The Times, 8 April 1999: Edward Welsh, Paine’s Gain?, calls for a statue of Tom Paine.

Informations Ouvrières, 14 April 1999: Deir el-Medineh, la première grève, the royal tomb workers go on strike, year 29 of Ramesses III.

Independent, 30 April 1999: Roy Sherwood, Oliver Cromwell, King Without a Crown.

Marxist Review, April 1999: William Westwell, Engels’ Dialectics of Nature and the Natural Sciences Today.

The Times, 22 May 1999: Roger Boyes, Actress Gets Full Marx in Style, Marx’s granddaughter.

Workers Liberty, June 1999: Raymond Challinor, Secret Diplomacy in Wartime; Janine Booth, Women in the Irish Nationalist Movement, 1900–1916.

Workers Action, June–July 1999: Al Richardson, Nation and Class in the Balkans.

Weekly Worker, 8 July 1999: Gerry Downing, Storming Heaven, John Toland, a seventeenth century Irish pantheist materialist.

News and Letters, July 1999: Kevin Anderson, New Life for Marx’s Works, good news about the MEGA.

Guardian, 9 August 1999: Paul Webster, Idle Streak in the French Constitution, Paul Lafargue’s influence in France.

The Times, 29 August 1999: A.M. Lee, Riding to War, Engels and fox-hunting.

Independent, 20 September 1999: Reverend Rod Garner, Marx and Religion.

Independent, 1 October 1999: Marx Voted Greatest Thinker. See also John Ezard, Cyber Poll Makes Marx Brain of the Millenium, Guardian, 1 October; Hazel Croft, Karl Marx: Man of the Millenium, Socialist Worker, 16 October.

Guardian, 2 October 1999: Chris Jones, Who Said What When, Marx’s debt to Heine.

Sunday Telegraph, 3 October 1999: David Sexton, Karl Marx was a Man, wireless debate including Francis Wheen and Beatrix Campbell. See also P. Wright, Francis Wheen, Bea Campbell, Paul Hirst, David McLellan and Eric Hobsbawm, Will Marx Wither Away?, Independent, 10 October.

Observer, 24 October 1999: Mark Barks, Full Marx, Marx as a thinker.

Workers Liberty, October 1999: Ted Crawford, Spies and Renegades, the saga of Stewart Kirby.

International Socialism, Autumn 1999: Judy Cox, Dreams of Equality: The Levelling Poor of the English Revolution.

Workers Power, December 1999–January 2000: Warren Gropper, Rivera’s Brush with Revolution.


Rodney Allen, Threshold of Terror: The Last Hours of the Monarchy in the French Revolution: reviewed by Antonia Fraser, The Final Cut, Sunday Times, 4 July 1999.

Robert Brenner, Trotsky: An Introduction: reviewed by José Villa, Trotsky: A Mis-Introduction, In Defence of Marxism, Summer–Autumn 1999.

Nikolai Bukharin, How It All Began: reviewed by Phil Sharpe, Time to Forgive, Weekly Worker, 25 November 1999.

Simon Burgess, Stafford Cripps: A Political Life: reviewed by Paul Foot, Labour’s Fantastic Idea – Socialism, Guardian, 27 November 1999.

Norah Carlin, The Causes of the English Civil War: reviewed by Brian Manning, Revisionism Revised, International Socialism, Spring 1999.

Tony Cliff, Trotskyism After Trotsky: reviewed by Ray Athow, In Defence of Trotskyism: A Reply to the Anti-Marxist SWP, Marxist Review, April 1999; Paul Hampton, Trotskyism After Trotsky? C’est Moi!, Workers Liberty, April.

Robert Conquest, Reflections on a Ravaged Century: reviewed by Noel Malcolm, He Was Right All Along, Sunday Telegraph, 17 October 1999; Anne Applebaum, Authoritarian Fanatics and Useful Idiots, Evening Standard, 8 November; Orlando Figes, How to Fight Evil in a Balance, The Times, 25 November.

