Hegel's Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences
Part One: The Shorter Logic

Table of Contents

I: Introduction

§ 1.Objects of Philosophy
§ 2.Reflective Thought
§ 3.The Content of Philosophy
§ 4.Popular Modes of Thought
§ 5.Reason
§ 6.All that is Rational is Real
§ 7.Beginning to Reflect
§ 8.Empirical Knowledge
§ 9.Speculative Logic
§ 10.The Critical Philosophy
§ 11.Conditions for the existence of Philosophy
§ 12.The Rise of Philosophy
§ 13.The History of Philosophy
§ 14.The System of Philosophy
§ 15.Each of the parts of philosophy is a philosophical Whole.
§ 16.The form of an Encyclopaedia
§ 17.How to Begin?
§ 18.Subdivision of philosophy into three Parts

II: Preliminary Notion

§ 19.Logic derived from a survey of the whole system
(1)Truth is the object of Logic
(2)Any man, it is supposed, can think without Logic, as he can digest without studying physiology
(3)Thought made itself a power in the real world
§ 20.(a) Thought regarded as an activity
n.The Logic of Aristotle continues to be the received system
§ 21.(b) Thought in its bearings upon Objects
n.This universal which cannot be apprehended by the senses counts as the true and essential
§ 22.(c) By the act of Reflection something is altered
n.What reflection elicits is a product of our thought
§ 23.(d) 'Think for yourself'
§ 24.The Objectivity of Thought
(1)Objective thought as the heart and soul of the world
(2)Logic is the study of pure thought-forms
(3)Truth may be learnt by Experience or Reflection, or the pure form of thought
§ 25.The concrete formations of consciousness

III: First Attitude of Thought to Objectivity

§ 26.The Method which has no doubts
§ 27.Method not aware of antithesis of subjective and objective
§ 28.Took the laws and forms of thought to be fundamental
n.The Old Metaphysic assumed that thought apprehends the very self of things
§ 29.God has many names
§ 30.Their objects were taken as subjects made and ready
§ 31.The common conceptions of God, etc.
n.Metaphysic presupposed the object ready-made
§ 32.This system turned into Dogmatism
n.Dogmatism draws a hard line between certain terms and others opposite to them
§ 33.Ontology
§ 34.Rational Psychology
n.Rational psychology viewed the soul through categories supplied by abstract thought
§ 35.Cosmology
§ 36.Rational Theology
n.The earliest teachings of religion are figurate conceptions of God

IV: Second Attitude of Thought to Objectivity

I: Empiricism

§ 37.The need of a concrete subject matter
n.The rise of Empiricism is due to the need of concrete contents
§ 38.Facts of experience the guarantee of correctness
n.From Empiricism came the cry: 'Stop roaming in empty abstractions, keep your eyes open, ...'
§ 39.There are two elements in Experience

II: The Critical Philosophy

§ 40.Experience affords the sole foundation, as knowledge of phenomena
§ 41.To test the value of the Categories
(1)Kant examined how far the forms of thought were capable of leading to knowledge of truth
(2)Kant viewed the categories to see whether they were subjective or objective
§ 42.The Theoretical Faculty
(1)Kant holds that the Categories have their source in the Ego
(2)Kant's meaning of the transcendental
(3)The categories are not contained in the sensation as it is given us
§ 43.The Categories as Instrumentality or in Consciousness only
n.It is not altogether wrong to call the categories empty, but the content is not foreign to them
§ 44.Incapable of Knowing Things-in-Themselves
§ 45.Reason discovers the conditioned nature of knowledge
n.Kant was to first to signal the distinction between Reason and Understanding
§ 46.Seeking for knowledge of the Thing-in-itself
§ 47.The Soul
n.The soul is much more than a simple or unchangeable sort of thing
§ 48.The World
n.Metaphysical philosophy gave rise to the belief that contradictions were due to subjective mistake
§ 49.Reason
§ 50.To Begin with Being in its natural aspect
§ 51.To set out from the abstractum of Thought
§ 52.Can furnish only a criticism of knowledge, not a doctrine
n.Reason is unconditioned only in so far as its character is due to a foreign content
§ 53.Practical Reason
§ 54.The Formalism of Practical Reason
n.The free self-determination Kant denied to speculative he vindicated for practical philosophy
§ 55.The Reflective Power of Judgment
§ 56.Theoretical or Practical Reason
§ 57.Reflective Faculty of Judgment
§ 58.The relation between Means and Ends
§ 59.The final End is Realised in the World
§ 60.The Good is also our Good
(1)Critical philosophy brought home the conviction that the categories are finite in their range
(2)Fichte called attention to the want of a deduction of the categories

