Tony Cliff

Lenin 2


Events occurring in Russia are dated according to the Julian calendar; events occurring abroad are dated according to both the Julian and (Western) Gregorian calendars.


July 19/August l: First World War begins.

July 23/August 4: German Social Democratic Party votes war credit.

July 26/August 8: Lenin arrested in Nowy Targ (Poland).

August 23/September 5: Lenin arrives in Berne (Switzerland).

October 12/November 4: Bolshevik deputies in the Duma arrested and sent to Siberia.

August 24-26/September 6-8: Lenin reports on the attitude towards the war at a conference of the Bolsheviks in Berne. His theses on the war are adopted as a resolution of the Social Democratic group.


February 14-27/February 19-March 4: Conference of Bolshevik groups abroad in Berne.

March 13-15/March 26-28: International Socialist Women’s Conference in Berne.

March 22-24/April 4-6: International Socialist Youth Conference in Berne.

August 23-26/September 5-8: Anti-war Zimmerwald Conference.


December 1915-June 1916: Lenin works on Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism.

April 11-17/April 24-30: Anti-war Kienthal Conference.

December 16-17/December 29-30: Assassination of Rasputin.

December 1916-February 1917: Lenin works in the Zurich library on the Marxist attitude towards the state. His notes from Marx and Engels, together with his own comments and conclusions, are gathered together under the title Marxism on the State.


January 9: Street meetings and a printers’ strike celebrate the anniversary of “Bloody Sunday.”

February 14: The last State Duma assembles.

February 23: Celebration of International Women’s Day begins the revolution.

February 24: 200,000 workers on strike in Petrograd.

February 25: General strike in Petrograd. Shootings and arrests of revolutionists.

February 26: Duma dissolved by the Tsar. The deputies disperse but decide not to leave town. Tens of thousands of workers in the streets.

February 27: Mutiny of the guard regiments. Formation of the Soviet of Workers’ Deputies. Formation of the Provisional Committee of the Duma.

February 28: Arrest of the Tsar’s Ministers. Capture of Schlüsselberg Prison. First issue of Izvestiia, “The News of the Soviet.”

March 1: Order No.1 is issued to the soldiers. Formation of the Soldiers’ Section of the Soviet. First session of the Moscow Soviet.

March 2: The Tsar abdicates in favor of the Grand Duke Mikhail. The provisional government is formed by the Provisional Committee of the Duma, with the support of the soviet and with Kerensky as minister of justice.

March 3: The Grand Duke Mikhail abdicates. The provisional government announces the revolution to the world by radio.

March 5: The first issue of Pravda, central organ of the Bolshevik Party.

March 6: The provisional government declares an amnesty for political prisoners.

March 7/March 26: Lenin writes his Letters from Afar.

March 8: The Tsar arrested at Moghiliev.

March 14: Address of the soviet “to the people of the whole world” declaring for peace without annexations or indemnities.

March 23: Funeral of martyrs of the revolution.

March 29: All-Russian Conference of the Soviets.

March 28-April 4: All-Russian Conference of the Bolshevik Party.

April 3: Lenin, Zinoviev, and the other Bolsheviks arrive from Switzerland.

April 4: Lenin’s April Theses outlining his policy of proletarian revolution.

April14-22: Petrograd City Conference of the Bolshevik Party.

April 15: Celebration of the international socialist holiday of May 1. Foreign Minister Miliukov sends a note to the allies promising war to victory on the old terms.

April 20: Armed demonstrations of protest against the note of Miliukov – the “April Days.”

April 24-29: The Seventh (April) All-Russian Conference of the Bolsheviks.

May 1: The Petrograd Soviet votes for a coalition government.

May 2: Miliukov resigns.

May 4: Trotsky arrives from America seconding the policies of Lenin. An All-Russian Congress of Peasants’ Deputies opens in Petrograd.

May 5: A coalition government is organized with Kerensky as minister of war.

