FROM CHAIRMAN MAO’S WORKS:
“Who are our enemies? Who are our friends? This is a question of the first
importance for the revolution.”
— Analysis of the Classes in Chinese Society
Communique of the Eleventh Plenary Session
of the Eighth Central Committee of
the Communist Party of China
(Adopted on August 12, 1966)
THE Eleventh Plenary Session of the Eighth Central Committee
of the Communist Party of China was held in Peking from August 1 to 12, 1966.
The Eleventh Plenary Session was presided over by Comrade
Mao Tse-tung. Members and Alternate Members of the Central Committee attended. Also present
were comrades from the regional bureaus of the Central Committee and from the provincial,
municipal and autonomous region Party committees; members of the cultural revolution group of
the Central Committee; comrades from the relevant departments of the Central Committee and
the Government; and representatives of revolutionary teachers and students from institutions
of higher learning in Peking.
The Eleventh Plenary Session after discussion adopts the
Decision of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party Concerning the Great
Proletarian Cultural Revolution.
The Plenary Session after discussion approves the important
policy decisions and measures concerning domestic and international questions adopted by the
Political Bureau of the Central Committee since the Tenth Plenary Session of the Eighth
Central Committee in September, 1962.
At the Tenth Plenary Session of the Eighth Central Committee,
Comrade Mao Tse-tung made a correct analysis of the situation at that time and once again
stressed the theory of contradictions, classes and class struggle in socialist society. This
is the guide for the socialist revolution and socialist construction in our country. Under the
leadership of the Chinese Communist Party headed by Comrade Mao Tse-tung and under the
guidance of the Party’s general line of going all out, aiming high and achieving greater,
faster better and more economical results in building socialism, the people of our country
have in the past four years unfolded the three great revolutionary movements of class struggle,
the struggle for production and scientific experimentation, and have won great victories. The
people’s communes have been further consolidated and developed. An invigorating revolutionary
atmosphere prevails in the whole country and the situation is one of a new all-round leap
The national economy of our country is developing steadily
and roundly. The policy of readjustment, consolidation, filling out and raising of standards
advanced by the Party’s Central Committee has already been successfully carried out. The
Third Five-Year Plan started this year. On the industrial front, not only have big increases
been registered in the output and variety of products, but their quality has also greatly
improved. On the agricultural front, there have been good harvests for four successive years.
The market is thriving and prices are stable. The success of the three nuclear tests is a
concentrated expression of the new level reached in the development of China’s science,
technology and industry.
During the past few years, an extensive socialist education
movement has unfolded in the rural areas, the cities and the army. At present, a great
proletarian cultural revolution unprecedented in history is mounting in our country. The mass
movement in which workers, peasants, soldiers, revolutionary intellectuals and cadres
creatively study and apply Comrade Mao Tse-tung’s works has ushered in a new era of direct
mastery and application of Marxism-Leninism by the labouring people.
The Plenary Session fully approves the May 20, 1963 Decision
of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party on Some Problems in Current Rural Work
(Draft). It fully approves the January 14, 1965 summary minutes of discussion at the National
Working Conference called by the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Chinese
Communist Party: Some Current Problems Raised in the Socialist Education Movement in the Rural
Areas, that is, the 23-article document. These two documents were drawn up under the personal
leadership of Comrade Mao Tse-tung and have been the powerful ideological weapon for our
people in carrying out the socialist revolution. We should continue to act in accordance with
the two above-mentioned documents and, in combination with the great proletarian cultural
revolution, carry through to the end in both rural and urban areas the “four cleanups”
movement, that is, the socialist education movement to clean up politics, ideology,
organization and economy.
The Plenary Session fully approves the series of brilliant
policies of decisive and fundamental importance put forward by Comrade Mao Tse-tung over the
past four years. These policies consist mainly of the following:
On the question of applying the principle of democratic
centralism and carrying forward and developing the revolutionary tradition of the mass line;
On the question of raising and training successors in the
proletarian revolutionary cause;
On the call for industrial enterprises to learn from the
Taching Oilfield, for agricultural units to learn from the Tachai Production Brigade, for the
whole country to learn from the People’s Liberation Army, and for strengthening political
and ideological work;
On the strategic principle of preparedness against war,
preparedness against natural calamities and everything for the people;
On the question of breaking down foreign conventions and
following our own road of industrial development;
On the question of system and deployment in economic
construction and national defence construction;
On the call for the whole Party to grasp military affairs
and for everybody to be a soldier;
On the question of planning and arrangements for the
gradual mechanization of agriculture; and
On the call for the People’s Liberation Army and all
factories, villages, schools, commercial departments, service trades and Party and government
organizations to become great schools of revolution.
The Plenary Session stresses that the series of directives
by Comrade Mao Tse-tung concerning the great proletarian cultural revolution are the guide
for action in the present cultural revolution of our country; they constitute an important
development of Marxism-Leninism.
The Plenary Session holds that the key to the success of
this great cultural revolution is to have faith in the masses, rely on them, boldly arouse
them and respect their initiative. It is therefore imperative to persevere in the line of
“from the masses and to the masses.” Be pupils of the masses before becoming their teachers.
