National Democratic Front of the Philippines

Guide for Establishing the People’s Democratic Government


Written by: National Democratic Front;
Published: October 1972;
Source: Website of the NDFP;
Markup: Simoun Magsalin;
Copyright: No specific copyrights.


Article 1. The People’s Democratic Government is led by the proletariat and is based on the toiling masses of the proletariat and the peasantry. It has at the same time a united front character, with all democratic classes, including the petty bourgeoisie, the national bourgeoisie and others, supporting it and participating in it.

Article 2. The People’s Democratic Government shall adopt all policies and carry out all measures which are necessary to bring victory to the people’s democratic revolution against US imperialism, feudalism and bureaucrat capitalism. These policies and measures shall cover the political, economic, military, cultural and all other spheres of popular activity and shall pave the way for the establishment of a people’s democratic republic embracing the entire country.

Article 3. The system of the People’s Democratic Government shall be based on the principle of democratic centralism. Individuals are subordinate to the government and general welfare; the minority is subordinate to the majority; the lower level is subordinate to the higher level of government. Functionaries of the government shall either be elected by popular vote or be appointed according to law.


Chapter I
The Central People’s Government

Article 1. The National People’s Congress shall be the highest governmental organ of the People’s Democratic Government. It shall formulate and issue the necessary proclamation and laws to govern and shall delegate its authority to the Supreme People’s Council which it shall elect.

Article 2. The National People’s Congress shall be composed of delegates elected by the conference of the provincial people’s governments and other leading representatives of democratic classes, parties and groups that may be recommended by the National Democratic Front and approved by the delegates of the provincial people’s government.

Article 3. The National People’s Congress shall be called as soon as possible after the liberation of a considerable part of the country or after the nationwide victory of the revolution.

Article 4. The National People’s Congress or the Supreme People’s Council shall create the necessary central organs and ministries of the People’s Democratic Government.

Article 5. The National Democratic Front shall make recommendations regarding the reorganization and retention of personnel under the People’s Democratic Government.

Chapter II
The Local Organs of Government

Article 1. The basic unit of the People’s Democratic Government shall be the barrio people’s government. The highest authority at this level shall belong to the general meeting of the barrio people called either to elect the barrio revolutionary committee or the organizing committee or to discuss policies and projects undertaken by either committee.

Article 2. Between the general meetings of the barrio people, the highest governmental authority in a barrio in a stable base area shall be the barrio revolutionary committee or in a guerrilla zone, the barrio organizing committee. Either committee shall elect its officials from its own ranks. A barrio organizing committee shall cease to exist whenever a barrio revolutionary committee shall have been elected.

Article 3. The barrio revolutionary committee shall take general charge of all organizational, educational, economic, defense, cultural and health work in a barrio; implement land reform program; organize the people’s militia; participate in the work of the people’s court; collect taxes and voluntary contributions; and give all possible support to the revolutionary cause.

Article 4. Five subcommittees on organization, education, economy, defense and health shall definitely be established under the barrio revolutionary committee and as much as possible under the barrio organizing committee.

  1. The subcommittee on organization shall take charge of creating and coordinating the mass organizations like those of peasants, workers, fishermen, merchants, youth, women, teachers, children and cultural activists.
  2. The subcommittee on education shall take charge of developing revolutionary class consciousness, administering the schools (elementary schools and mass schoolings) and promoting various types of cultural activities.
  3. The subcommittee on the economy shall take charge of the implementation of land reform, production and cooperation; and collection of taxes and voluntary contributions for the support of the People’s Democratic Government and the New People’s Army.
  4. The subcommittee on defense shall take charge of organizing the barrio people’s militia, keeping internal public order and security, and combating the people’s enemies in coordination with the New People’s Army.
  5. The subcommittee on health shall take charge of public hygiene, local medical work and transport of the sick and wounded to medical stations or clinics.

Article 5. Above the barrio people’s government shall be the municipal, district and provincial levels of local government. People’s conferences shall be held at these higher levels of local government to determine policies and plans, enact rules and regulations of local application, examine reports of the various governmental organs and elect people’s councils after deciding on the appropriate number of council members.

Article 6. Delegates to the municipal people’s conference shall include officials of the barrio revolutionary committee and the barrio organizing committees. Delegates to the district people’s conference shall include the chairman and vice-chairmen of the people’s municipal councils. Delegates to the provincial people’s conference shall include the entire or main part of the people’s district councils.

The number of delegates as well as the time for a conference shall be decided by the people’s council immediately responsible for such conference. These shall be subject to the approval of a higher people’s council, except in the case of provincial people’s conference before which the provincial people’s council shall seek the approval of the Central People’s Government or its current and effective equivalent.

Article 7. The people’s council shall be responsible for governmental leadership and shall be the executive organ in its defined territory. Every people’s council shall elect among its members a chairman and five vice-chairmen responsible for mass organizations, education, economy, defense and health. Plenary council meetings shall be held as often as necessary. However the chairman and the vice-chairmen shall compose themselves into a standing committee of the people’s council and administer affairs on a collective basis and in accordance with decisions of the plenary council meetings.

