August 19 (evening session)


I.I. Reingold confirms that he was one of the most active members of the Zinovievite underground counter-revolutionary organization, was all the time in direct contact with G. E. Zinoviev and L. B. Kamenev, took part in all the secret conferences of the Zinovievites and at one time was invited by Zinoviev and Kamenev to take part in drawing up the platform of the counter-revolutionary organization they were heading, was a member of the Moscow Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre, organizer of terroristic groups and personally directed one of the groups which was preparing to assassinate Comrade Stalin.

Reingold says: "I was connected organizationally and personally with a number of members of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre: Zinoviev, Kamenev, Sokolnikov and others. With some of these I was connected long before 1926. In particular I have been acquainted with Kamenev since 1923 and with Sokolnikov since 1919. As for the Trotskyite part of this centre, Dreitzer was my personal friend; I was in very close touch with Mrachkovsky at my official job, as Mrachkovsky worked under me at the head offices of the Central Cotton Committee. I also knew I. N. Smirnov very well. I was in close contact also with Zinoviev." Continuing, Reingold says: "I can confirm that Zinoviev, Kamenev, Bakayev, Evdokimov, Smirnov, Mrachkovsky, Ter-Vaganyan and Sokolnikov were members of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre. Negotiations were carried on about joint activity with the 'Leftists': Shatskin, Lominadze and Sten, and also with the representatives of the Right deviation: Rykov, Bukharin and Tomsky." "The idea of the Zinovievites uniting with the Trotskyites," says Reingold, "arose as far back as 1931. Meeting Zinoviev in his apartment and in his villa that year, I heard him say that it was a pity that we had fallen out with Trotsky." Continuing his testimony, Reingold states that in discussing the general political situation, Zinoviev emphasized that the economic position of the Soviet Union had become stronger and that it was absolutely no use talking about collapse. It was necessary to unite all the forces opposed to the present leadership. That is how the way was paved for abloc  with the Trotskyites. The basis for the union of the Trotskyites with the Zinovievites, emphasizes Reingold, was terrorism.

Vyshinsky:  How did Zinoviev and Kamenev reconcile terroristic activities with Marxism?

Reingold:  In 1932, Zinoviev, at Kamenev's apartment, in the presence of a number of members of the united Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre argued in favor of resorting to terror as follows: although terror is incompatible with Marxism, at the present moment these considerations must be abandoned. There are no other methods available of fighting the leaders of the Party and the Government at the present time. Stalin combines in himself all the strength and firmness of the present Party leadership. Therefore Stalin must be put out of the way in the first place. Kamenev enlarged on this theory and said that the former methods of fighting, namely, attempts to win the masses, combinations with the leaders of the Rightists, and banking on economic difficulties, have failed. That is why the only method of strugge available is terroristic acts against Stalin and his closest comrades-in-arms, Kirov, Voroshilov, Kaganovich, Orjonikidze, Postyshev, Kossior and the others.

"For this purpose," continued Reingold, "it was decided to create an organization of the most carefully chosen and resolute people who could go right through with the job. Simultaneously, negotiations were carried on with the leaders of the Rightists: Bukharin and Tomsky. After these negotiations Zinoviev definitely said that he had found common political ground with Tomsky in appraising the policy of our country. These conversations continued in 1932 and were carried on between Kamenev, Tomsky and Rykov. Communication with Bukharin was maintained through Karev, an active Zinovievite who was closely connected with the two terroristic groups of Slepkov and Eismont."

Reingold then proceeds to relate his own counter-revolutionary activity which consisted in organizing terrorist groups to assassinate Comrades Stalin and other leaders of the Party and the Government. He enumerates a number of such groups which were directed by Bakayev.

Continuing, Reingold says: "There was an interruption in our terroristic activities between the autumn of 1932 and the summer of 1933 caused by the fact that Zinoviev and Kamenev were compromised in connection with the Ryutin case. In connection with that, in the beginning of 1933, at one of the conferences held in the apartment of Bogdan, Zinoviev's former private secretary, Evdokimov passed on the instruction in the name of the united centre to suspend terroristic work until Zinoviev and Kamenev had returned from exile, until they had declared their repentance, were reinstated in the Party and had gained a certain amount of confidence."

Vyshinsky:  Did Evdokimov say that?

Reingold:  Evdokimov spoke about that.

Vyshinsky:  Did Evdokimov know that Zinoviev and Kamenev were to declare their repentance?

Reingold:  He did. He knew that this was in the nature of the Zinovievite organization, which in the past had had no little experience in this sort of repentance.

Reingold goes on to tell Court about the duplicity which Zinoviev and Kamenev had elevated to a system. Zinoviev and Kamenev, he says, insisted upon every advantage being taken of legal possibilities for the purpose of "crawling on the belly into the Party" - this was Zinoviev's favourite expression - and of winning the confidence of the Party, particularly of Stalin. After this confidence had been restored, strictly secret terroristic work was to be carried on parallel with open work. The combination of these two methods represented the means which, as Zinoviev and Kamenev calcoulated, could bring them to power. In the event of a success of the terroristic plans, continues Reingold, Zinoviev and Kamenev, having been reinstated in the Party under Stalin, having been forgiven by him, thought they could return to power in the "natural" way.