Stephane Courtois, The Black Book of Communism: reviewed by Orlando Figes, How to Fight Evil in a Balance, The Times, 25 November 1999.

Yvan Craipeau, Un Dinosaur trotskyste: reviewed by François Olivier, Un Dinosaur trotskyste?, Rouge, 29 July 1999.

Culture and Revolution in the Thought of Leon Trotsky (Revolutionary History, Volume 7, no. 2): reviewed by Geraldine Drayton and Warren Gropper, Marxism and Culture, Workers Power, July–August 1999.

M. Davis, Sylvia Pankhurst: reviewed by Lynne Hubbard, Women’s Rights and Revolution, Socialist Worker, 21 August 1999.

Sheila Fitzpatrick, Everyday Stalinism: Ordinary Life in Extraordinary Times, Soviet Russia in the 1930s: reviewed by Abraham Brumberg, Back in the USSR, Nation (USA), 23 August 1999.

Gérard Floche, Histoire sans Fin, memoirs of a French Trotskyist, reviewed by Francis Sitel, Histoire et ruptures, Critique Communiste, Winter 1999.

François Furet, The Passing of an Illusion: reviewed by Tariq Ali, Marx From the Past, The Times, 10 June 1999; Edward Skidelsky, For the Love of Stalin, New Statesman, 26 July; Robin Blackburn, Revolution in a French Accent, Independent, 7 August; Terry Eagleton, Look Left, Look Right, Observer, 8 August.

J. Arch Getty and Oleg Naumov, The Road to Terror: Stalin and the Self-Destruction of the Bolsheviks, 1932–1939: reviewed by John Crosland, Uncle Joe’s Killing Fields, Sunday Times, 7 November 1999; Robert Service, Stalin’s Need for Terror, Evening Standard, 8 November; Anne Applebaum, The Whole, Terrible Truth, Sunday Telegraph, 5 December.

Gabriel Gorodetsky, Grand Delusion: Stalin and the German Invasion of Russia: reviewed by Niall Ferguson, The Surprise of Stalin’s Life, Sunday Telegraph, 11 July 1999.

Fred Halliday, Revolution and World Politics: reviewed by Robert Service, Never Underestimate the Power of a Revolution, Independent, 10 November 1999.

Chris Harman, A People’s History of the World: reviewed by John Molyneux, Living in a Material World, Socialist Review, October 1999; Mark Steel, Socialist Worker, 13 November; Jeremy Dewar, The Dynamics of History, Workers Power, December 1999–January 2000.

Jonathan Haslam, The Vices of Integrity: E.H. Carr, 1892-–1982: reviewed by Noel Malcolm, History Served Chilled, Sunday Telegraph, 1 August 1999; Robert Service, Stalin’s English Gentleman, Independent, 7 August; Jonathan Steele, Spirit of Contradiction, Guardian, 28 August.

Eric Hobsbawm, Revolutionaries: reviewed by Lilian Pizzichini, Revolutionaries, Independent, 12 December 1999.

Gerald Howson, Arms For Spain: reviewed by Dave Murray, Arms for Spain, Socialism Today, May 1999.

Bill Hunter, A Lifelong Apprenticeship: reviewed by Greg Dropkin, A Lifelong Apprenticeship, Socialist Voice, September 1999.

Maurice Kriegel-Valriment, Mémoires rebelles, memoirs of a French Stalinist Resistance fighter: reviewed by Francis Sitel, Maîtrise et rébellion, Critique Communiste, Winter 1999; Eric Lafon, Mémoires rebelles, Rouge, 30 September.

Keith Laybourn, The General Strike Day By Day: reviewed by M.B., The 1926 General Strike, Marxist Review, August 1999; Phil Turner, Socialist Review, November.

Keith Laybourn and Dylan Murphy, Under the Red Flag: A History of Communism in Britain: reviewed by Geoffrey Wheatcroft, The Red Dawn that Never Broke, Sunday Telegraph, 22 August 1999; Mike Driver, A History of the Communist Party of Great Britain, Marxist Review, September; Chris Bambery, Why the Party Had to Stop, Socialist Review, September.

