V. I.   Lenin

The Agrarian Question and the “Critics of Marx”[1]

Written: Written in June-September 1901
Published: Chapters I to IV were first published in Zarya, No. 2–3, December 1901, signed N. Lenin; Chapters V to IX were published in Obrazovaniye,[2] No. 2, February 1906, signed N. Lenin. Published according to the Zarya and Obrazovaniye texts, checked with the text of the collection The Agrarian Question, by Vl. Ilyin, 1908.
Source: Lenin Collected Works, Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1961, Moscow, Volume 5, pages 103-222.
Transcription\Markup: R. Cymbala and D. Walters
Public Domain: Lenin Internet Archive (2003). You may freely copy, distribute, display and perform this work; as well as make derivative and commercial works. Please credit “Marxists Internet Archive” as your source.


I. The “Law” of Diminishing Returns  107
II. The Theory of Rent  119
III. Machinery in Agriculture  130
IV. The Abolition of the Antithesis Between Town and Country. Particular Questions Raised by the “Critics”  146
V. “The Prosperity of Advanced, Modern Small Farms”. The Baden Example[10101010 10101010]  159
VI. The Productivity of a Small And a Big Farm. An Example From East Prussia  167
VII. The Inquiry Into Peasant Farming In Baden  182
VIII. General Statistics of German Agriculture for 1882 and 1895. The Question of the Medium Farms  194
IX. Dairy Farming and Agricultural Co-Operative Societies In Germany. The Agricultural Population In Germany Divided According to its Position In the Economy  205



[1]The Agrarian Question and theCritics of Marx’\thinspace” was written between June and September 1901. The first four chapters were published in the journal Zarya, Nos. 2-3, in December 1901, under the title “the ’Critics’ on the Agrarian Question. First Essay”; the contribution bore the signature of N. Lenin. The chapters were later published legally in Odessa (with the inscription “Permitted by the Censor”. Odessa, July 23, 1905) by the Burevestnik Publishers as a separate pamphlet The Agrarian Question and the “Critics of Marx”, by N. Lenin. The title was retained by the author for further publications of the essay, in whole or in part.

Chapter V-IX were first published in the legal magazine Obrazovaniye (Education), No. 2, February 1906. They had subtitles; chapters I-IV, published in Zarya and in the 1905 pamphlet, had none.

The nine chapters with two additional ones (X and XI) were first published together in 1908 in St. Petersburg in The Agrarian Question, Part I, by V. I. Ilyin (V. I. Lenin), chapters I-IV had subtitles; some editorial changes were made in the text and some notes added.

Chapter XII (the last) was, first printed in the collection Current Life in 1908.

The first nine chapters are included in the present volume; chapters X, XI, and XII, written in 1907, will appear in Volume 13 of the present edition of the Collected Works of V. I. Lenin.

[2] Obrazovanlye (Education)—a literary, popular-scientific, social and political monthly published in St. Petersburg from 1892 to 1909. There were Marxists among its contributors from 1902 to 1908.

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