V: Third Attitude of Thought to Objectivity

Immediate or Intuitive Knowledge

§ 61.The Intuitional Theory
§ 62.Jacobi
§ 63.That Reason is Knowledge of God
§ 64.Knowing that the Infinite Is
§ 65.That Immediate knowledge can possess a true content
§ 66.Immediate knowledge is to be accepted as a fact
§ 67.But education is required to bring it out.
n.Innate ideas .. a sort of mere capacity in man
§ 68.Something bound up with immediate experience
§ 69.The doctrine of Immediate Knowledge
§ 70.Being per se
§ 71.The one-sidedness of the Intuitional school
§ 72.Superstition is allowed to be true
§ 73.Only tells us that God Is.
§ 74.The general nature of the form of Immediacy
n.Consciousness is impossible without mediation
§ 75.Asserts that Immediate knowledge is a Fact
§ 76."I think therefore I am"
§ 77.The Cartesian Philosophy
§ 78.Reject the opposition between immediate facts and mediation

VI: Logic further Defined and Divided

§ 79.The Abstract, Dialectical and Speculative Sides of Logic
§ 80.[a] Thought as Understanding
n.Understanding is investing its subject-matter with universality
§ 81.[b] The Dialectical Stage

(1)Wherever there is movement, there Dialectic is at work. It is the soul of all knowledge which is scientific
(2)Scepticism is complete hopelessness about all which understanding counts stable
§ 82.[c] The Speculative Stage
n.Philosophy is the right of every human being on whatever grade of culture he may stand
§ 83.Logic is Divided into Three Parts
n.The whole of the previous discussion is anticipatory

VII: First Division of Logic: The Doctrine of Being

§ 84.Being is the notion implicit only.
§ 85.Categories may be looked upon as definitions of the Absolute
n.Each sphere of the Idea proves to be a systematic whole or thought-forms & a phase of the Absolute


(a) Being

§ 86.Pure Being
(1)When thinking is to begin we have nothing but thought in its merest indeterminateness
(2)In the history of philosophy the different stages of the logical Idea assume the shape of successive systems
§ 87.Nothing
n.The distinction between Being and Nothing is, in the first place, only implicit
§ 88.Becoming
n.Becoming is the first concrete thought, and therefore the first notion

(b) Being Determinate

§ 89.Being Determinate
n.Becoming is a fire which dies out in itself when it consumes its material
§ 90.[a] Quality
§ 91.Reality
n.The foundation of all determinateness is negation
§ 92.[b] Limit
n.A thing is what it is only by reason of its limit
§ 93.ad infinitum
§ 94.Infinity
n.The man who flees is not yet free
§ 95.[c] Being-for-self

(c) Being-for-Self

§ 96.[a] Being-for-self
n.The readiest instance of Being-for-self is found in the 'I'
§ 97.[b]Many
n.The One forms the presupposition of the Many
§ 98.[c] Repulsion and Attraction
(1)The Atomic philosophy forms a vital stage in the historical evolution of the Idea
(2)Quantity just means quality superseded and absorbed


(a) Pure Quantity

§ 99.Quantity
n.The mathematical view, which identifies Magnitude with the Idea is the principle of Materialism
§ 100.Continuous and Discrete
n.Quantity is Continuous as well as Discontinuous

(b) Quantum

§ 101.Quantum
n.Quantum is the determinate Being of quantity
§ 102.Number
n.Number is the quantum in its complete specialisation

