Herbert Marcuse. One-Dimensional Man


1. The terms “transcend” and “transcendence” are used throughout in the empirical, critical sense: they designate tendencies in theory and practice which, in a given society, overshoot” the established universe of discourse and action toward its historical alternatives (real possibilities).

2. The term “project” emphasizes the element of freedom and responsibility in historical determination: it links autonomy and contingency. In this sense, the term is used in the work of Jean-Paul Sartre. For a further discussion see chapter VIII below.

3. See p. 50

4. See p. 40.

5. The change in the function of the family here plays a decisive role: its “socializing” functions are increasingly taken over by outside groups and media. See my Eros and Civilization (Boston: Beacon Press, 1955), p. 96ff.

6. Theodor W. Adorno, Prismen. Kulturkritik und Gesellschaft. (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1955), p. 24 f.

7. P. W. Bridgman, The Logic of Modern Physics (New York: Macmillan, 1928), p. 5. The operational doctrine has since been refined and qualified. Bridgman himself has extended the concept of “operation” to include the “paper-and-pencil” operations of the theorist (in Philipp J. Frank, The Validation of Scientific Theories [Boston: Beacon Press. 1954], Chap. II). The main impetus remains the same: it is “desirable” that the paper-and-pencil operations “be capable of eventual contact, although perhaps indirectly, with instrumental operations.”

8. P. W. Bridgman, The Logic of Modern Physics, loco cit., p. 31.

9. A. Zworikine, ‘The History of Technology as a Science and as a Branch of Learning; a Soviet view,” Technology and Culture. (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, Winter 1961), p. 2.

10. See p. 41.

11. “During the past centuries, one important reason for alienation was that the human being lent his biological individuality to the technical apparatus: he was the bearer of tools; technical units could not be established without incorporating man as bearer of tools into them, The nature of this occupation was such that it was both psychologically and physiologically deforming in its effect,” Gilbert Simondon, Du Mode d’existence des objets techniques (Paris: Aubier, 1958), p, 103, note.

12. See Charles Denby, “Workers Battle Automation” (New, and Letters, Detroit, 1900).

13. Charles R. Walker, Toward the Automatic Factory (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1957), p. XIX.

14. Ibid., p. 195.

15. One must insist on the inner connection between the Marxian concepts of exploitation and impoverishment in spite of later redefinitions, in which impoverishment either becomes a cultural aspect, or relative to such an extent that it applies also to the suburban home with automobile, television, etc. “Impoverishment” connotes the absolute need and necessity of subverting intolerable conditions of existence, and such absolute need appears in the beginnings of all revolution against the basic social institutions.

16. Charles R. Walker, loc. cit., p. 104.

17. Ibid., p. 104 f.

18. “Shortly after semi-automatic machines were introduced, investigations showed that female skilled workers would allow themselves to lapse while working into a sexual kind of daydream; they would recall the bedroom, the bed, the night and all that concerns only the person within the solitude of the couple alone with itself. But it was the machine in her which was dreaming of caresses. ..” Jean-Paul Sartre, Critique de la raison dialectique, tome I (Paris: Gallimard, 1960), p. 290.

19. Automation and Major Technological Change: Impact on Union Size, Structure, and Function. (Industrial Union Dept. AFL-CIO, Washington, 1958) p. 5ff. Solomon Barkin, The Decline of the Labor Movement (Santa Barbara, Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions, 1961), p. 10 ff.

20. See p. 23.

21. “an absolute unity, but only an individualized technical reality open in two directions, that of the relation to the elements and that of the relation among the individuals In the technical whole.” Gilbert Simondon, loc. cit., p. 146.

22. Serge Mallet. in Arguments, no. 12-13, Paris 1958, p. 18.

23. Automation and Major Technological Change, loc. cit., p. 8.

24. Ibid.

25. Charles R. Walker. loc. cit.., p. 97 ff. See also Ely Chinoy, Automobile Workers and the American Dream. (Garden City: Doubleday, 1955) passim.

26. Floyd C. Mann and L. Richard Hoffman, Automation and the Worker. A Study of Social Change in Power Plants (New York. Henry Holt: 1960), p. 189.

