August 21 (morning session)


The Court proceeds to the examination of the accused Ter-Vaganyan.

In reply to questions put to him by Comrade Vyshinsky the accused Ter-Vaganyan admits that he was one of the organizers of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre, and also that this centre was organized on the basis of Trotsky's instructions on terrorism.

Vyshinsky:  The instructions were communicated in good time to you as one of the organizers?

Ter-Vaganyan:  Yes.

Vyshinsky:  You admit that you personally also took part in preparing certain terroristic acts?

Ter-Vaganyan:  I did not take part in preparing terroristic acts, but I did take part in the work of the centre.

Vyshinsky:  You took part in terroristic work?

Ter-Vaganyan:  All the work was terroristic.

Vyshinsky:  During your examination on August 14 you said: "Of the persons belong to the united Trotskyite-Zinovievite centre, about which I spoke in detail in my testimony on July 16 this year, I. N. Smirnov, Mrachkovsky, Zinoviev and Kamenev guided the practical organization and training of the terrorist group" - do you confirm that?

Ter-Vaganyan:  Yes.

Vyshinsky:  And you added: "Personally I worked under the instructions of Smirnov and Kamenev" - do you confirm that?

Ter-Vaganyan:  Yes.

Vyshinsky:  In 1931 was Smirnov disposed towards violent methods of struggle?

Ter-Vaganyan:  Yes, as were all the Trotskyites surrounding Smirnov.

Continuing his testimony, Ter-Vaganyan, speaking of his return to Moscow from Transcaucasia, confirms the testimony of the witness Safonova to the effect that she, Safonova, had informed Ter-Vaganyan about Smirnov's journey abroad and his meeting with L. Sedov

"I must say," testifies Ter-Vaganyan, "that there was no talk at all about these instructions regarding terrorism being the personal opinion of Sedov. Had Safonova told me that this was Sedov's personal opinion, she and I would have laughed at it as a joke. When Smirnov returned, he repeated his stoty to me and Safonova."

Replying to Comrade Vyshinsky's question as to the reasons why Smirnov denies this, Ter-Vaganyan explains to the Court that Smirnov is afraid of telling the court the whole truth because he would then have to name a number of persons who were associated with terrorism. In particular, says Ter-Vaganyan, Smirnov does not want to say that beginning with 1928 he maintained systematic connections with Gruzian deviationists. When Smirnov returned from abroad, in 1932, he met the Gruzian deviationists, whose attitude, as is well known, was terroristic from 1928 onwards.

Vyshinsky:  Smirnov, you confirm that you were connected with the Gruzian deviationists?

Smirnov:  In 1929 I met Okudjava.

Vyshinsky:  (to Ter-Vaganyan): When did the Stückgold group exist?

Further examination of Ter-Vaganyan throws light on I. N. Smirnov's connections with the Stückgold terrorist group. Ter-Vaganyan says:

"I was introduced to Stückgold by I. N. Smirnov in 1929. Smirnov asked me receive Stückgold Whenever he would arrive. he did not want Stückgold to see anyone else. Such secrecy could only have one meaning, namely that Stückgold had some kind of special connections which had to be safeguarded."

In reply to a question put to him by Comrade Vyshinsky I. N. Smirnov denies that he introduced Stückgold to Ter-Vaganyan and that he visited the latter's apartment with him. However, on being proved wrong by Ter-Vaganyan, he has to admit that such a meeting many have taken place.

Vyshinsky  (to Smirnov): You admit that you may have visited Ter-Vaganyan with Stückgold?

Smirnov:  I do as regards 1929.

Vyshinsky:  So in 1929 you, Ter-Vaganyan and Stückgold did meet?

Smirnov:  Possibly.

Ter-Vaganyan  (to Smirnov): That was in the winter of 1929-30?

Smirnov:  Yes.

Vyshinsky  (to Ter-vaganyan): The Stückgold group was a terrorist group?

Ter-Vaganyan:  Yes, it was terrorist.

"In the autumn of 1931," continues Ter-Vaganyan, "my very close connection and friendship with Lominadze began. I met Lominadze frequently, and on these occasions we talked about a bloc. "

Continuing his testimony, Ter-Vaganyan says that at that period the Trotskyites began negotiations for union with the Zinovievites and the "Leftists," and that the terroristic stand was perfectly clear.

Vyshinsky:  When was that?

Ter-Vaganyan:  After Smirnov came back from Berlin.

Vyshinsky:  At that period was the terroristic stand clear?

Ter-Vaganyan:  Yes, it was clear, because the instructions had already been brought.

In clarifying the question as to the basis on which the bloc  with the "Leftists" was formed, Comrade Vyshinsky puts a number of questions to the accused Smirnov. Smirnov's replies make it clear that the bloc  was formed on a trroristic basis.

Vyshinsky  (to Smirnov): Did you organize the bloc  or not?

Smirnov:  I instructed Ter-Vaganyan to negotiate with Lominadze.

Vyshinsky:  What for?

Smirnov:  For a union.

Vyshinsky:  Did the union take place?

Smirnov:  Yes.

Vyshinsky:  With the "Leftists"?

Smirnov:  Yes.

Vyshinsky:  Did you join the bloc? 

Smirnov:  Yes.

Vyshinsky:  At the time the instructions regarding terrorism were in operation?

Smirnov:  Yes.

In reply to Comrade Vyshinsky's question as to his personal terroristic activities, Ter-Vaganyan stresses the point that he carried on terroristic work under the guidance of Smirnov and Kamenev. In particular, discussed the question of terrorism with the Trotskyites, Zaidel and Friedland. "In 1932," says Ter-Vaganyan, "I met Friedland and told him that it was now necessary to adopt violent forms of struggle against the Party. In reply to his question as to the meaning of violent forms of struggle, I said: you are not a child - violent forms of struggle are terroristic forms of struggle. That is clear."

By a number of questions Comrade Vyshinsky clarifies the relations between Ter-Vaganyan and Friedland in terroristic acivities. The replies of Ter-Vaganyan make it clear that Ter-Vaganyan gave Friedland instructions regarding the organization of terroristic acts.