Vladimir Ilyich Lenin

Karl Marx

A Brief Biographical Sketch With an Exposition of Marxism


No complete collection of Marx’s works and letters has yet been published. More works by Marx have been translated into Russian than into any other language. The following list of Marx’s writings is arranged in chronological order. In 1841 Marx wrote his thesis on Epicurus’s philosophy. (It was included in Literarischer Nachiass, of which more will be said later.) In this thesis, Marx still fully adhered to the Hegelian idealist point of view. In 1842 Marx wrote articles for Rheinische Zeitung (Cologne), among them a criticism of the free-press debate in the Sixth Rhenish Diet, an article on the laws concerning the stealing of timber, another in defence of divorcing politics from theology, etc. (partly included in Literarischer Nachiass). Here we see signs of Marx’s transition from idealism to materialism and from revolutionary democracy to communism. In 1844, under the editorship of Marx and Arnold Ruge, there appeared in Paris Deutsche-Franzosische Jahrbücher, in which this transition was finally made. Among Marx’s articles published in that magazine, the most noteworthy are A Criticism of the Hegelian Philosophy of Right (besides Literarischer Nachiass, also published as a separate pamphlet) and On the Jewish Question (likewise in Literarischer Nachiass; issued as a pamphlet brought out by the Znaniye Publishers in their Cheap Library, No. 210). In 1845, Marx and Engels jointly published, in Frankfort on Main, a pamphlet entitled The Holy Family. Against Bruno Bauer and Co. (besides Literarischer Nachiass, there are two Russian editions as pamphlets: one published by Novy Gobs in St. Petersburg, 1906, the other by Vesinik Znaniya, St. Petersburg, 1907). In the spring of 1845, Marx wrote his theses on Feuerbach (published as an appendix to Frederick Engels’s pamphlet entitled Ludwig Feuerbach (there is a Russian translation). In 1845-47 Marx wrote a number of articles (most of which have not been collected, republished, or translated into Russian) in the papers Vorwärts, Deutsche Brässeler-Zeitung (1847); Westphalisches Dampboot (Bide. fold, 1845-48); Der Gesellschatsspiegel (Elberfeld, 1846). In 1847 Marx wrote his fundamental work against Proudhon, The Poverty of Philosophy, a reply to Proudhon’s work The Philosophy of Poverty. The book was published in Brussels and Paris (there have been three publications in Russian by Novy Mir, one by G. Lvovich, one by Alexeyeva, and one by Prosveshcheniye, all in 1905-06). In 1848 the Speech on Free Trade was published in Brussels (Russian translation available), followed by the publication in London, in collaboration with Frederick Engels, of the celebrated Manifesto of the Communist Party, which has been translated into probably all the languages of Europe and into a number of other languages (there are about eight Russian publications referring to 1905 and 1906; by Molot, Kolokol, Alexeyeva, etc., most of which were confiscated. These appeared under various titles: The Communist Manifesto, On Communism, Social Classes and Communism, Capitalism and Communism, The Philosophy of History. A complete and most accurate translation of this, as well as of other works by Marx, will be found in the editions of the Emancipation of Labour group, issued abroad[31]). From June 1, 1848, to May 19, 1849, Neue Rheinische Zeitung was published in Cologne with Marx as the actual editor-in-chief. His numerous articles for that paper, which to this very day remains the finest and unsurpassed organ of the revolutionary proletariat, have not been collected and republished in full. The most important of them were included in Literarischer Nachiass. Wage-Labour and Capital, published in that paper, has been repeatedly issued as a pamphlet (four Russian editions, by Kozman, Mobot, Myagkov, and Lvovich, 1905 and 1906); also from the same paper The Liberals at the Helm (published by Znaniye Publishers in their Cheap Library, No. 272, St. Petersburg, 1901). In 1849 Marx published, in Cologne, Two Political Trials (two speeches in his own defence by Marx, who was acquitted by a jury when facing trial on the charge of having violated the press law and called for armed resistance to the government. Russian translations are available in five publications brought out in 1905 and 1906 by Alexayeva, Molot, Myagkov, Znaniye, and Novy Mir). In 1850 Marx published, in Hamburg, six issues of the magazine Neue Rheinische Zeitung. The most important articles published therein were later included in Literarischer Nachiass. Especially noteworthy are Marx’s articles, republished by Engels in 1895 in a pamphlet entitled Class Struggles in France, 1848-1850 (Russian translation, published by M. Malykh, Library, No. 59-60; also in the Collection of Historical Works, translated by Bazarov and Stepanov and published by Skirmunt, St. Petersburg, 1906; also Thoughts and Views of the 20th Century, St. Petersburg, 1912). In 1852 a pamphlet by Marx was published in New York under the title of The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte (Russian translation in publications just mentioned). In the same year a pamphlet was published in London under the title of Enthüllungen fiber den Communistenprozess in Köln (Russian translation entitled The Cologne Trial of the Communards, Popular Science Library, No. 43, St. Petersburg, 1906, Oct. 28).

