August 19 (evening session)


The first to be examined at the evening session of August 19 is the accused Dreitzer. Dreitzer was one of the most prominent Trotskyites. He had been chief of Trotsky's bodyguard. Together with Trotsky, he had organized the counter-revolutionary demonstration on November 7, 1927. When Trotsky was in exile in Alma-Ata, Dreitzer organized the communications between Trotsky and the Moscow Trotskyite centre.

The accused Dreitzer states that the Trotskyite-Zinovievite underground organization was a stricly centralized and disciplined counter-revolutionary organization. Dreitzer categorically and emphatically denies that there could be any possibility of halfheartedness in the attitude of any one of the members of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite counter-revolutionary bloc  towards terroristic activity.

"There could be no acting on one's own, no orchestra without a conductor among us," stated Dreitzer. "I am surprised at the assertions of Smirnov, who, according to his words, both knew and did not know, spoke and did not speak, acted and did not act. This is not true!"

Relating his terroristic activities in detail Dreitzer says that the Trotskyite section of the counter-revolutionary bloc  had received instructions to resort to terrorism against the leaders of the Party and the government from abroad, from L. D. Trotsky, and here from I. N. Smirnov, Trotsky's deputy in the U.S.S.R.

In the autumn of 1931, Dreitzer took advantage of an official business trip to Berlin to establish contact with Trotsky at the instructions from I. N. Smirnov.

Smirnov's definite instructions were to ascertain Trotsky's attitude on the qestion of a bloc  between the Trotskyites and the Zinovievites in Berlin he twice met Sedov (Trotsky's son), in a cafe in Leipziger Strasse. Sedov then told him that Trotsky's instructions would be sent on later.

In October 1934 Dreitzer's sister brought him from Warsaw a German cinema magazine which an agent of Sedov's had given her for Dreitzer. In the magazine Dreitzer had no difficulty in discovering - as this form of communication had been agreed upon with Sedov in Berlin - a message written in invisible ink in Trotsky's own handwriting containing instructions to prepare and to carry out immediately terroristic acts against Stalin and Voroshilov. Dreitzer at once passed the letter on to Mrachkovsky who, after reading it, burnt it for reasons of sectecy.

As far back as September-October 1931 I. N. Smirnov had spoken to Dreitzer in the U.S.S.R. about the necessity to follow the line of terroristic methods of struggle. In the autumn of 1932, Dreitzer received from I. N. Smirnov, in the latter's apartment, direct instructions to organize terroristic acts against Stalin and Voroshilov. Smirnov, referring to the line taken by Trotsky, there and then instructed Dreitzer to establish contact with Mrachkovsky for the purpose of making practical preparations for and carrying out terroristic acts. "My next meeting with Ivan Nikitich Smirnov," said Dreitzer, "took place in 1932. This was in the autumn. At that meeting he informed me that the question of bloc  had been settled, that the bloc  had already been formed, and had been formed on the basis of Trotsky's terroristic line."

In the spring of 1933 Mrachkovsky repeated to Dreitzer the instruktions of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre to expedite the acts of terror against the leaders of the C.P.S.U. and the Soviet Government. Moreover, on leaving Moscow, Mrachkovsky put at Dreitzer's disposal a number of terrorists he had trained. In addition to Smirnov and Mrachkovsky, Dreitzer was very closely connected with Reingold and Pickel, together with whom he belonged to the Moscow terrorist centre of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite bloc. 

Carrying out the instructions of L. D. Trotsky and the Trotskyite-Zinovievite terrorist centre, conveyed to him by Smirnov and Mrachkovsky, Dreitzer organized two terrorist groups: Gayevsky's group, which was instructed to commit a terroristic act against Comrade Stalin, and Esterman's group, which was instructed to kill Comrade Voroshilov.

In connection with Dreitzer's evidence the State Prosecutorquestions Mrachkovsky and I. N. Smirov.

Mrachkovsky fully confirms Dreitzer's testimony.

Smirnov asserts that he actually did receive in his apartment Dreitzer as an active Trotskyite; however, he allegedly discussed with him, not terrorism but "the general situation in the country."

Mrachkovsky and Dreitzer in reply to this declare: "Smirnov is lying!"

Upon the conclusion of Dreitzer's examination Comrade Vyshinsky puts several questions to the accused Zinoviev.

Vyshinsky:  Accused Zinoviev, in the summer of 1932 had you alredy come to an understanding about the necessity of organizing terroristic acts, or was there only talk about these terroristic acts?

Zinoviev:  As far as I can picture it, the situation was as follows: With the Trotskyites this was already a mature decision, based on the absolutely precise instructions of Trotsky given a fairly long time before that, and they had taken a number of practical steps.

Vyshinsky:  What was the attitude of the Trotskyite part of your bloc  on the question of terrorism?

Zinoviev:  In our negatiations on the formation of a united centre this question played a decisive part. By that time the so-called Zinovievite part of the bloc  was fully ripe for such decisions.

Vyshinsky:  Did Smirnov display any activity in relation to this, or not?

Zinoviev:  Smirnov, in my opinion, displayed more activity than any one else, and we regarded him as the undisputed head of the Trotskyite part of the bloc,  as the man best informed about Trotsky's views, and fully sharing these views.

Vyshinsky:  Did you personally hear a number of proposals from Smirnov?

Zinoviev:  I personally conducted negotiations with him two or three times.

Vyshinsky:  Did Smirnov display persistence during these negotiations, did he press for terroristic acts?

Zinoviev:  As I have already said, he heatedly and with much persuasion insisted on the commission of terroristic acts, although there was no need to persuade us. We were already convinced.

Vyshinsky:  I ask the court to note that the testimony of Zinoviev, Reingold and Dreitzer establishes that after 1932 practical preparations were made for terroristic acts, and that Dreitzer carried these on on the direct instructions of Smirnov; and that Smirnov persistently urged Zinoviev to pass on to terroristic activities. I ask you to take note of this as aconclusion to be drawn from the investigation which we have carried on so far.