27. Charles R. Walker, loc. cit., p. 213 f.

28. “Professional, social, material links: the skill they acquired in the refinery, the fact that they got used to certain production relationships which were established there; the manifold social benefits on which they can count in case of sudden death, serious illness, incapacity to work, finally old age, merely because they belong to the firm, extending their security beyond the productive period of their lives. Thus the notion of a living and indestructible contract with Caltex makes them think with unexpected attention and lucidity about the financial management of the firm. The delegates to the “Comités d’entreprise” examine and discuss the accounts of the company with the same jealous care that conscientious shareholders would devote to it. The board of directors of Caltex can certainly rub their hands with joy when the unions agree to put off their salary demands because of the need for new investments. But they begin to show signs of legitimate’ anxiety when the delegates take seriously faked balance sheets of the French branches and worry about disadvantageous deals concluded by these branches, daring to go as far as to contest the production costs and suggesting money-saving measures.” Serge Mallet, Le Salaire de la technique, in: La Nef, no. 25, Paris 1959, p. 40. For the integrating trend in the United States here is an amazing statement by a Union leader of the United Automobile Workers: “Many times ... we would meet in a union hall and talk about the grievances that workers had brought in and what we are going to do about them. By the time I had arranged a meeting with management the next day, the problem had been corrected and the union didn’t get credit for redressing the grievance. It’s is become a battle of loyalties... . All the things we fought for the corporation is now giving the workers. What we have to find are other things the worker wants which the employer is not willing to give him. ... We’re searching. We’re searching.” Labor Looks At Labor. A Conversation, (Santa Barbara: Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions, 1963) p. 16 f.

29. Is it still necessary to denounce the ideology of the “managerial revolution?” Capitalist production proceeds through the investment of private capital for the private extraction and appropriation of surplus value, and capital is a social instrument for the domination of man by man. The essential features of this process are in no way altered by the spread of stock-holdings, the separation of ownership from management. etc.

30. See p. 9.

31. “neither by obedience nor by hardness of labor but by the status of being a mere instrument, and the reduction of man to the state of a thing” Francois Perroux, La Coexistence pacifique, (Paris, Presses Universitaires, 1958), vol. III, p. 600.

32. Stewart Meacham, Labor and the Cold War (American Friends Service Committee, Philadelphia 1959), p. 9.

33. Ibid.

34. See p. 27.

35. Karl Marx, Grondrisse der Kritik der politischen Oekonomie (Berlin, Dietz Verlag, 1953), p. 592 f. See also p. 596. My translation.

36. Automation and Major Technological Change, loc. cit., p. 11 f.

37. C. Wright Mills, White Collar (New York: Oxford University Press, 1956), p. 319f,

38. In the less advanced capitalist countries, where strong segments of the militant labor movement are still alive (France, Italy), their force is pitted against that of accelerated technological and political rationalization authoritarian form. The exigencies of the international contest are likely strengthen the latter and to make for adoption of and alliance with the predominant tendencies in the most advanced industrial areas.

39. For the following see my Soviet Marxism, (New York: Columbia University Press, 1958).

40. Rousseau, The Social Contract, Book I, Chap. VII; Book II, ch. VI. – See p. 6.

41. Marx, “Critique of the Gotha Programme,” in Marx and Engels, Selected Works (Moscow: Foreign Languages Publ. House, 1958), vol. II, p.23.

42. On the difference between built-in and manageable resistance see my Soviet Marxism. loc. cit., p. 109 ff.

43. “Economic Problems of Socialism in the U.S.S.R.” (1952), in: Leo Gruliow ed. Current Soviet Policies, (New York: F. A. Praeger, 1953), p 5, 11, 14.

44. Ibid., p. 14f.37. For the following see the magnificent books by Rene Dumont, especially Terres vivantes (Paris: Plon, l961).

45. 37

46. “Free” time, not “leisure” time. The latter thrives in advanced industrial society, but it is unfree to the extent to which it is administered by business and politics.

47. See p. 2.

48. For a critical and realistic appraisal of Galbraith’s ideological concept See Earl Latham, “The Body Politic of the Corporation,” in: E. S. Mason, The Corporation in Modern Society (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959), p. 223, 235 f.

49. “Ignorance and unconsciousness are such that nationalism continues to flourish. Neither twentieth century armaments nor industry allow “fatherlands” to insure their security and their existence except through organizations which carry weight on a world wide scale in military and economic matters. But in the East as well as in the West, collective beliefs don’t adapt themselves to real changes. The great powers shape their empires or repair the architecture thereof without accepting changes in the economic and political regime which would give effectiveness and meaning to one or the other of the coalitions,” (and:) “Duped by the nation and duped by the class, the suffering masses are everywhere involved in the harshness of conflict in which their only enemies are masters who knowingly use the mystifications of industry and power,
The collusion of modern industry and territorial power is a vice which is more profoundly real than capitalist and communist institutions and structures and which no necessary dialectic necessarily eradicates.” Francois Perroux, loc. cit., vol. III., p. 631-632; 633.

