Le Duan

On The Socialist Revolution In Vietnam Volume 1


1. VAN THAN : A patriotic movement of Vietnamese scholars (1885-1896).

2. PHAN DINH PHUNG : leader of an insurrection against the French colonialists (1885-1896). His men inflicted heavy losses on the French forces. He died of illness on January 21, 1896. As reprisals, the French colonialists burnt his body to ashes and mixed them with gunpowder.

3. HOANG HOA THAM or DE THAM : leader of a peasant insurrection against the French colonialists in Yen The (Bac Giang, North Vietnam). Started in 1887 this uprising lasted for thirty years. It had a great repercussion throughout the country and inflicted heavy losses on the enemy. Hoang Hoa Tham was assassinated by a traitor on February 10, 1913.

4. PHAN CHU TRINH (1872-1926) : a Vietnamese patriot who advocated a reformist bourgeois democracy.

5. PHAN BOI CHAIU (1867-1941) : leader of the Dong Du movement (Go East : Japan), and of many other campaigns against the French colonialists from 1904 to 1925. In 1925 he fell into a trap set in Shanghai by the French colonialists and was condemned to live in forced residence in Hue (Central Vietnam) where he died on October 29, 1941.

6. YEN BAI INSURRECTION broke out on February 9, 1930. Led by the Vietnam Nationalist Party, a political Party of the Vietnamese bourgeoisie and petty-bourgeoisie, it met with immediate failure. Some of its leaders were executed by the French colonialists.

7. NGHE TINH SOVIET UPRISING: In 1930 and 1931, under the leadership of the Indo-Chinese Communist Party, the workers and peasants, together with the people, rose against the French imperialists and the feudal court. This movement took place in Nghe An and Ha Tinh provinces (Central Vietnam) where it overthrew the colonial administration and set up a people's power. The colonialists drowned the movement in blood.

8. NAM KY INSURRECTION (Nam Bo or Cochin-China insurrection) : breaking out on November 23, 1940 it was organized and led by the Nam Bo Committee of the Indo-Chinese Communist Party.

9. BAC SON INSURRECTION : Defeated by the Japanese at Lang Son, the French troops retreated to the delta on September 22, 1940; in crossing the district of Bac Son on September 27, 1940 they were disarmed by the local people who overthrew the colonial' administration and set up a revolutionary power.

10. NGUYEN AI QUOC : Name under which President Ho Chi Minh was known before the August Revolution in 1945.

11. VIETNAM QUOC DAN DANG (Vietnam Nationalist Party) (1929-1931) : A revolutionary organization led by petty-bourgeois intellectuals which made a national revolution of bourgeois democratic character. After its failure in the Yen Bai insurrection in February 1930, the French imperialists outrightly repressed its organs until its disintegration. In 1931, this party ceased completely all activities.

12. HOA HAO. CAO DAI : Religious sects in South Vietnam having about one million followers from all sections of the population, most of them being oppressed poor peasants who were patriotic but superstitious people. They were misused by their leaders, wicked landlords and intellectuals who were dissatisfied with the colonialists and feudals. Later, these leaders surrendered to the French colonialists. Coming to power in 1954, Ngo Dinh Diem repressed the religious sects. Ba Cut, a Hoa Hao general was sentenced to death. Cao Dai pope Pham Cong Tac fled to Cambodia where he died in 1959.

13. VIET MINH LEAGUE : Short for "League for the Independence of Vietnam" (Vietnam Doc Lap Dong Minh Hoi). Set up on May 19, 1941, it rallied all parties, classes, organizations of all sections of the population and progressive and patriotic notabilities and personalities for the struggle for national liberation.

14. BA TO : An uprising of the inhabitants of Ba To district (Quang Ngai province, Central Vietnam) which attacked a French post on March 11, 1945 and set up the revolutionary power. Later, owing to their weak force which could not be pitted against the Japanese fascists, the revolutionaries withdrew to the jungle and established a resistance base to wage guerilla warfare.

15. THE TRUNG SISTERS : In 40 A.D. these two national heroines led an armed insurrection against Chinese domination and liberated the country. Trung Trac, the elder, proclaimed herself Queen and set up her capital at Me Linh (Vinh Phuc province, North Vietnam). In 45 A.D., defeated by Ma Yuan's army, the two sisters committed suicide by throwing themselves into the Hat River.

16. TRIEU (True name : Trieu Trinh Nuong) : Native of Thanh Hoa province (Central' Vietnam), in 248 she led with her elder brother Trieu Quoc Dat an insurrection against Chinese domination. She was known for her courage and initiative. Her army being outnumbered, she committed suicide in Bo Dien village (Thanh Hoa province) at the age of 23.

17. LY THUONG KIET : Famous general of the Ly dynasty which ruled over Vietnam from 1010 to 1225. He performed brilliant feats of arms by defeating on the very Chinese territory the Soong army which was preparing an invasion against Vietnam,

18 TRAN HUNG DAO : National hero of the Tran dynasty who resisted the aggression of the Chinese Yuan dynasty in 1257, 1285 and 1287-1288, and won brilliant victories.

19. LE LOI : National hero who rose against the domination of the Ming, a Chinese dynasty. After ten years of resistance war, he freed Vietnam from the Chinese yoke and proclaimed himself emperor in 1428.

20. QUANG TRUNG (1752-1792) : Leader of the greatest peasant insurrection in Vietnam in the 18th century and founder of the Tay Son dynasty (1788-1802). In 1788, he proclaimed himself emperor; he led the resistance against the Tsing. a Chinese dynasty, and marched to Hanoi where he cut to pieces a 200,000 strong army of the Tsing.

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