Dare to make revolution and be good at making revolution. Don’t be afraid of disorder.
Oppose the taking of the bourgeois stand, the shielding of Rightists, the attacking of the
Left and repression of the great proletarian cultural revolution. Oppose the creation of a
lot of restrictions to tie the hands of the masses. Don’t be overlords or stand above the
masses, blindly ordering them about.
Give enthusiastic support to the revolutionary Left, take
care to strive to unite with all those who can be united and concentrate our forces to
strike at the handful of anti-Party, anti-socialist bourgeois Rightists.
The Plenary Session holds that the series of questions
advanced by Comrade Mao Tse-tung over the past four years concerning socialist revolution
and socialist construction have greatly accelerated the development and success of the
socialist cause in our country. These questions are of most profound and far-reaching
significance for consolidating the dictatorship of the proletariat and the socialist system
in our country, for preventing revisionist usurpation of the Party and state leadership,
for preventing the restoration of capitalism, for ensuring that our country adheres to
proletarian internationalism and actively supports the revolutionary struggles of the
peoples of the world and for ensuring our country’s gradual transition to communism in the
The Eleventh Plenary Session of the Eighth Central
Committee holds that the present situation as regards the struggle of Marxist-Leninists and
revolutionary people throughout the world against imperialism, reaction and modern
revisionism is excellent. We are now in a new era of world revolution. All political forces
are undergoing a process of great upheaval, great division and great reorganization. The
revolutionary movement of the people in all countries, and particularly in Asia, Africa and
Latin America, is surging vigorously forward. Despite the inevitable zigzags and reversals
in the development of the international situation, the general trend of imperialism heading
for total collapse and socialism advancing to worldwide victory is unalterable. U.S.
imperialism and its lackeys in various countries cannot avert their doom by brutally
suppressing and wildly attacking the masses of the revolutionary people, or by bribing and
deceiving them. On the contrary, this only serves to give further impetus to the
revolutionary awakening of all peoples. The activities of U.S. imperialism and its stooges
in various countries against the people and against revolution are giving impetus to the
revolutionary activities of all peoples. U.S. imperialism and its stooges in various
countries appear to be powerful but are actually very weak. Taking the long view, they are
all paper tigers.
The new leading group of the Communist Party of the
Soviet Union has inherited Khrushchev’s mantle and is practising Khrushchev revisionism
without Khrushchev. Their line is one of safeguarding imperialist and colonialist
domination in the capitalist world and restoring capitalism in the socialist world. The
leading group of the C.P.S.U. has betrayed Marxism-Leninism, betrayed the great Lenin,
betrayed the road of the Great October Revolution, betrayed proletarian internationalism,
betrayed the revolutionary cause of the international proletariat and of the oppressed
peoples and oppressed nations, and betrayed the interests of the great Soviet people and
the people of the socialist countries. They revile the Communist Party of China as being
“dogmatic,” “sectarian” and “Left adventurist.” In fact, what they are attacking is
Marxism-Leninism itself. They are uniting with U.S.-led imperialism and the reactionaries
of various countries and forming a new “Holy Alliance” against communism, the people,
revolution and China. But this counter-revolutionary “Holy Alliance” is doomed to
bankruptcy and is already in the process of disintegration.
The Plenary Session holds that our Party’s
comprehensive public criticisms of Khrushchev revisionism over the last few years have
been entirely correct and necessary. The Proposal Concerning the General Line of the
International Communist Movement advanced by the Central Committee of the Communist Party
of China on June 14, 1963 is a programmatic document. This document drawn up under the
personal leadership of Comrade Mao Tse-tung and the nine comments by the Editorial
Departments of Renmin Ribao and Hongqi on the open letter of the Central
Committee of the C.P.S.U., the article “A Comment on the March Moscow Meeting,” Comrade
Lin Piao’s “Long Live the Victory of People’s War,” etc., give scientific Marxist-Leninist
analyses of a series of important questions concerning the world revolution of our time
and are powerful ideological weapons against imperialism and modern revisionism.
The Plenary Session maintains that to oppose
imperialism, it is imperative to oppose modern revisionism. There is no middle road
whatsoever in the struggle between Marxism-Leninism and modern revisionism. A clear line
of demarcation must be drawn in dealing with the modern revisionist groups with the
leadership of the C.P.S.U. as the centre, and it is imperative resolutely to expose
their true features as scabs. It is impossible to have “united action” with them.
The Plenary Session points out that proletarian
internationalism is the supreme principle guiding China’s foreign policy. The Session
warmly supports the just struggle of the Asian, African and Latin American peoples
against imperialism headed by the United States and its stooges and also supports, the
revolutionary struggles of the people of all countries.