50. No misunderstanding: as far as they go, paperbacks, general education, an long-playing records are truly a blessing.

51. Stefan George, in Arnold Schönberg’s Quartet in F Sharp Minor. See Th. W. Adorno, Philosophie der neuen Musik. (J.C.B. Mohr, Tübingen, 1949), p. 19 ff.

52. Bertolt Brecht, Schriften zum Theater (Berlin and Frankfurt, Suhrkamp, 1957), p. 7, 9.

53. Ibid., p. 76.

54. Ibid., p. 63.

55. Paul Valery, Poésie et Pensée Abstraite, in Oeuvres (édition de la Pléiade, Paris, Gallimard, 1957), vol I, p. 1324.

56. “the effort which makes live in us that which does not exist.” Ibid., p. 1333.

57. Ibid., p.1327 (with reference to the language of music).

58. See chapter VII below.

59. See chapter V below.

60. “destroyed the relationships of the language and brought discourse back to the stage of words.” Roland Barthes, Le Degré zéro de l’écriture. Paris, Editions du Sevil, 1953, p. 72 (my emphasis).

61. “Nature becomes a discontinuum of solitary and terrible objects because they have only virtual links. No one chooses for them a privileged meaning or use or service. No one reduces them to mean a mental attitude or an intention, that is to say, in the last analysis, a tenderness... . These word objects without link, armed with all the violence of their explosive power ... these poetic words exclude men. There is no poetic humanism that it entity : this heady discourse is a discourse full of terror which means nature relates man not to other men, but to the most inhuman images mature, heaven, hell, the sacred, childhood, madness, pure matter etc. Ibid., p. 73 f.

62. “[Surrealist paintings] ... gathered together what functionalism covers with taboos because it betrays reality as reification and the irrational in its rationality. Surrealism recaptures what functionalism denies to man; the distortions demonstrate what the taboo did to the desired. Thus surrealism rescues the obsolete – an album of idiosyncrasies where the claim for happiness evaporates that which the technified world refuses to man.” Theodor W. Adorno, Noten zur Literatur. (Berlin-Frankfurt, Suhrkamp, 1958), p. 160.

63. The legendary revolutionary hero still exists who can defy even television and the press – his world is that of the “underdeveloped” countries

64. See my book Eros and Civilization (Boston: Beacon Press, 1954), esp. Chapter X.

65. In accordance with the terminology used in the later works of Freud: sexuality as “specialized” partial drive; Eros as that of the entire organism.

66. E. Ionesco, in Nouvelle Revue Francaise, July 1956, as quoted in London Times Literary Supplement, March 4, 1960. Herman Kahn suggests in a 1959 RAND study (RM-2206-RC) that “a study should be made of the survival of populations in environments similar to overcrowded shelters (concentration camps, Russian and German use of crowded freight cars, troopships, crowded prisons... etc.). Some useful guiding principles might be found and adapted to the shelter program.”

67. John K. Galbraith, American Capitalism; (Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1956), p. 96.

68. See p. 12.

69. See p. 13.

70. Stanley Gerr, Language and Science. in: Philosophy of Science, April 1942, p. 156.

71. Ibid.

72. See p. 14.

73. New York Times, December 1,1960

74. Ibid., November 7. 1960.

75. Ibid., November 7, 1960.

76. Roland Barthes, Le Degré zéro de l’écriture, (Paris, Editions du Seuil, 1953), p. 33.

77. See Leo Lowenthal, Literature, Popular Culture, and Society (Prentice-Hall, 1961), p. 109ff. and Richard Hoggart, The Uses of Literacy Boston, Beacon Press, 1961), p. 161 ff.

78. The statement refers, not to the present Governor, but to Mr. Talmadge.

79. The last three items quoted in The Nation, Feb. 22, 1958.

80. A suggestion of Life magazine, quoted in The Nation, August 20, 1960. According to David Sarnoff, a bill to establish such an Academy is before Congress. See John K. Jessup, Adlai Stevenson, and others, The National Purpose (produced under the supervision and with the help of the editorial staff of Life magazine, New York, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1960), p. 58.