From August 1851 until 1862,[1] Marx was a regular contributor to the New York Tribune, where many of his articles appeared unsigned, as editorials. Most outstanding among these is a series of articles, Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Germany, which were republished after the death of Marx and Engels in a German translation (a Russian translation is available in collections translated by Bazarov and Stepanov, and then, in pamphlet form, in five editions brought out in 1905-06 by Alexeyeva, Obshchestvennaya Poiza, Novy Mir, Vseobshchaya Biblioteka and Molot). Some of Marx’s articles in the Tribune were later published in London as separate pamphlets, as, for instance, the one on Palmerston, published in 1856; Revelations of the Diplomatic History of the 18th Century (regarding the constant venal dependence on Russia of the British Liberal Ministers), and others. After Marx’s death, his daughter, Eleanor Aveling, published a number of his Tribune articles on the Oriental question, under the title of The Eastern Question, London, 1897. Part has been translated into Russian: War and Revolution, Issue I, Marx and Engels: Unpublished Articles (1852, 1853, 1854), Kharkov, 1919 (Our Thought Library). From the end of 1854, and during 1855, Marx contributed to the Neue Oder-Zeitung and in 1861-62 to the Viennese paper Presse. These articles have not been collected, and only a few of them were reprinted in Die Neue Zeit, as were also Marx’s numerous letters. The same is true about Marx’s articles from Das Volk (London, 1859) on the diplomatic history of the Italian War of 1859. In 1859 Marx’s Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy appeared in Berlin (Russian translations: Moscow, 1896, edited by Manuilov; St. Petersburg, 1907, translated by Rumyantsev), In 1860 a pamphlet by Marx, entitled Herr Vogt, appeared in London.

In 1864 the Address of the International Workingmen’s Association, which was written by Marx, came out in London (Russian translation available). Marx was the author of numerous manifestos, appeals and resolutions of the International’s General Council. This material is far from having been analysed or even collected. The first approach to this work is Gustav Jaeckh’s book, Die Internationale (in the Russian translation: St. Petersburg, 1906, Znaniye Publishers), which includes several of Marx’s letters and draft resolutions. Among the documents of the International that Marx wrote was the Address of the General Council on the Paris Commune. The document appeared in 1871 in London, as a pamphlet entitled The Civil War in France (Russian translations: one edited by Lenin, Molot Publishers, and others). Between 1862 and 1874 Marx corresponded with Kugelniann, a member of the International (two Russian translations: one by A. Goikhbarg, the other edited by Lenin). In 1867 Marx’s main work, Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, Vol. 1, appeared in Hamburg. Volumes 2 and 3 were published by Engels in 1885 and 1894, after the death of Marx. The Russian translations: Vol. 1, in five editions (two in a translation by Danielson, 1872 and 1898; two in a translation by E. A. Gurvich and L. M. Zak, edited by Struve; 1st ed.—1899, 2nd ed.—1905; another edited by Bazarov and Stepauov). Volumes 2 and 3 appeared in a translation by Danielson (less satisfactory) and in another under the editorship of Bazarov and Stepanov (the better). In 1876 Marx took part in the writing of Engels’s Herrn Eugen Dührings Umwälzung der Wissenschaft (Anti-Dühring); he went over the manuscript of the whole work and wrote an entire chapter dealing with the history of political economy.

