Vladimir Borisovich Lutsky 1969

Modern History of the Arab Countries

Written: by Vladimir Borisovich Lutsky;
First Published: by Progress Publishers, Moscow for the USSR Academy of Sciences, Institute of the Peoples of Asia, 1969;
Translated: by Lika Nasser, edited by Robert Daglish;
Transcribed: for marxists.org by Sam Berner 2008.



Chapter I. The Arab Countries During the 16th to the 18th Centuries

Turkish Conquest. The Social Order of the Arab Countries. The Arab City in the Period of Ottoman Rule. State System. The Decay of Ottoman Feudalism. The Decline of the Outward Might of the Ottoman Empire. Popular Movements and the Arab Countries Struggle for Liberation.

Chapter II. The French, Expedition to Egypt (1798-1801)

The Aims of the Expedition. The Beginning of the Expedition. The Defence of Cairo. The Uprising Against the Invaders. The Syrian Expedition. The Collapse of the Expedition. The Results of the Expedition.

Chapter III. Egypt under the Rule of Mohammed Ali

The British Occupation (1801-1803). The Turco-Mameluke War (1802-04). Cairo Uprising (1804-1805). The Advent to Power of Mohammed Ali. The Anglo-Turkish War of 1807. The British Expedition to Egypt. Agrarian Reform of 1805-15. Extermination of the Mamelukes. The Military Reforms of Mohammed Ali. Development of Industry and Agriculture. Monopolies. The Conditions of the Fellaheen and the Workers. Reorganisation of the State Machinery. Cultural Reforms. General Characterisation of Mohammed Ali’s Reforms.

Chapter IV. Palestine, Syria and Iraq at the Beginning of the 19th Century

The Failure of French Plans in Syria. The Anglo-French Struggle for Iraq. The Wabhabi Raids. The Growth of Feudal Anarchy. The Reforms of Beshir II in the Lebanon. Abdullah Pasha and His “Reforms.” The 1820 Uprising in the Lebanon. The Extermination of the Druze Nobility. The Reforms of Mahmud II and Disturbances in Syria and Palestine. The Reforms of Daud Pasha in Iraq (1817-31).

Chapter V. The Wahhabis and the Arab Countries at the End of the 18th Century

Arabia in the 18th Century. The Doctrines of Wahhabism. The Unification of Nejd. The Wahhabis’ Struggle for the Persian Gulf. The Wahhabis’ Struggle for the Hejaz. The Wahhabis’ Fight for Syria and Iraq.

Chapter VI. The Egyptian Conquest of Arabia

The Beginning of the War Against the Wahhabis. Mohammed Ali in Arabia (1818-15). Ibrahim’s Campaign and the Defeat of the Wabhabi State. The Wahhabi Uprisings (1820-40). The British Expansion in South Arabia and on the Persian Gulf.

Chapter VII. The Conquest of the East Sudan by Mohammed Ali. The Expedition to Morea

The Conquest of the Sudan. The Greek Uprising. Mahmud II’s Appeal for Help to Mohammed Ali. The Morea War. The Intervention of the Powers. Navarino. The Evacuation of the Egyptians from Morea.

Chapter VIII. Mohammed Ali’s Struggle for Syria and Palestine. Egypt’s Defeat

The Conflict with the Porte. The First Syrian Campaign (1881-88). The Results of the War. The Unkiar-Skelessi Treaty. Ibrahim’s Reforms in Syria and Palestine (1832-40). General Discontent. Uprisings Against Recruitment. The Question of Independence. A New Conflict with the Porte. The Second Syrian Campaign. The Intervention of the Powers. The Capitulation of Mohammed Ali.

Chapter IX. Lebanon, Syria and Palestine in the Period of Tanzimats (1840-07)

The Arab Countries in the World Capitalist Market. Hatti-Sherif Gulhane. The Reforms of the First Period of the Tanzimat. The Reforms in Syria and Palestine. The Liquidation of the Lebanese Principality. The Druze-Maronite Massacre of 1845. The Activities of the Missionaries. British Plans for Jewish Colonisation in Palestine. The Hatti-Humayun of 1856. The Second Period of the Tanzimat. The Peasant Uprising in Kalman (1859-60). The Druze-Maronite Massacre of 1860. The French Expedition of 1860-61. The “Reglement Organique” of the Lebanon. The Enlightenment Movement of the 1860s. Butrus el-Bustani.

Chapter X. Iraq, 1881 to 1871. The Tanzimat

The Economic Situation in Iraq in the Thirties and Forties of the 19th century. The Kurdish Uprising and Tribal Wars. The Tanzimat in Iraq. The Development of Trade and the Means of Communication. Midhat Pasha in Iraq.

Chapter XI. The Arabian Countries During 1840 to 1870

Arabia After 1840. Wahhabi Nejd. The Growth of the Shammar Emirate. British Colonies in Arabia 1840-70.

Chapter XII. Egypt in the Middle of the 19th Century (1841-76)

Egypt After the Capitulation of 1840. Abbas Pasha (1849-54). The Construction of the Suez Canal. The Economic Development of Egypt in the Middle of the 19th Century. The Reforms of Said and Ismail.

Chapter XIII. The French Conquest of Algeria and the Liberation War Under Abd el-Kader

Algeria on the Eve of the French Conquest. The Seizureof Algiers by the French. The War of Liberation. Abd el-Kader. The Seizure of Constantine. The New War Against Abd el-Kader. The French-Moroccan War of 1844. The Beginning of Colonisation. The Uprising of 1845-46. Popular Uprisings in the Fifties. Algeria Under the French Bourgeoisie.