81. W. V. Humboldt, àœber die Verschiedenheit des menschlichen Sprachbaues, reprint Berlin 1936, p. 254.

82. See for this philosophy of grammar in dialectical logic Hegel’s concept of the “substance as subject” and of the “speculative sentence in the Preface to the Phaenomenology of the Spirit. I

83. In chapter V below.

84. This does not mean that history, private or general, disappears from the universe of discourse. The past is evoked often enough: be it as the Founding Fathers, or Marx-Engels-Lenin, or as the humble origins of a presidential candidate. However these too, are ritualized invocations which do not allow development of the content recalled; frequently, the mere invocation serves to block such development, which would show its historical impropriety.

85. “The spectre of man without memory ... Is male than an aspect of decline – it is necessarily linked with the principle of progress in bourgeois society.” “Economists and sociologists such as Werner Sombart and Max Weber correlated the principle of tradition to feudal, and that of rationality to bourgeois, forms of society. This means no less than that the advancing bourgeois society liquidates Memory, Time, Recollection as irrational leftovers of the past... .” Th. W. Adorno, “Was bedeutet Aufarbeitung der Vergangenheit?,” in: Bericht über die Erzieherkonferenz am 6. und 7. November in Wiesbaden; Frankfurt 1960, p. 14. The struggle against history will be further discussed in chapter VII.

86. See p. x. and chapter V.

87. For a further discussion of these criteria see chapter VIII

88. See my Soviet Marxism, loc. cit., p. 87 ff.

89. “there no longer any delay between the naming and the judgment, and the closing of the language is complete,”

90. Roland Barthes, loc. cit., pp. 37-40.

91. For West Germany see the intensive studies undertaken by the Institut für Sozialforschung. Frankfurt am Main, in 1950-1951: Gruppen Experiment, ed. F. Pollack (Frankfurt, Europaeische Verlagsanstalt, 1955) esp. p. 545 f. Also Karl Korn, Sprache In der verwalteten Welt (Frankfurt, Heinrich Scheffler, 1958), for both parts of Germany.

92. In the theory of functionalism, the therapeutic end ideological character of the analysis does not appear; it is obscured by the abstract generality of the concepts (“system,” part” “unit,” “item,” “multiple consequences,” “function”). They are in principle applicable to whatever “system” the sociologist chooses as object of his analysis – from the smallest group to society as such. Functional analysis is enclosed in the selected system which itself is not subject to a critical analysis transcending the boundaries of the system toward the historical continuum, in which its functions and dysfunctions become what they are. Functional theory thus displays the fallacy of misplaced abstractness. The generality of its concepts is attained by abstracting from the very qualities which make the system an historical one and which give critical-transcendent meaning to its functions end dysfunctions.

93. The quotations are from Roethlisberger and Dickson, Management and the Worker. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1947). See the excellent discussion in Loren Baritz, The Servants of Power. A History of the Use of Social Science in American Industry. (Middletown, Wesleyan University Press, 1960), chapters 5 and 6.

94. Roethlisberger and Dickson. Loc. cit. p. 255 f.

95. Ibid., p. 256.

96. Ibid., p. 267.

97. Loc. cit., p. VIII.

98. Loc. cit., p. 591.

99. H. Eulau, S. J. EldersveId, M. Janowitz (edts), Political Behavior (Glencoe Free Press, 1956), p. 275.

100. Ibid., p. 276

101. Ibid., p. 284

102. Ibid., p. 285

103. Ibid., p. 280.

104. Ibid., p. 138ff.

105. Ibid., p. 133.

106. Theodor W, Adorno, “Ideologie,” in: Kurt Lenk (ed.) Ideologie (Neuwied, Luchterhand, 1961), p. 262 f.

107. Ernst Bloch, Philosophische Grundfragen I (Frankfurt, Suhrkamp, 1961), p. 65.

108. Herbert Dingler, in Nature, vol. 168 (1951), p. 630.

109. W. V. O. Quine, From a Logical Point of View, Cambridge, Harvard Univ. Press (1953), p. 44. Quine speaks of the “myth of physical objects” and says that “in point of epistemological footing the physical objects and the gods [of Homer] differ only in degree and not in kind” (ibid.). But the myth of physical objects is epistemologically superior “in that it has proved more efficacious than other myths as a device for working a manageable structure into the flux of experience.” The evaluation of the scientific concept in terms of “efficacious,” “device,” and “manageable” reveals its manipulative-technological elements.