The following works by Marx were published posthumously: Critique of the Gotha Programme (St. Petersburg, 1906, and in German in Die Neue Zeit, 1890-91, No, 18); Value, Price and Profit (a lecture delivered on June 26, 1865; Die Neue Zeit, XVI, 1897-98; Russian translations, brought out by Molot, 1906, and Lvovich, 1905); Aus dem literarischen Nachiass von Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels und Ferdinand Lassalle, three volumes, Stuttgart, 1902 (Russian translation, edited by Axelrod and others, 2 vols., St. Petersburg, 1908: Vol. 1 also edited by E. Gurvich, Moscow, 1907. Lassalle’s letters to Marx, published separately, are included in Literarischer Nachiass); Letters from K. Marx and F. Engels and Others to F. A. Sorge and Others (two editions in Russian; one edited by Axeirod, another published by Dauge, with a preface by Lenin); Theorien fiber den Mehrwert, three volumes in four parts, Stuttgart, 1905-10, which is the manuscript of the fourth volume of Capital and published by Kautsky (only the first volume translated into Russian; in three editions; St. Petersburg, 1906, edited by Plekhanov; Kiev, 1906, edited by Zheleznov, and Kiev, 1907, edited by Tuchapsky). In 1913 four big volumes of Marx-Engels Correspondence came out in Stuttgart, with 1,386 letters written between September 1844 and January 10, 1883, and providing a mass of highly valuable material for a study of Marx’s biography and views. In 1917, two volumes of Marx’s and Engels’s works appeared, containing their articles for 1852-62 (in German). This list of Marx’s works must conclude with a note that many of Marx’s shorter articles and letters, published, for the most part, in Die Neue Zeit, Vorwürts, and other German-language Social-Democratic periodicals, have not been enumerated. The list of Russian translations of Marx is no doubt incomplete especially with reference to pamphlets that appeared in 1905-06.

The literature on Marx and Marxism is very extensive. We shall mention only what is most outstanding, and divide the authors into three main groups: Marxists who, in important matters, adhere to Marx’s point of view; bourgeois writers, in essence hostile to Marxism; and revisionists, who, while claiming to accept certain fundamentals of Marxism, in fact replace it with bourgeois conceptions. The Narodnik attitude towards Marx should be considered a peculiarly Russian variety of revisionism. In his Em Beitrag zur Bibliographie des Marxismus (Archiv für Soztalwissenschaft und Sozialpolitik, XX, 2. Heft,[2] 1905, pp. 413-30), Werner Sombart gives some three hundred titles in a list that is far from complete. More can be found in the indexes to Die Neue Zeit, 1883-1907, et seq., also in Josef Stammhammer’s Bibliographie des Sozialismus und Kommunismus, Bd. I—III,[3] Jena (1893—1909). For a detailed bibliography on Marxism see also Bibliographic der Soztalwissenschaften, Berlin. Jahrgang 1, 1905, u. ff.[4]