(c) Degree

§ 103.Degree
n.Intensive magnitude or Degree is distinct from Extensive magnitude or Quantum
§ 104.Infinite Quantitative Progression
(1)How do we come to assume a capacity of increase or diminution
(2)The quantitative infinite progression is what reflective understanding upon when it is engaged with Infinity
(3)Pythagorus philosophised in numbers
§ 105.Quantitative Ratio
n.In quantitative infinite progression quantity returns to itself
§ 106.Measure
n.Quantity, by means of dialectical movement, becomes quality


§ 107.Measure
n.Measure, where quality and quantity are in one, is thus the completion of Being
§ 108.Rule
n.The identity between quantity and quality is at first only implicit
§ 109.Measureless
n.Quantity is naturally and necessarily a tendency to exceed itself
§ 110.Relative identity
§ 111.In Being all is Immediate, in Essence all is Relative
n.In Being everything is immediate, in Essence everything is Relative

VIII: Second Division of Logic: The Doctrine of Essence

§ 112.The terms in Essence are always mere pairs of correlatives
n.Essence is the standpoint of 'Reflection'
§ 113.Identity or Reflection-into-self
§ 114.The Unessential


(a) The pure principles or categories of Reflection

§ 115.[a] Identity
n.Identity is Being as Ideality
§ 116.[b] Difference
n.'How Identity comes to Difference'
§ 117.Diversity - Immediate difference
n.When understanding sets itself to study Identity, it has already passed beyond it, and is looking at Difference
§ 118.Likeness and Unlikeness - Specific Difference
n.Likeness and unlikeness are in completely reciprocal relation
§ 119.Positive and Negative
(1)The negative per se is the same as difference itself
(2)Instead of the maxim of the Excluded Middle, we should say: Everything is Opposite
§ 120.Essential Difference
§ 121.[c] The Ground
n.Ground, besides being the unity, is also the difference of identity and difference
§ 122.Being intermediated by annulling the intermediation is Existence

(b) Existence

§ 123.Existence is the immediate unity of reflection-into-self and reflection-into-other
n.'Existence' suggests the fact of having proceeded from something
§ 124.The Existent with interconnections with others is a Thing
n.The man, by or in himself, is the child

(c) The Thing

§ 125.[a] Properties
n.A thing can lose this or that property without ceasing to be what it is
§ 126.[b] Matters
n.Disintegration into independent matters is properly restricted to inorganic nature only
§ 127.Matter is mere abstract reflection-into-something-else
§ 128.[c] Form
n.Thus we get one Matter in general, to which difference is expressly attached externally, as a bare form
§ 129.Matter and Form
§ 130.The totality of Form and Matter is a contradiction


§ 131.Appearance
n.Existence stated explicitly in its contradiction is Appearance

(a) The World of Appearance

§ 132.The Appearance is thrown into abeyance

(b) Content and Form

§ 133.Law of the Phenomenon
n.Both form and content are equally essential
§ 134.Immediate existence is external to the content

(c) Relation or Correlation

§ 135.[a] Whole and Parts
n.Essential correlation is the universal phase in which things appear
§ 136.[b] Expression
(1)The relation of Force
(2)It is the very essence of force to manifest itself
§ 137.Force
§ 138.[c] Inward and Outward
§ 139.The Exterior has the same content as Interior
§ 140.Inward and Outward are reciprocally opposed
n.The relation of Outward and Inward unites and sets in abeyance mere relativity and phenomenality
§ 141.The empty abstraction suspend themselves in the immediate transition


§ 142.Actuality is the unity become immediate of Essence with Existence
n.Actuality and thought are often absurdly opposed
§ 143.[a] Possibility
n.Everything, it is said, is possible, but everything which is possible is not on that account actual
§ 144.[b] Contingent or Chance
§ 145.Possibility and Contingency are the two factors of Actuality
n.The contingent is what has the ground of its being not in itself but in somewhat other
§ 146.Condition
n.The Contingent, as the immediate actuality, is at the same time the possibility of somewhat else
§ 147.[c] Real Possibility
n.Anything necessary comes before us as the result of certain antecedents
§ 148.Three elements in necessity - Condition, Fact and Activity
§ 149.Necessity mediated and unmediated