110. H. Reichenbach, In Philipp G. Frank (ed.), The Validation of Scientific Theories, (Boston, Beacon Press, 1954), p. 85f. (quoted by Adolf Grünbaum)

111. Adolf Grünbaum, ibid.., p. 87f.

112. Ibid., p. 88f. (my italics).

113. “What we establish mathematically is ‘objective fact’ only in small part, in larger part it is a survey of possibilities.” “àœber den Begriff Abgeschlossene Theorie,” In: Dialectica, vol. II, no. 1, 1948, p. 333.

114. Philipp G. Frank, loc. cit., p. 85.

115. C. F. von Weizsäcker, The History of Nature (Chicago: University Chicago Press, 1949), p. 20.

116. In: British Philosophy in the Mid-Century (N.Y.: Macmillan, 1957), ed. C. A. Mace, p. 155 ff. Similarly: Mario Bunge, Metascientific Queries (Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas. 1959), p. 108 ff.

117. W. Heisenberg, The Physicist’s Conception of Nature (London. Hutchinson, 1958), p. 29. In his Physics and Philosophy (London: Allen and Unwin, 1959), p. 83, Heisenberg writes: “The ‘thing-in-itself if for the atomic physicist, if he uses this concept at all, finally a mathematical structure; but this structure is – contrary to Kant – indirectly deduced from experience,”

118. Die Krisis der Europäischen Wissenschaften und die transzendentale Phänomenologie, ed. W. Biemel (Haag, Nijhoff, 1954), p. 81.

119. “Nature is placed under the sign Of active man, of the man who inscribes technique in nature,” Gaston Bachelard, l’Activité rationaliste de la psysique contemporaine (Paris, Presses Universitaires, 1951) p. 7, with reference to Marx and Engels, Die Deutsche Ideologie (trad. Molitor, p. 163f).

120. Martin Heidegger, Holzwege (Frankfurt, Klostermann, 1950), p. 266ff. (My translation). See also his Vorträge and Ausätze (Pfüllingen. Günther Neske, 1954), p. 22, 29.

121. The Poverty of Philosophy, chapter II, “Second Observation”; in: A Handbook of Marxism, ed. E. Burns, New York, 1935, p. 355.

122. C. F. von Weizsäcker, The History of Nature, loc. cit., p. 71.

123. Ibid., p. 142 (my emphasis).

124. Ibid., p. 71.

125. I hope I will not be misunderstood as suggesting that the concepts of mathematical physics are designed as “tools,” that they have a technical, practical intent. Technological is rather the a priori “intuition” or apprehension of the universe in which science moves, in which it constitutes itself as pure science. Pure science remains committed to the a priori from which it abstracts. It might be clearer to speak of the instrumentalist horizon of mathematical physics. See Suzanne Bachelard, La Conscience de rationalité (Paris, Presses Universitaires, 1958), p. 31.

126. M. Horkheimer and T. W. Adorno, Dialektik der Aufklärung. loc. cit., p. 50 (my translation).

127. “One might call autocratic a philosophy of technics which takes the technical whole as a place where machines are used to obtain power. The machine is only a means; the end is the conquest of nature, the domestication of natural forces through a primary enslavement: The machine a slave which serves to make other slaves. Such a domineering and enslaving drive may go together with the quest for human freedom. But it is difficult to liberate oneself by transferring slavery to other beings, men, animals, or machines; to rule over a population of machines subjecting the whole world means still to rule, and all rule implies acceptance of schemata of subjection.” Gilbert Simondon. Du Mode d’existence des objet techniques (Paris, Aubier, 1958), p.127.

128. “Contrary to what is often said, mathematical entities are not therefore the result of an abstraction based on objects but rather of an abstraction made in the midst of actions as such. To assemble, to order, move, etc., are more general actions than to think, to push, etc., because they insist on the coordination itself of all particular actions and because they enter into each of them as coordinating factor.” Introduction à  l’épistémologie génétique, tome III (Presses Universitaires, Paris, 1950), p. 287.

129. lbid., p. 288.

130. “This abstraction or differentiation extends to the very center of hereditary coordinations because the coordinating mechanisms of the action are always attached, at their source, to coordinations by reflex and instinct.” Ibid., p. 289

131. “Particular actions result only in knowledge if they are coordinated among them and if this coordination is in its very nature logical-mathematical.” Ibid., p. 291.

