Tony Cliff

Portugal at the Crossroads

(September 1975)

Special issue of International Socialism (first series), No. 81/82, September 1975.
An abridged version was published in Radical America, Vol. 9 No. 6, November–December 1975, pp. 9–45.
Reprinted in Tony Cliff, International Struggle and the Marxist Tradition, Selected Works Vol.1, Bookmarks, London 2001, pp. 219–310.
Transcribed by Artroom, East End Offset (TU), London.
Marked up by Einde O’Callaghan for the Marxists’ Internet Archive.



Many members of the International Socialists contributed to this work. Much of what they had to say appeared in International Socialism and Socialist Worker. I borrowed freely from them as well as from Our Common Struggle, the newsletter of the Portuguese Workers’ Coordinating Committee. I also benefited very much from the 54 reports written by IS members who visited Portugal during August. I am very grateful to Duncan Hallas and Chris Harman for making contributions to this work, and to Colin Sparks who compiled the chronology and the glossary. Special thanks are owed to Ian Birchall, Alex Callinicos, Elana Dallas, Donny Gluckstein, Joanna Rollo and Colin Sparks who helped in research. Alvaro Miranda must be thanked for his very constructive criticisms of the manuscript. – Tony Cliff, 9 September 1975.


Last updated on 3 February 2017