See also N. A. Rubakin, Among Books (Vol. 2, 2nd ed.). We mention here only the most important bibliographies. On the subject of Marx’s biography, attention must be called first of all to Frederick Engels’s articles in Volkskalender,[5] published by Bracke in Brunswick in 1878 and in Handwörterbuch der Staatswissenschatten, Bd. 6, S. 600—03[6]; W. Liebknecht, Karl Marx zum Gedächtniss,[7] Nuremberg, 1896; Lafargue, Karl Marx, Persönlichee Ermnnerungen;[8] W. Liebknecht, Karl Marx, 2nd ed., St. Petersburg, 1906; P. Lafargue, My Recollections of Karl Marx, Odessa, 1905 (see original in Die Neue Zeit, IX, 1); Karl Marx: In Memoriam, St. Petersburg, 1908, 410 pages, a collection of articles by Y. Nevzoroy, N. Rozhkov, V. Bazarov, Y. Steklov, A. Finn-Yenotayevsky, P. Rumyantsev, K. Renner, H. Roland-Holst, V. Ilyin, R. Luxemburg, G. Zinoviev, Y. Kamenev, P. Orlovsky, M. Tagansky; Franz Mehring, Karl Marx. The extensive biography of Marx written in English by the Amencan socialist, Spargo (John Spargo, Karl Marx, His Life and Work, London, 1911), is unsatisfactory. For a general review of Marx’s activities, see Karl Kautsky, Die historische Leistung von Karl Marx. Zum 25. Todestag des Meisters,[9] Berlin, 1908. The Russian translation is entitled Karl Marx and His Historical Importance, St. Petersburg, 1908. See also a popular pamphlet by Clara Zetkin, Karl Marx und sein Lebenswerk[10] (1913). Reminiscences of Marx: those by Annenkov in Vestnik Yevropy, 1880, No. 4 (also in his Reminiscences, Vol. 3, A Remarkable Decade, St. Petersburg, 1882); those by Karl Schurz in Russkoye Bogatstvo, 1906, No. 12; by M. Kovalevsky in Vestnik Yevropy, 1909, No. 6, et seq.

On the question of Marxist philosophy and historical materialism the best exposition is given by G. V. Plekhanov, For Twenty Years, St. Petersburg, 1909, 3rd ed.; From Defence to Attack, St. Petersburg, 1910; Fundamental Problems of Marxism, St. Petersburg, 1908; A Critique of Our Critics, St. Petersburg, 1906; The Development of the Monist View of History, St. Petersburg, 1908, and other works. Antonio Labriola, On the Materialist View of History [in Russian], St. Petersburg, 1898; also his Historical Materialism and Philosophy, St. Petersburg, 1906; Franz Mehring, On Historical Materialism [in Russian] (two editions, by Prosveshcheniye and Molot), St. Petersburg, 1906, and The Lessing Legend [in Russian], St. Petersburg, 1908 (Znaniye); see also Charles Andler (non-Marxist), The Communist Manifesto. History, Introduction, Comments [in Russian], St. Petersburg, 1906. See also Historical Materialism, St. Petersburg, 1908, a collection of articles by Engels, Kautsky, Lafargue, and many others; L. Axelrod, Philosophical Sketches. A Reply to Philosophic Critics of Historical Materialism, St. Petersburg, 1906. A special defence of Dietzgen’s unsuccessful deviations from Marxism is contained in E. Untermann’s Die logischen Mängel des engeren Marxismus,[11] Munich, 1910 , 753 pages (an extensive but none too serious work). Hugo Riekes’s Die philosophische Tvurzel des Marxismus, in Zeitschrift für die gesamte Staatswissenschaft, 62. Jahrgang, 1906, 3. Heft, S. 407—32,[12] is an interesting piece of work by an opponent of the Marxist views, showing their philosophical integrity from the viewpoint of materialism. Benno Erdmann’s Die philosophisehen Voraussetzungen der materialist ischen Geschichtsaufiassung, in Jahrbuch für Gesetzgebung, Verwaltung und Volkswirtschaft (Schtnollers Jahrbuch), 1907, 3. Heft, S. 156,[13] is a very useful formulation of some of the basic principles of Marx’s philosophical materialism, and a summary of arguments against it from the current viewpoint of Kantianism, and agnosticism in general. Rudolph Stammier (a Kantian), Wirtschaft und Rechi nach der materialistischen Geschichtsauffassung,[14] 2nd ed., Leipzig, 1906; Woltmann (also a Kantian), Historical Materialism (in a Russian translation, 1901); Vorländer (also a Kantian), Kant and Marx, [in Russian], St. Petersburg, 1909. See also the polemic between A. Bogdanov, V. Bazarov and others, on the one hand, and V. Ilyin,[15] on the other (the views of the former being contained in An Outline of the Philosophy of Marxism, St. Petersburg, 1908; A. Bogdanov, The Downfall of a Great Fetishism, Moscow, 1909, and elsewhere, and the views of the latter, in Materialism and Empirio-Criticism, Moscow, 1909). On the question of historical materialism and ethics: Karl Kautsky, Ethics and the Materialist Conception of History, St. Petersburg, 1906, and numerous other works by Kautsky; Louis Boudin, The Theoretical System of Karl Marx in the Light of Recent Criticism, translated from the English under the editorship of V. Zasulich, St. Petersburg, 1908; Hermann Gorter, Der historische Materialismus,[16] 1909. Of works by opponents to Marxism, we would name Tugan-Baranovsky, The Theoretical Fundamentals of Marxism, St. Petersburg, 1907; S. Prokopovieb, A Critique of Marx, St. Petersburg, 1901; Hammacher, Dasphilosophisch-ökonomische System des Marxismus,[17] Leipzig, 1910 (730 pages, collection of quotations); Werner Sombart, Socialism and the Social-Movement in the Nineteenth Century in Russian], St. Petersburg; Max Adler (a Kantian), Kausalitilt und Teleologie, Vienna, 1909, in Marx-Studien, also Marx als Denker[18] by the same author.