132. Die Krisis der Europäischen Wissenschaften und die transcendentale Phänomenologie, loc. cit.

133. See chapter IX and X below.

134. John Dewey, The Quest for Certainty (New York, Minton, Balch Co., 1929), p. 95,100.

135. The conformist attitude of positivism vis-à-vis radically non-conformist modes of thought appears perhaps for the first time in the positivist denunciation of Fourier. Fourier himself (in La Fausse Industrie, 1835, vol. I, p. 409) has seen the total commercialism of bourgeois society as the fruit of “our progress in rationalism and positivism.” Quoted in André Lalande, Vocabulaire Technique et Critique de la Philosophie (Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1956), p. 792. For the various connotations of the term “positive” in the new social science, and in opposition to “negative” see Doctrine de Saint-Simon, ed. Bouglé and Halévy (Paris, Riviere, 1924), p. 181f.

136. For similar declarations see Ernest Gellner, Words And Things (Boston. Beacon Press, 1959), p. 100, 256 ff. The proposition that philosophy leaves everything as it is may be true in the context of Marx’s Theses on Feuerbach (where it is at the same time denied), or as self-characterization of neo-positivism, but as a general proposition on philosophic thought it is incorrect.

137. Philosophical Investigations (New York: Macmillan, 1960): “Und deine Skrupel sind Missverständnisse. Deine Fragen beziehen sich a uf Wörter...” (p. 49). “Denk doch einmal garnicht an das Verstehen als ‘seelischen Vorgang’! - Denn das ist die Redeweise, die dich verwirrt. Son dern frage dich ...” (p. 61). “àœberlege dir folgenden Fall (p.62), and passim.

138. In: Logic and Language, Second Series, ed. A. Flew (Oxford, Blackwell, 1959), p. 137f. (Austins footnotes are omitted). Here too, philosophy demonstrates its loyal conformity to ordinary usage by using the colloquial abridgments of ordinary speech: “Don’t ...” “isn’t ...”

139. Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations, loc. cit., p. 45.

140. Ibid., p. 44.

141. Ibid., p. 46.

142. Ibid., p, 47. The translation is not exact; the German text has Beibringen neuer Erfahrung for “giving new information.”

143. Ibid., p. 49.

144. Ibid., p. 47.

145. Paul Valéry, “Poesie et pensée abstraite,” In: Oeuvres, loc. cit., p. 1331. Also “Les Droits du poète sur la langue,” In: Pièces sur l´art (Paris, Gallimard, 1934), p. 47f

146. See p. 195.

147. See p. 79.

148. Philosophical Investigations, loc. cit., p. 51.

149. See chapter VI above, especially p. 165.

150. Wittgenstein, loc. cit., p. 47.

151. Margaret Masterman, in: British Philosophy in the Mid-Century, ed. C. A. Mace (London, Allen and Unwin, 1957), p. 323.

152. Gilbert Ryle. The Concept of Mind, loc. cit., p. 83 f.

153. Contemporary analytic philosophy has in its own way recognized this necessity as the problem of metalanguage; see p. 179 above and 195 below.

154. See Gilbert Ryle, The Concept of Mind loc. cit., p. 17 f. and passim; J. Wisdom, “Metaphysics and Verification,” in: Philosophy and Psycho-Analysis, Oxford 1953; A. G. N. Flew, Introduction to Logic and Language (First Series), Oxford 1955; D. F. Pears, “Universals,” in ibid., Second Series, Oxford 1959; J. O. Urmson, Philosophical Analysis, Oxford; B. Russell, My Philosophical Development, New York 1959, p. 223 f; Peter Laslett (ed.) Philosophy, Politics and Society, Oxford 1956, p. 22 ff.

155. “They believe they are dying for the Class, they die for the Party boys. They believe they are dying for the Fatherland, they die for the Industrialists. They believe they are dying for the freedom of the Person, they die for the Freedom of the dividends. They believe they are dying for the Proletariat, they die for its Bureaucracy. They believe they are dying by orders of a State, they die for the money which holds the State. They believe they are dying for a nation, they die for the bandits that gag it. They believe – but why would one believe in such darkness? Believe – die? – when it is a matter of learning to live?” Francois Perroux, La Coexistence pacifique, loc. cit. vol. III, p. 631.