Pulsara Liyanage, Vivi, biography of Vivienne Goonewardena: reviewed by Regi Siriwardena, A Biography With Many Virtues, Sunday Observer (Sri Lanka), 28 March 1999.

Michael Löwy, Fatherland or Mother Earth?: reviewed by Joe Auciello, International Viewpoint, September 1999.

Ernest Mandel, The Marxism of Ernest Mandel: reviewed by Francis Sitel, International Viewpoint, April 1999.

Brian Manning, The Far Left in the English Revolution, 1640–1660: reviewed by Judy Cox, Dreams of Equality, International Socialism, Autumn 1999.

Jean-Jacques Marie, Le Goulag: reviewed by Gérard Longuy, Le Goulag, Informations ouvrières, 12 May 1999.

Roger Martelli, Le Communisme autrement, on French Stalinism: reviewed by Michael Löwy, Le Communisme autrement, Critique Communiste, Winter 1999; François Fevrette, Le Communisme autrement, Prométhée, Fourth Quarter 1998.

Sean Matgamna, The Fate of the Russian Revolution: reviewed by Jim Smith, Part of Our History, International Socialist Forum, May–June 1999; The Lost Marxism of Critical Trotskyists, International Communist, Spring 1999.

Jane McDermid and Anna Millyar, Midwives of the Revolution: Female Bolsheviks and Women Workers in 1917: reviewed by A.A., Women Workers in the Industrial Revolution, Marxist Review, November 1999.

Louise Michel, La Commune: Histoire et souvenirs, an Anarchist account: reviewed by Gérard Longuy, La Commune, Informations ouvrières, 10 March 1999.

Paul Preston, ¡Comrades!: Portraits From the Spanish Civil War: reviewed by Geoffrey Wheatcroft, A Call to Arms, Sunday Times, 11 April 1999; Michael Portillo, When Spain Turned on Itself, Sunday Telegraph, same date; Adam Hopkins, Moderates in a Time of Extremes, Independent, 23 April; Frank McLynn, A Killer Afraid of the Dentist, Independent, 25 April; Saul David, The Reins in Spain, The Times, 1 May; Michael Frost, Good Chap, Franco, Rode to Hounds, Didn’t He?, Observer, 2 May; John Newsinger, Not In the Picture, Socialist Review, September 1999.

Morgan Phillips Price, Dispatches From the Weimar Republic: reviewed by Ray Athow, Revolutionary Events in Germany, Marxist Review, September 1999.

Tom Reilly, Cromwell: An Honourable Enemy: reviewed by Ruth Dudley Edwards, The Good Soldier, Sunday Times, 23 May 1999.

Vadim Rogovin, 1937: Stalin’s Year of Terror: reviewed by Megan Trudell, Bookmarks, Autumn 1999.

Tauno Saarela and Kimmo Rentola, Communism: National and International: reviewed by Mike Jones, New Interventions, Autumn 1999.

Dave Sherry, John Maclean: reviewed by Bob Pitt, The Socialist Workers Party and the Legacy of John Maclean, What Next?, no. 13, 1999.

Roy Sherwood, Cromwell: reviewed by Brian Manning, The Monarchy and the Military, Socialist Review, September 1999.

Philip Short, Mao: A Life: reviewed by John Simpson, Long March to Mass Murder, Sunday Telegraph, 14 November 1999; Martin Booth, The Last Emperor, Sunday Times, same date; Morris Rossabi, Mao’s Inexplicable Rise, The Times, 18 November; Nigel Harris, The Great Mao Mystery, Guardian, 27 November.

Jonathan Spence, Mao: reviewed by John Simpson, Long March to Mass Murder, Sunday Telegraph, 14 November 1999; Morris Rossabi, Mao’s Inexplicable Rise, The Times, 18 November; Nigel Harris, The Great Mao Mystery, Guardian, 27 November.

Manfred Steger and Terell Carver, Engels After Marx: reviewed by William Westwell, The Partnership of Marx and Engels, Marxist Review, December 1999.