(a) Relationship of Substantiality

§ 150.The necessary is an absolute correlation of elements
§ 151.Substance is the totality of Accidents
n.Substance was the principle of Spinoza's system
§ 152.Substance is self-relating power, an inner possibility

(b) Relationship of Causality

§ 153.Substance is Cause and Effect
n.Understanding bristles against Substance, but is ready to use the relation of Cause and Effect
§ 154.The effect is different from the cause

(c) Reciprocity or Action and Reaction

§ 155.[a] Characteristics in Reciprocal Action potentially the same.
§ 156.[b] This unity is also Actual
n.Reciprocal action realises the causal relation in its complete development
§ 157.Pure reciprocation is Necessity
§ 158.The truth of necessity is Freedom
n.Necessity is often called hard, and rightly so, if we keep to necessity as such
§ 159.The truth of Being and Essence is the Notion
n.If the Notion is the truth of Being and Essence, why do we not begin with the notion?

IX: Third Division of Logic: The Doctrine of the Notion

§ 160.The Notion is the principle of Freedom
n.The position taken up by the Notion is that of Absolute Idealism
§ 161.Development
n.The movement of the notion is development, rather than transition or reflection
§ 162.The doctrine of the Notion is divided into three parts


(a) The Notion as Notion

§ 163.Universality, Particularity and Individuality
(1)The notion is generally associated with abstract generality
(2)It is not we who frame notions
§ 164.Universality, Particularity and Individuality are the same as Identity, Difference and Ground
§ 165.Individuality first explicitly differentiates the elements

(b) The Judgment

§ 166.Judgment
n.Judgments are generally looked upon as combinations of notions
§ 167.The Subjective Judgment
§ 168.The Judgment is an expression of finitude
§ 169.The abstract terms of the Judgment
n.The subject is the individual, the predicate the universal
§ 170.Subject and Predicate

§ 171.Subject and Predicate still put as different
n.On Kant's table of categories
§ 172.[a] Qualitative Judgment
n.Truth lies in the coincidence of an object with itself, with its notion
§ 173.First negation: The connection of the Subject and Predicate subsisting
n.Crime is an objective instance of the negatively infinite judgment
§ 174.[b] Judgment of Reflection
n.its predicate is not an immediate quality
§ 175.Singular, Particular and Allness
n.the subject is carried beyond its mere individual self
§ 176.The Judgment Form
n.Whatever pertains of all is therefore necessary
§ 177.[c] Judgment of Necessity
n.The Categorical judgment is the unmediated judgment of necessity
§ 178.[d] Judgment of the Notion
§ 179.Problematical and Apodeictic judgments
§ 180.Subject and Predicate are each the whole Judgment

(c) The Syllogism

§ 181.Syllogism
n.The Syllogism is usually described as a form merely of our subjective thinking
§ 182.The Syllogism of Understanding
n.Parallelism of Understanding with the Notion and Reason with the Syllogism
§ 183.[a] Qualitative Syllogism
n.In this syllogism the notion is at the height of its self-estrangement
§ 184.(i) Syllogism is completely contingent in point of terms
n.The Syllogisms never ceases to play its part in the daily business of life
§ 185.(ii) Syllogism is completely contingent in the form of relation
§ 186.A defect in the Syllogism
§ 187.The Figures
n.The three figures of the Syllogism each takes in turn the place of the extremes, as with Idea, Nature and Mind
§ 188.The Round of the Figures
n.These mathematical axioms are nothing but logical propositions
§ 189.Developed unity of Individuality and Particularity
§ 190.[b] Syllogism of Reflection: Allness, Induction, Analogy
n.The syllogism of Induction
§ 191.[c] Syllogism of Necessity: Categorical, Hypothetical, Disjunctive syllogisms
§ 192.These difference work out their own abolition
n.The subjective notion is the dialectical result of the first two main stages of the Idea, Being and Essence
§ 193.The Realisation of the Notion is the Object