Vyshinsky:  I understand then from what you say that both Kamenev and Zinoviev proceeded along two lines: on the one hand they did all they possibly could to display their loyalty, their devotion to the Party, while on the other hand it was they who were preparing terrorist acts against the leaders of the Party. Is that right?

Reingold:  Yes.

Vyshinsky:  Accused Zinoviev, Reingold's testimony implicates you in a grave crime. Do you admit your guilt?

Zinoviev:  Yes.

Vyshinsky:  Accused Kamenev, I put the same question to, you. Kamenev:  I answer in the affirmative.

Comrade Vyshinsky reminds Kamenev that he admitted this only after Reingold had given his evidence; That at the preliminary investigation he did not admit this antil he had been implicated by others.

Vyshinsky:  So you confirm that you had such a monstrous plan?

Kamenev:  Yes, there was such a monstrous plan.

Vyshinsky:  You worked out this monstrous plan and confirm this now?

Kamenev:  Yes, I do.

As a result of the further questioning of Reingold it is ascertained that Kamenev and Zinoviev commissioned Reingold to carry out a number of responsible tasks, in particular, that of creating abroad a special fund for the purpose of financing the terrorist organization in the event of Kamenev and Zinoviev being deported abroad.

Vyshinsky:  Accused Kamenev, was there any such talk?

Kamenev:  This was in 1929 when I and Zinoviev presumed that we might be deported abroad like Trotsky and therefore we thought it necessary to create abroad some fund for the purpose of maintaining and continuing the work which we had been carrying on here.

Vyshinsky:  From what resources did you think you could set up this fund?

Kamenev:  We had certain resources in view

Vyshinsky:  Did you appeal to Reingold for assistance?

Kamenev: Not for assistance. We simply instructed Reingold and Arkus to create this fund. Reingold and Arkus were financial officials under Sokolnikov.

Vyshinsky:  Did you propose to organize this fund at the expense of the state?

Kamenev:  At any rate not out of Reingold's personal funds. Vyshinsky:  To put it more exactly, you intended to rob the state.

Asked by Comrade Vyshinsky how the Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre had intended to cover up the traces of terroristic crimes, the accused Reingold states that in the event of their coming to power, the Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre intended to kill off all the officials of the G.P.U. who as they supposed might have in their hands threads of the "terroristic conspiracy against the state," and that all their own adherents who were directly and immediately involved in terrorism were likewise to be killed off.

Reingold states: "Zinoviev and Kamenev were both of the opinion, and they told me about this, that on the morrow of the coup d`'etat, after the seizure of power, Bakayev should be put at the head of the G.P.U. in the capacity of chairman of the G.P.U. By the use of the G.P.U. machinery, he was to assist in covering up the traces, in doing away with, in killing, not only the employees of the People's Commissariat for internal Affairs - the G.P.U., who might be in possession of any threads of the conspiracy, but also all the direct perpetrators of terroristic acts against Stalin and his immediate assistants. By the hand of Bakayev the Trotskyite-Zinovievite organization was to destroy its own activists, its own terrorist gunmen, who were involved in this matter."

It was also proposed, Reingold continues to testify, that after the seizure of power, Trotsky was to be recalled from abroad and with his support all those who were most devoted to Stalin were to be removed from Party and Soviet posts. Thus it was proposed to seize all power in the country.

Reingold's statements, and also the replies to questions put to Bakayev and Zinoviev by Comrade Vyshinsky, reveal Bakayev in the role of organizer of terrorist groups for which paticularly "reliable" persons had been recruited.

Among those "reliable" persons who were named were Bogdan, Zinoviev's former secretary, Radin and Faivilovich, active Zinovievites, and Rumyantsev and Kotolynov, the terrorists, who were executed in connection with the murder of Kirov.

Vyshinsky  (to Bakayev): Did Bogdan receive any instructions?

Bakayev:  Yes.

Vyshinsky:  From whom?

Bakayev:  From Zinoviev. On Zinoviev's instructions Bogdan was to shoot Stalin in the Secretariat of the Central Committee.

Vyshinsky:  Accused Zinoviev, have you heard Bakayev's testimony?

Zinoviev:  It is true that I advised Bakayev to enlist Bogdan for terrorist attempts, and that one of those to be assassinated by him was Stalin.

In this connection Bakayev testifies: "The day after I had been instructed to organize the assassination Zinoviev asked me to come and see him. In his apartment I met Reingold and Bogdan. After greeting me Zinoviev said: 'Here is a gunman for your group; then Reingold recommends also Faivilovich whom I too know as being all right.' "

Vyshinsky:  What does it mean "being all right."

Bakayev:  An absolutely reliable person.

Vyshinsky:  For committing terroristic acts?

Bakayev:  Yes.