1773: ‘Boston Tea Party’.
1775: Fighting at Lexington and Bunker Hill.
1776: American Declaration of Independence.
1781: British defeat at Yorktown.
1780s to 1830s: Spread of factory system and mining in Britain.
1789: Storming of Bastille, beginning of French Revolution.
1791: Slave revolt in St Domingue.
1792: French revolutionary war, Battle of Valmy, execution of king.
1793-94: Jacobins rule France, end of feudal dues, ‘terror’.
1794: Fall of Jacobins, ‘Thermidor’.
1793-98: British take over Saint Domingue, defeated by ex-slave army.
1797: British naval mutinies.
1798: Rising against British rule in Ireland, formation of Orange Order to combat it.
1799: Combination laws ban trade unions in Britain. Napoleon takes all power in France.
1801-03: Napoleon tries to reimpose slavery in Haiti, imprisonment and death of Toussaint, Dessalines leads ex-slave army to victory.
1804: Beethoven’s Eroica symphony.
1805: Napoleon becomes emperor.
1807: Hegel’s Phenomenology of Mind.
1807: Britain bans slave trade.
1810: First risings against Spanish rule in Mexico and Venezuela.
1810-16: ‘Luddites’ attack machines in north of England.
1814-15: Naroleon defeated. Restoration of old monarchs. Waterloo.
1811-18: Publication of novels by Jane Austen and Walter Scott.
1819: ‘Peterloo’ massacre of working class demonstrators.
1830: Revolution in Paris replaces one monarch by another.
1830s: Novels by Stendhal and Balzac.
1830: World’s first passenger railway.
1831: Faraday discovers electric induction.
1832: British middle class gets vote.
1834: Poor Law Amendment Act establishes workhouses in Britain.
1838-39: Chartist movement demands vote for workers.
1839-42: Opium War against China.
1842: General strike in Lancashire.
1840s to 1860s: Novels of Dickens, George Eliot, Brontes.
Mid-1840s: T’ai-p’ing rebels take control of nearly half of China.
1846-49: Great Irish Famine.
1847: The Communist Manifesto.
Spring 1848: Revolutions across Europe, unsuccessful rising in Ireland, last great Chartist demonstration in London.
June 1848: Crushing of workers’ movement by French bourgeoisie.
1848-49: Restoration of old monarchies across Europe.
1850s and 1860s: Spread of industry to Germany and France.
1843-56: British complete conquest of northern India.
1857: Indian Mutiny.
1857-60: Second Opium War, colonial ‘concessions’ in Chinese cities.
1859: Darwin’s The Origin of Species.
1859-71: Italy unified under king.
1861: American Civil War begins. Tsar ends serfdom in Russia.
1863: Lincoln declares end of slavery.
1865: Defeat of American South.
1864: T’ai-p’ing rebels finally crushed by British-led troops.
1866: Nobel discovers dynamite.
1867: Meiji revolution from above ends feudal rule of Tokugawa in Japan.
1867: Marx publishes Capital.
1870: Franco-Prussian War. Fall of Louis Bonaparte.
1871: Paris Commune, workers control city, then Republican government attacks city, killing thousands.
1871: Bismarck establishes German Empire under Prussian monarchy.
1873: First electrical machine.
Mid-1870s: Troops withdraw from Southern states of US, rise of ‘Jim Crow’ segregation.