156. Rilke, Duineser Elegien, Erste Elegie

157. Stendhal.

158. Bertrand Russell, My Philosophical Development (New York, Simon and Schuster, 1959), p. 170-171.

159. Wilhelm v. Humboldt, Ueber die Verschiedenheit des menschlichen Sprachbaues. loc cit., p. 197.

160. Ibid., p. 74-75

161. See p. 214.

162. This interpretation, which stresses the normative character of universals, may be related to the conception of the universal in Greek philosophy – namely, the notion of the most general as the highest, the first in excellence and therefore the real reality: “... generality is not a subject but a predicate, a predicate precisely of the firstness implicit in superlative excellence of performance. Generality, that is to say, is general precisely because and only to the extent that it is like firstness. It is general, then, not in the manner of a logical universal or class-concept but in the manner of a norm which, only because universally binding, manages to unify a multiplicity of parts into a single whole. It is all-important to realize that: the relation of this whole to its parts is not mechanical (whole = sum of its parts) but immanently teleological (whole = distinct from the sum of its parts). Moreover, this immanently teleological view of wholeness functional without being purposive, for all its relevance to the life-phenomenon, is not exclusively or even primarily an ‘organismic’ category. It rooted, instead, in the immanent, intrinsic functionality of excellence such, which unifies a manifold precisely in the process of ‘aristocratizing’ it, excellence and unity being the very conditions of the manifold’s full reality even as manifold. Harold A. T. Reiche, “General Because First”: Presocratic Motive in Aristotle’s Theology (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 1961, Publications in Humanities no. 52), p. 105 f.

163. (New York, Macmillan, 1926), p. 228f

164. W. V. O. Quine, From a Logical Point of View, loc. cit., p. 4.

165. Ibid.

166. For this use of the term “project” see Introduction. p. xvi.

167. See p. 41.

168. A. N. Whitehead, The Function of Reason (Boston: Beacon Press, 1959), p. 5.

169. Ibid., p. 8.

170. See chapter V

171. See chapter I, esp. p. 18.

172. “through a raising and enlarging of the technical sphere, must treat as technical problems, questions of finality considered wrongly as ethical an sometimes religious. The incompleteness of technics makes a fetish of problems of finality and enslaves man to ends which he thinks of as absolutes. “Gilbert Simondon, loc. cit. p. 151.

173. “Man liberates himself from his situation of being subjected to the finalty of everything by learning to create finality, to organise a “finalised” whole, which he judges and evaluates. Man overcomes enslavement by organizing consciously finality.” Ibid., p. 103.

174. Hegel’s concept of freedom presupposes consciousness throughout (in Hegel’s terminology: self-consciousness). Consequently, the realization” of Nature is not, and never can be Nature’s own work: But inasmuch as Nature is in itself negative (i.e., wanting in its own existence), the historical transformation of Nature by Man is, as the overcoming of this negativity, the liberation of Nature. Or, in Hegel’s words, Nature is in its essence non-natural – “Geist”

175. Quoted in: Bertrand Russell, Unpopular Essays (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1950) p. 76

176. See chapter III.

177. Hegel, Vorlesungen über die Aesthetik, in: Sämtliche Werke, ed. H. Glockner (Stuttgart, Frommann, 1929), vol. XII, p. 217f. See also Osmaston’s translation, in Hegel, The Philosophy of Fine Art (London, Bell and Sons, 1920), vol. I, p. 214.

178. Marx, Grundrisse der Kritik der politischen Oekonomie loc. cit., p. 559. (My translation).

179. According to The New York Times. November 11, 1960, displayed at the New York City Civil Defense Headquarters. Lexington Ave. and Fifty-fifth Street.

180. “An entire psychoanalysis of matter can help us to cure us of our images or at least help us to limit the hold of our images on us. One may then hope to be able to render imagination happy, to give it good conscience, in allowing it fully all its means of expression, all material images which emerge in natural dreams, in normal dream activity. To render imagination: happy, to allow it all its exuberance, means precisely to grant imagination its true function as psychological impulse and force.” Gaston Bachelard, Le Matérialisme rationnel(Paris, Presses Universitaires, 1953), p. 18 (Bachelard’s emphasis).

181. “What we refuse is not without value or importance. Precisely because of that, the refusal is necessary. There is a reason which we no longer accept, there is an appearance of wisdom which horrifies us, there is a plea for agreement and conciliation which we will no longer heed. A break has occurred. We have been reduced to that frankness which no longer tolerates complicity.” “Le Refus,” in Le 14 Juillet, no. 2, Paris, Octobre 1958.