§ 194.The Object is Immediate Being suspended in itself
(1)The theory which regards the Object as Absolute expresses the point of view of superstition and slavish fear
(2)Mechanism, Chemism and Teleology

(a) Mechanism

§ 195.Formal Mechanism
n.Mechanism is the category which offers itself to reflection as it examines the objective world
§ 196.Mechanism with Affinity
§ 197.Absolute Mechanism
§ 198.A triad of Syllogisms
§ 199.Affinity

(b) Chemism

§ 200.The biased Object
n.The Chemical object is seen to be completely in reference to something else
§ 201.The Neutral Object
§ 202.Immediate Independence
n.The chemical process
§ 203.Each process goes its own way
n.The passage from chemism to teleology

(c) Teleology

§ 204.The End
§ 205.External Design
n.Final cause is taken to mean external Design, the point of view taken by Utility
§ 206.The Subjective End coalesces with the Objectivity external to it
n.The development from End to Idea
§ 207.(1) Subjective End
§ 208.(2) Means
n.The execution of the End is the mediated mode of realising the End
§ 209.Means and Ends must be mediated
n.Reason is as cunning as it is powerful
§ 210.Realised End is overt unity of Subjective and Objective
§ 211.Finite Design
§ 212.The Realising of the End
n.The finitude of the End consists in that the material which is employed is only externally made conformable to it.


§ 213.The Idea is truth in and for itself
n.Truth consists in the identity between objectivity and the notion
§ 214.The Idea may be called Reason
§ 215.The Idea is a Process
n.The idea runs through three stages in its development: Life, Knowledge and the Absolute Idea.

(a) Life

§ 216.The Immediate Idea is Life
n.The single members of the body are what they are only by and in relation to their unity
§ 217.A Living Being is a Syllogism
§ 218.(1) The Process of the Living Being
n.The process of the vital subject has in Nature the forms: Sensibility, Irritability and Reproduction
§ 219.(2) The Judgment of the Notion discharges the bodily nature
n.The living beings stands face to face with an inorganic nature which it assimilates to itself
§ 220.(3) The Living Individual
§ 221.The Process of Kind.
n.The living being dies, because it is a contradiction
§ 222.The Idea of Life has thrown off this Immediacy

(b) Cognition in general

§ 223.The Idea as its own Subject
§ 224.These two Ideas correlate
§ 225.Cognition: Theoretical and Practical Action
§ 226.[a] Cognition proper
n.The view of the knowing subject as a tabula rasa
§ 227.The Analytical Method
n.It depends on the object of our investigation which of the two Methods is applied, Analytical or Synthetic
§ 228.The Synthetic Method
n.The movement of the Synthetic method is the reverse of the Analytic method
§ 229.a: Definition
n.Definition involves the three organic elements of the notion
§ 230.b: Division
n.In Division, the principle must be borrowed from the nature of the object
§ 231.c: Theorem, Construction, Demonstration
§ 232.The Idea of Will
n.The necessity which cognition reaches is the reverse of what formed its starting-point
§ 233.[b] Volition
§ 234.The Action of the Will is finite
n.Intelligence takes the world as it is; Will takes steps to make it what it ought to be
§ 235.The Unity of the Practical and Theoretical Idea

(c) The Absolute Idea

§ 236.The Unity of Subjective and Objective Idea
n.The Absolute Idea is the unity of the theoretical and practical idea
§ 237.There is no transition, no presupposition
n.The absolute is like the old man who utters the same creed as the child, but pregnant with significance of a lifetime
§ 238.[a] The Beginning of the Speculative Method
n.Philosophical method is analytical as well as synthetic
§ 239.[b] The Judgment implicit in the Idea
n.In the advance of the idea, the beginning exhibits itself as what it is implicitly
§ 240.The distinction of Individual and Universal is an identity
§ 241.The Development becomes a regress into the first
§ 242.The contradiction in its own nature
§ 243.The method is the notion of the content
§ 244.The Idea is Nature
n.This Idea which has Being is Nature

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