V. I. Lenin

Remarks on the Question of Elections to the Bulygin Duma

Written: Written after August 19 (September 1), 1905
Published: First published in 1926 in Lenin Miscellany V. Printed from the original.
Source: Lenin Collected Works, Progress Publishers, 1977, Moscow, Volume 41, page 173.2.
Translated: Yuri Sdobnikov
Transcription\Markup: R. Cymbala
Copyleft: V. I. Lenin Internet Archive (www.marxists.org) © 2004 Permission is granted to copy and/or distribute this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License.
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  1) To participate and elect only the supporters of the autocracy (Moskovskiye Vedomosti{2}). 2) To participate and elect only liberals (Vestnik Yevropy,{3} Rus,{4} Osvobozhdeniye, etc., etc.). 3) To participate and elect only determined supporters of democratic and free representation (Iskra). 4) To participate and elect only those who have imperative mandates (Kiev lawyers). 5) To participate and elect only with a revolutionary commitment (Cherevanin in Iskra). 6) Active boycott with a slogan for a popular representative constituent assembly (Bund). 7) Active boycott with slogans for an armed uprising, revolutionary army and revolutionary government (Proletary{5}). {{ A p a r t{1} : a popular representative constituent assembly to be elected independently through spontaneous generation. (Iskra and partially Bund.){6}


{1} Apart.—Ed.

{2} Moskovskiye Vedomosti (Moscow Recorder)—one of the oldest Russian newspapers published by Moscow University from 1756 (initially as a small bulletin). From 1863 to 1887, the ultra-reactionary and chauvinist M. N. Katkov was its publisher and editor, turning it into a monarchist and nationalist mouthpiece for the most reactionary sections of the landowners and the clergy; from   1905, the paper was one of the main organs of the Black Hundreds. It was published until the October Socialist Revolution. p. 173

{3} Vestnik Yevropy (European Messenger)—a historical, political and literary monthly of a liberal bourgeois trend published in St. Petersburg from 1866 to 1918. It carried articles against the revolutionary Marxists. p. 173

{4} Rus (Russia)—a liberal bourgeois daily published in St. Petersburg from December 1903. Its publisher and editor was A. A. Suvorin. During the 1905 revolution, the paper was close to the Cadets, but took a more moderate stand. It was closed down on December 2 (15), 1905, and subsequently appeared at intervals under various names: Rus, Molva (Tidings), XX vek (Twentieth Century), Oko (Eye) and Novaya Bus (New Russia). p. 173

{5} Proletary (Proletarian)—an illegal Bolshevik weekly, the Central Organ of the R.S.D.L.P., set up under a resolution of the Third Party Congress. Lenin was appointed its editor-in-chief by a decision of the Central Committee’s Plenary Meeting on April 27 (May 10), 1905. It was published in Geneva from May 14 (4) to November 12 (25), 1905. There were 26 issues. The paper continued the line of the old, Leninist Iskra and retained full continuity with the Bolshevik newspaper Vperyod.

Lenin wrote about 90 articles and notes for the newspaper. Among those who constantly took part in the work of its Editorial Board were V. V. Vorovsky, A. V. Lunacharsky and M. S. Olminsky. N. K. Krupskaya, V. M. Velichkina and V. A. Karpinsky did a great deal of work for the Editorial Board. The paper was closely allied with the working-class movement in Russia and carried articles and notes from workers taking a direct part in the revolutionary movement. Local reports were collected and sent on to Geneva by V. D. Bonch-Bruyevich, S. I. Gusev and A. I. Ulyanova-Yelizarova. N. K. Krupskaya and L. A. Fotieva carried on the correspondence with local Party organisations and readers.

Proletary instantly responded to all the important events in the Russian and international labour movement and waged a relentless struggle against the Mensheviks and other opportunist and revisionist elements. The paper carried out a great deal of work for the propaganda of the Third Party Congress decisions and played an important part in the Bolsheviks’ organisational and ideological unity.

Soon after Lenin’s departure for Russia in early November 1905, the paper ceased publication. The last two issues (Nos. 25 and 26) wore edited by V. V. Vorovsky, but they also contained several articles by Lenin, which were published after his departure from Geneva. p. 173

{6} For the criticism on this question of the Menshevik Iskra and the Bund, see Lenin’s article “The Theory of Spontaneous Generation” (present edition, Vol. 9, pp. 246–51). p. 173

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