Sergei Stepanov, Fotanka 16: The Tsar’s Secret Police: reviewed by Norman Stone, The Secret Policeman’s Hall, Sunday Times, 18 July 1999.

Dmitri Volkogonov, The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Empire: reviewed by S.B., Sunday Times, 16 May 1999.

Dmitri Volkogonov, Trotsky: The Eternal Revolutionary: reviewed by Stan Crooke, Trotsky Returns from Exile, Workers Liberty, September 1999.

Francis Wheen, Karl Marx: reviewed by Noel Malcolm, Marxism, But Not at Home, Sunday Telegraph, 26 September 1999; Neil Tennant, Diary, Independent, 1 October; Terry Eagleton, Nothing to Lose But His Change, Observer, 3 October; Asa Briggs, He Still Makes His Marx, The Times, 7 October; Paul Foot, Cheers, Mr Revolution, Guardian, 9 October; Kiernan Ryan, More Tristram Shandy Than Little Red Book, Independent, 10 October; Norman Stone, Man of the People, Sunday Times, 10 October; The Loafer, Guardian, 23 October; Clive Bradley, Thinker of the Millenium, Action for Solidarity, October; Sam Ashman, Socialist Review, October; Corin Redgrave, Carbuncles and All, The Marxist, November–December; Derwent May, Convents, Communism and Careers, The Times, 3 December; Geoff Ryan, Rescuing Marx from Ignorant “Modernisers”, Socialist Outlook, Winter 1999; Mark Abram, The Man Behind the Movement, Workers Power, December 1999–January 2000. See also Francis Wheen, Blood, Sweat and Carbuncles, Guardian, 2 October, and The First Marx Brother, Observer, 3 October; and letters in the Guardian by Levent Oszagatay and Stephen Kennedy-Jones, 4 October; Jim Buck, Oliver Thornton, Karl Heath and Ray Chalker, 5 October; M Chrysanthou, 11 October.

Zygmunt Zaremba, The Warsaw Commune: reviewed by Jørgen Lund, Den glemte kommune, Arbejderhistorie (Denmark), no. , 1999.


Jim Allen, radical film director: Ken Loach, Jim Allen, Guardian, 25 June 1999; Sean Matgamna, The Flawed Bard of the Working Class, Action for Solidarity, 2 July; Kenneth Trodd, Jim Allen, Independent, 6 July; Jim Allen, The Times, 7 July; Brian Behan, Jim Allen, Independent, 16 July; Ken Loach, Jim Allen: He Changed Our Lives, Marxist Review, July; Some Afterthoughts on Jim Allen and Spain, Freedom, 7 August.

Daniel Barsony, French Trotskyist and International Brigade member: Daniel Bensaid, Daniel Barsony, Rouge, 30 September 1999.

Lucienne Bloch, French Trotskyist since 1938, wife of Gérard Bloch, and Diego Rivera’s assistant: Nick Caistor, Lucienne Bloch, Independent, 3 April 1999; Lucienne Bloch (1912–1999), Informations ouvrières, 22 September.

Mark Bracegirdle, Socialist pioneer in Sri Lanka: Wesley Muthiah, Mark Bracegirdle, Guardian, 16 July 1999; Traitor to Imperialism, International Viewpoint, October; Wesley Muthiah, Mark Anthony Lyster Bracegirdle, What Next?, no. 4.

Bill Carritt, Stalinist functionary: Bill Carritt, The Times, 28 May 1999.

Staff Cottman: Donald Bateman, “Staff” Cottman, Guardian, 29 September 1999; David Keys, Stafford Cottman, Independent, 3 November.

John Foster, Stalinist engineering union official; Ken Gill, John Foster, Guardian, 9 July 1999.

Jules Fourrier, veteran French Trotskyist: Graine rouge, Rouge, 9 September 1999; Guillaume Bourgeois, Hommage à Jules Fourrier; Au revoir “Graine rouge”, Critique communiste, Autumn.

Alberto Gironella, Mexican surrealist, denounced by the Stalinists as a Trotskyist: Alberto Gironella, The Times, 19 August 1999; Adrian Dannat, Alberto Gironella, Independent, 3 September.