May 17: The Kronstadt Soviet declares itself the sole governing power in Kronstadt.

May 25: All-Russian Congress of the Socialist Revolutionary Party.

May 30: First conference of factory and shop committees opens in Petrograd.

June 3: First All-Russian Congress of Soviets.

June 9: Bolsheviks call off antigovernment demonstration in Petrograd.

June 18: Russian offensive in Galicia begins. Mass meetings in Petrograd organized by the Soviet turn into pro-Bolshevik demonstrations.

July 3-4: Violent antigovernment demonstrations in Petrograd.

July 5: Arrest of Bolshevik leaders ordered.

July 7: Lenin goes into hiding.

July 8: Prince Lvov resigns; Kerensky appointed head of an interim government.

July 12: The provisional government reestablishes the death sentence at the front.

July 16: General Kornilov appointed commander in chief of the Russian Army.

July 23: Trotsky arrested by the provisional government.

July 24: Kerensky forms a new coalition government.

July 26-August 5: Sixth Congress of the Bolshevik Party.

August 12-15: State Conference in Moscow, and general protest strike.

August 20: Bolshevik success in Petrograd municipal elections.

August 21: The Germans occupy Riga.

August-September: Lenin writes State and Revolution.

August 27-30: Abortive counter-revolutionary putsch led by General Kornilov.

September 1: The Petrograd Soviet carries a Bolshevik motion.

September 4: Trotsky freed on bail.

September 5: The Moscow Soviet carries a Bolshevik motion.

September 9: The leaders of the Petrograd Soviet go over to Bolshevism.

September 10-14: Lenin writes The Impending Catastrophe and How to Combat It.

September 15: The Central Committee discuss Lenin’s letters The Bolsheviks must assume power and Marxism and insurrection, which it circulated among the major Bolshevik organizations.

September 14-21: A “Democratic Conference” meets in Petrograd.

September 24: Kerensky forms a third and last coalition government. Bolshevik victory in the Moscow municipal elections.

End of September-October 1: Lenin writes Can the Bolsheviks Retain State Power?

October 7: Opening of pre-parliament; Bolsheviks refuse to participate.

October 9: Formation of Military Revolutionary Committee of the Petrograd Soviet.

October 10: Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party declares for an armed insurrection.

October 15: The soldiers’ section of the Petrograd Soviet votes to transfer all military authority from headquarters to a Military Revolutionary Committee.

October 13: An enlarged Conference of the Petrograd Committee of Bolsheviks discusses, in the main unenthusiastically, the prospect of insurrection.

October 16: An enlarged plenum of the Central Committee, the Executive Commission of the Petrograd Committee, the Military Organization, members of the Petrograd Soviet, trade unions, factory committees, Petrograd Area Committee, and the railway workers. Decision on insurrection reaffirmed.

October 18: Zinoviev’s and Kamenev’s letter to Gorky’s paper opposing the insurrection.

October 19: Lenin demands the expulsion of Zinoviev and Kamenev from the party.

October20: The Military Revolutionary Committee begins actual preparations for insurrection.

October 22: A review of soviet forces in Petrograd under the guise of huge meetings.

October 23: The Peter and Paul fortress, last important obstacle to the success of the insurrection, declares for the Petrograd Soviet.

October 24: The provisional government issues orders for the arrest of the Military Revolutionary Committee, suppression of Bolshevik papers, replacement of Bolshevik-propagandized troops in Petrograd with loyal troops; Kerensky delivers his last speech to the Council of the Republic; Lenin comes to Smolny, Bolshevik headquarters, at night.

October 25: October Revolution begins (2 a.m.). Troops of the Military Revolutionary Committee close Council of the Republic (12 noon). Lenin comes out of hiding; appears at a session of the Petrograd Soviet (3 p.m.); is introduced by Trotsky. Operations against the Winter Palace (seat of the provisional government) begin (9 p.m.). Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets opens (11 p.m.).


Last updated on 25.10.2007