Article 8. The term of office of the barrio revolutionary committees or barrio organizing committees and people’s councils at every level shall normally be four years, unless a higher people’s council or conference decides otherwise or the people make a petition that results in the dissolution and replacement of a council or committee. A committee or council may make appointments whenever vacancies arise in its ranks. These appointments shall be subject to the approval of a higher committee or council.

Article 9. National minorities shall be entitled to autonomy in provinces, districts, municipalities or barrios where they are in the majority. Autonomous governments shall be adapted to the wishes of the majority of the people of the nationality or nationalities but shall conform basically to the system of government herein presented. In areas where they are in the minority, the national minorities shall be entitled to proportionate representation in conferences and councils, with no prejudice to their representatives assuming positions higher than those held by others.

Article 10. All local organs of government, from the barrio to the provincial level, shall be established under the guidance of a higher political authority that has prior existence and with due regard to the need for maintaining the united front.

Chapter III
The People’s Court

Article 1. The Central People’s Democratic Government shall create the Supreme People’s Court as the highest judicial authority. The People’s Democratic Government may also create special courts as may be required by special circumstances.

Article 2. The provincial, district, municipal and barrio people’s governments shall create people’s courts at their respective levels. In minor and simple cases, there shall be a panel of at least three judges. In major and complex cases especially those involving the death penalty, there shall be a panel of at least nine judges.

Article 3. The people’s court shall require specification of charges and sufficient investigation of the case prior to trial and shall always inquire into the side of the complainant as well as the accused. The opposite sides of any case shall be given ample hearing and shall be entitled to counsel as well as the presentation of witnesses and evidence.

Article 4. Trials shall ordinarily be held in public, with anyone from the ranks of the people free to stand up and give his opinion on the case. Whenever necessary, the people’s court shall seek the assistance of any pertinent organ of the People’s Democratic Government in order to shed light on the issue at bar.

Article 5. Decision on every case shall be arrived at through the process of voting among the judges. Each judge shall explain his vote to his colleagues. Ordinarily, a case may be decided by a simple majority of votes. However, a clear two-thirds majority shall be necessary in decisions meting out the death penalty. All decisions shall be announced and explained through the presiding judge.

Article 6. The decision of a lower people’s court shall be appealable to a higher people’s court. However, a people’s court may accept a motion for reconsideration of its own decision. Cases involving the death penalty shall be automatically on appeal to the highest political or judicial authority in a region and if possible shall be automatically referred to the Supreme People’s Court or its current and effective equivalent.

Part III
Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens

Article 1. All citizens are equal before the law and are therefore entitled to equal rights.

Article 2. Citizens who have reached the age of eighteen have the right to vote and stand for election irrespective of sex, race, nationality, occupation, social origin, property status, education, religious belief, or length of residence. Only insane persons and persons declared by law as enemies of the people shall be excluded from this right.

Article 3. Citizens have the right to exercise the freedom of speech, freedom of association and assembly in order to advance the revolutionary cause of the toiling masses. The facilities necessary for the enjoyment of these freedoms shall be made available to citizens.

Article 4. Citizens have the right to enjoy the freedom of conscience and religious worship.

Article 5. Freedom of the person of citizens is inviolable. No citizen may be arrested without sufficient legal basis.

Article 6. The homes of citizens are inviolable and privacy of correspondence is protected by law. Citizens are entitled to the freedom of domicile and the freedom to change residence.

Article 7. Citizens have the right to work, to enjoy better working and living conditions, to have personal property and to keep, use or invest personal savings according to law. They also have the right to rest and leisure and the benefit of common welfare funds, social insurance, retirement pension and the like that shall materialize under the People’s Democratic Government. The agrarian revolution and the nationalization of the economy are undertaken to change the relations of production and liberate the productive forces of the country and guarantee to the people the enjoyment of the fruits of economic progress.

Article 8. The right to free public education is guaranteed. Schools and other cultural institutions shall be maintained and expanded to undertake the physical and mental development of the people, especially the youth.

Article 9. The freedom of citizens to engage in scientific research, technological invention, literary and artistic creation and other cultural pursuits is safeguarded and promoted, with the end in view of developing a national, scientific and mass culture.

Article 10. Women have equal rights with men in all spheres of political, economic, cultural, social and domestic life. Marriage, the family and the mother and child are protected by law.

Article 11. Citizens have the right to bring complaints against any person in authority for transgression of law or neglect of duty. Anyone suffering damage or loss of anything due to infringement by persons in authority of his rights as a citizen has the right to compensation or indemnification.

Article 12. Citizens must abide by this Guide and all laws emanating from it. They must uphold discipline at work, keep public order and respect the rights of others.

Article 13. Public property is sacred and inviolable. It is the duty of every citizen to respect the property of the People’s Democratic Government.

Article 14. It is the duty of citizens to pay taxes on the basis of their ability to pay and in accordance with the law.

Article 15. It is the sacred duty of every citizen to render military service according to law and make every possible contribution to the defense of the people against foreign aggressors and local oppressors.

Part IV
Flag, Emblem and Capital

Article 1. The national flag of the People’s Democratic Government is a red flag with three great stars in gold to signify Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao.

Article 2. The national emblem is similar to the national flag.

Article 3. The capital of the People’s Democratic Government shall be decided according to circumstances. #