Jacques Hassoun, Egyptian Socialist Zionist who joined the Trotskyists from the French Communist Party in 1968: Michel Lequenne, Jacques Hassoun (1936–1999), Rouge, 29 April 1999; Michel Lequenne, Jacques Hassoun (1936–1999), Critique Communiste, Spring.

András Hegedus, Hungarian Stalinist Premier who called in Soviet troops in 1956: Pro-Soviet Leader Dies, The Times, 26 October 1999; Gabriel Partos, András Hegedus, Independent, 28 October; Matyas Sarkozi, András Hegedus, Guardian, 12 November.

Pierre Henger, French Trotskyist: Pierre Henger, Informations ouvrières, 5 May 1999.

Baruch Hirson: Paul Trewhela, Baruch Hirson, Independent, 5 October 1999; Tom Lodge and Ian Hunter, Baruch Hirson, Guardian, 19 October.

Nadezhda Joffe, daughter of Adolf Joffe: Helen Holyard, A Socialist Opponent of Stalinism, Workers Liberty, September 1999.

Yvonne Kapp, Stalinist, biographer of Eleanor Marx: Eric Hobsbawm, Yvonne Kapp, Guardian, 29 June 1999 (see also correction in 30 June issue and letter from George Matthews in 23 July issue); Matthew McFall, Yvonne Kapp, Independent, 1 July; Yvonne Kapp, The Times, 2 August; Lindsey German, Marxism in Vogue, Socialist Review, September.

Jacques Kergoat, French Trotskyist: Alain Krivine, Jacques Kergoat, Rouge, 2 September 1999; Douglas Johnson, Jacques Kergoat, Independent, 24 August; Hommage à Jacques Kergoat, Critique communiste, Autumn.

Chris Law, minor British Stalinist: Bill Ronksley, Chris Law, Guardian, 21 August 1999.

Dmitri Likhachev, Russian medieval historian and former Gulag inmate: Faith Wigsell, Dmitri Likhachev, Guardian, 1 October 1999; Harry Shukman, Dmitri Likhachev, Independent, 5 October.

Maurice Najman, French Trotskyist, leader of school students in 1968: Bernard Schalscha and Gérard Gryzbeck, Maurice Najman, Critique Communiste, Winter 1999.

Jiri Pelikan, Prague Spring leader: Kate Connolly, Jiri Pelikan, Guardian, 30 June 1999; Jiri Pelikan, The Times, 16 July.

Lev Razgan, Soviet writer and former Gulag inmate: Kathy and Geoffrey Murrell, Lev Razgan, Guardian, 14 September 1999.

Louis Rigaudias: Hommage à Louis Rigaudias, Rouge, 16 September 1999.

Ramón Rubial, Spanish Socialist leader before and during Franco years: Ramón Rubial, The Times, 27 May 1999; Elizabeth Nash, Ramón Rubial, Independent, 2 June; Paul Haywood, Ramón Rubial Caria, Guardian, 8 June.

Philip Samson, Anarchist who led the occupation of the Cuban embassy in 1959 in response to the treatment of the Cuban Anarchists: John Pilgrim, Philip Samson, Independent, 3 November 1999; Donald Rum, Philip Samson, Guardian, 15 November; Philip Samson, The Times, 19 November.

Sal Santen, Dutch Trotskyist: Sal Santen (1915–1998), Workers Action, June–July 1999.

Béla Szász, Hungarian Stalinist, preparer of show trial of Csornolay and then victim of Rajk trial: Gabriel Partos, Béla Szász, Guardian, 9 July 1999; George Gomöri, Béla Szász, Independent, 22 July.

Martha Van Wyk, Namibian Trotskyist: Hewat Beukes, A Dauntless Fighter Dies, Workers International Press, May 1999.

Jan Zilliacus, British Socialist, widow of Konni Zilliacus: Chris Gray, Jan Zilliacus, New Interventions, Autumn 1999.

Updated by ETOL: 4.10.2011