The Plenary Session most strongly condemns U.S.
imperialism for its crime of widening its war of aggression against Vietnam. The Session
most warmly and most resolutely supports the Appeal to the People of the Whole Country
issued by Comrade Ho Chi Minh, President of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, and
firmly supports the Vietnamese people in fighting to the end until final victory is
achieved in their war against U.S. aggression and for national salvation. The Plenary
Session fully agrees to all the measures already taken and all actions to be taken as
decided upon by the Central Committee of the Party and the Government in consultation
with the Vietnamese side concerning aid to Vietnam for resisting U.S. aggression.
The Plenary Session severely denounces the Soviet
revisionist leading group for its counterrevolutionary two-faced policy of sham support
but real betrayal on the question of Vietnam’s resistance to U.S. aggression.
The Plenary Session holds that U.S. imperialism is
the most ferocious common enemy of the peoples of the whole world. In order to isolate
U.S. imperialism to the maximum and deal blows to it, the broadest possible international
united front must be established against U.S. imperialism and its lackeys. The Soviet
revisionist leading group is pursuing a policy of Soviet-U.S. collaboration for world
domination and has been conducting splittist, disruptive and subversive activities
within the international communist movement and the national-liberation movement in the
active service of U.S. imperialism. They cannot of course be included in this united
We must unite with all the people in the world who
are against imperialism and colonialism, and carry the struggle against U.S.
imperialism and its lackeys through to the end.
Together with all the revolutionary Marxist-Leninists
of the world, we must carry the struggle against modern revisionism through to the end
and push forward the revolutionary cause of the international proletariat and the
people of the world.
Hold High the Great Red Banner
Of Mao Tse-tung’s Thought
The Eleventh Plenary Session of the Eighth Central
Committee emphasizes that the intensive study of Comrade Mao Tse-tung’s works by the
whole Party and the whole nation is an important event of historic significance. Comrade
Mao Tse-tung is the greatest Marxist-Leninist of our era. Comrade Mao Tse-tung has
inherited, defended and developed Marxism-Leninism with genius, creatively and in an
all-round way, and has raised Marxism-Leninism to a completely new stage. Mao Tse-tung’s
thought is Marxism-Leninism of the era in which imperialism is heading for total
collapse and socialism is advancing to worldwide victory. It is the guiding principle
for all the work of our Party and country. The Plenary Session holds that Comrade Lin
Piao’s call on the People’s Liberation Army to launch a mass movement in the army to
study Comrade Mao Tse-tung’s works has set a brilliant example for the whole Party and
the whole nation. The most reliable and fundamental guarantee against revisionism and
the restoration of capitalism and for victory of our socialist and communist cause is
to arm the masses of workers, peasants, soldiers, revolutionary intellectuals and cadres
with Mao Tse-tung’s thought and to promote the revolutionizing of people’s ideology.
The method of studying Comrade Mao Tse-tung’s works with problems in mind, studying and
applying his works in a creative way, combining study with practice, studying first what
is urgently needed so as to get quick results, and of making great efforts in applying
what one studies has proved effective and universally suitable and should be further
popularized throughout the Party and the country.
The Communist Party of China is a great, glorious and
correct Party. Founded and fostered by Comrade Mao Tse-tung, ours is a Party armed with
Marxism-Leninism, with Mao Tse-tung’s thought. Our Party is a proletarian vanguard that
integrates theory with practice, forges close links with the masses of the people and
has the spirit of earnest self-criticism. It is a proletarian revolutionary Party which
has gone through the most fierce, the most arduous, the longest and the most complex
struggles in history. Our people is a great people. Our country is a great country. Our
army is a great army. We firmly believe that under the leadership of our great leader,
Comrade Mao Tse-tung, and the Communist Party of China, the armymen and civilians of
the whole country, relying on their own efforts and working vigorously, will surely be
able to surmount all difficulties and obstacles and fulfil the mission given by history,
and will surely not disappoint the expectations of the revolutionary people of the
The Eleventh Plenary Session of the Eighth Central
Committee calls on all the workers, people’s commune members, commanders and fighters
of the People’s Liberation Army, revolutionary cadres, revolutionary intellectuals,
revolutionary teachers and students and scientific and technical personnel of the
country to raise still higher the great red banner of Mao Tse-tung’s thought, unite
with all those who can be united, surmount the resistance coming from various
directions, from the counter-revolutionary revisionists and the “Left” and Right
opportunists, overcome difficulties, shortcomings and mistakes, cleanse the dark spots
in the Party and society, carry the great proletarian cultural revolution to the end,
carry the socialist revolution to the end, and strive to fulfil the Third Five-Year
Plan and build China into a powerful socialist country.
We must be fired with great, lofty proletarian
aspirations and dare to break paths unexplored by people before and scale unclimbed
heights. We must do a good job of building socialist China, which has a quarter of the
world’s population, and make it an impregnable state of the proletariat that will never
change its colour. We must liberate Taiwan. We must heighten our vigilance a hundredfold
and guard against surprise attacks from U.S. imperialism and its accomplices. Should
they dare to impose war on us, the 700 million Chinese people under the leadership of
Comrade Mao Tse-tung and the Communist Party of China will certainly break the backs of
the aggressors and wipe them out resolutely, thoroughly, totally and completely.
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