Chapter XIV. The Financial Enslavement of Tunisia and Its Conversion into a Semi-Colony

The Anglo-French Struggle for Tunisia. The Reforms in Tunisia. The Financial Enslavement of Tunisia.

Chapter XV. The Financial Enslavement of Egypt

Foreign Loans. Mukabala. Ruznameh. England’s Purchase of Shares in the Suez Canal. Egypt’s Financial Bankruptcy. Dual Control. The Formation of the “European Cabinet.”

Chapter XVI. The National Liberation Movement in Egypt (1879-81)

Growth of the Spirit of Opposition. The Military Demonstration of February 18, 1879. Wilson’s Financial Plan. Resignation of the “European Cabinet.”. The Deposal of Ismail Pasha and the Resignation of Sherif Pasha. The Ministry of Riadh Pasha. Reaction. The Military Come to the Fore. The Struggle of the Nationalists Against the Cabinet of Riadh Pasha.

Chapter XVII. The Orabi Pasha Uprising

The Revolt of September 1881. The Wataniyun Struggle Against Sherif Pasha. The Mahmud Sami-Orabi Government (February-May 1882). The Conflict Between the Government and the Khedive. The Dervish Mission. Disturbances in Alexandria. The Constantinople Conference. The Bombardment of Alexandria. The Anglo-Egyptian War of 1882. The Victory of Reaction.

Chapter XVIII. Egypt Under British Rule (1882-1914)

The Question of the Term of British Occupation. The Suez Canal Regime. The Question of Egypt’s Finances. British Economic Policy in Egypt. The State Structure of Egypt (1882-1914). The National Movement. Mohammed Abdu. Abd er-Rahman el-Kawakebi. Musstafa Kamil. The Denshawai Incident (June 13, 1906). The National Movement 1907-08. The Emergence of Political Parties and Trade Unions. The Period of Reaction (1909-14).

Chapter XIX. The Mahdi State in the East Sudan

European Penetration into the East Sudan. The Uprisings of the Mahdists. The Internal System of the Mahdi State. The Struggle of the Powers Against the Mahdi State. Fashoda. The Anglo-Egyptian Condominium.

Chapter XX. Algeria in 1870-1914

Republican Opposition in Algeria. The Algerian Commune. The National Liberation Uprising of 1871. Algeria Under the French Imperialist Yoke. The Algerian Arabs’ Demands.

Chapter XXI. The Seizure of Tunisia by French Imperialism

Italy’s Claims. Preparations for the Tunisian Takeover. The French Protectorate. Italy and the French Protectorate. Tunisia Under the French Imperialist Yoke. The National Liberation Movement. The Young Tunisians.

Chapter XXII. The French Conquest of Morocco

The Capitulations. Territorial Seizures. French Agreements with Italy (1900), Britain (1904) and Spain (1904). The Loan of 1904 and the Mission of Talandier. The Tangier Conflict of 1905. The Algeciras Conference of 1906. The French and Spanish Occupation (1907-09). The Uprising of 1907. The Casablanca Conflict of 1908 and the Franco- German Agreement of 1909. The Powers’ Recognition of Mulai Hafid. The Occupation of Fez and the Agadir Crisis. The Treaty on the Protectorate.

Chapter XXIII. The Italian Conquest of Libya

Diplomatic Preparations. The Italo-Turkish War of 1911. The Lausanne Peace Treaty of 1912. Italy’s War Against the Arab Tribes.

Chapter XXIV. Syria, Palestine and Iraq at the End of the 19th Century

Turkey’s Financial Enslavement. The New Ottoman Coup and the Constitution of 1876. Zulum (Hamdanian Despotism), 1878-1908. The Decree of Muharrem. German Penetration. Britain’s and France’s Positions in the Arab Provinces of Turkey. The Arab People’s Struggle Against the Reign of Zulum.

Chapter XXV. The Young Turk Revolution and the Arab Countries

The Revolution of 1908 in Turkey. The Arabs and the Young Turk Revolution.. “Arab-Ottoman Fraternity.”. The Arab Delegation to the Parliament. The Young Turks’ Policy on Nationalities. The Literary Club and the Qahtaniya. The Young Arab Society. French Claims on Syria and the Lebanon. The Decentralisation Party. The Syrian and Iraqi Reform Societies. The First Arab Congress. El-Ahd (Covenant). Preparations for an Arab Uprising.

Chapter XXVI. Arabia in 1870-1914

A General Review. Aden and Hadhramaut. Oman. British Domains in the Persian Gulf. The Kuwait Conflict. The Struggle of the Rashidis and the Saudis. The Restoration of the Wahhabi State. Ibn Saud’s Home and Foreign Policy. Uprisings in the Yemen and Asir. The Hejaz.

Chapter XXVII. The Arab Countries in the First World War (1914-18)

The Arab Countries’ Stand in the Imperialist War. The Economic and Political Situation in Turkey’s Arab Provinces. The Arab Nationalists’ Attitude to the War. The British Protectorate over Egypt. The War and the Egyptian Economy. The Egyptian National Liberation Movement During the War. Military Operations (1914-16). Preparations for the Arab Uprising in the Hejaz. The 1916 Uprising in the Hejaz. Secret Talks on the Partition of the Arab Countries. Occupation of Iraq. Anglo-French Conflicts in the Middle East. The Palestine Offensive of 1917. The Balfour Declaration. The Exposure of the Secret Negotiations. Turkey’s Military Collapse and the Anglo-French Occupation of the Arab Countries.