The book of an Hegelian idealist, Giovanni Gentile, La filosofia di Marx,[19] Pisa, 1899, is noteworthy. The author deals with some important aspects of Marx’s materialist dialectics which usually escape the attention of the Kantians, Positivists, etc.. Likewise: Levy, Feuerbach, a work about one of the main philosophical predecessors of Marx. A useful collection of quotations from a number of Marx’s works is contained in Chernyshev’s Notebook of a Marxist, St. Petersburg (Dyelo), 1908. On Marx’s economic doctrine, the following books are outstanding: Karl Kautsky, The Economic Doctrines of Karl Marx (numerous editions in Russian), The Agrarian Question, The Erfurt Programme, and numerous pamphlets. Cf. also: Eduard Bernstein, The Economic Doctrine of Marx. The Third Volume of Capital (Russian translation, 1905); Gabriel Deville, Capital (an exposition of the first volume of Capital, Russian translation, 1907). A representative of so-called revisionism among Marxists, as regards the agrarian question, is Eduard David, Socialism and Agriculture (Russian translation, St. Petersburg, 1902). For a critique of revisionism see V. Ilyin, The Agrarian Question, Part I, St. Petersburg, 1908. See also the following books by V. Ilyin: The Development of Capitalism in Russia, second edition, St. Petersburg, 1908; Economic Essays and Articles, St. Petersburg, 1899; New Data on the Laws of Development of Capitalism in Agriculture, Book 1, 1917. An application of Marx’s views, with some deviations, to the latest data concerning agrarian relations in France can be found in Cornpère-Morel, La question agraire et le socialisme en France,[20] Paris, 1912, 455 pages. For the further development of Marx’s economic views as applied to recent phenomena in economic life see Hilferding’s Finance Capital [in Russian], St. Petersburg, 1911 (outstanding inaccuracies in the author’s views on the theory of value have been corrected by Kautsky in “Gold, Papier und Ware”,—“Gold, Paper Money and Commodities”—in Die Neue Zeit, XXX, 1; 1912, pp. 837 and 886); and V. Ilyin’s Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism, 1917. Pyotr Maslov in his Agrarian Question (two volumes) and The Theory of Economic Development, St. Petersburg, 1910, deviates from Marxism on important points. A criticism of some of Maslov’s deviations may be found in Kautsky’s “Malthusianism and Socialism” in Die Neue Zeit, XXIX, 1, 1911.

A criticism of the economic doctrine of Marx, from the point of view of the so-called marginal utility theory that is widespread among bourgeois professors, is contained in the following works: Böhm-Bawerk, Zum Abschluss des Marxschen Systems[21] (Berlin 1896, in Staatswiss. A ibeiten, Fesigabe für K. Knies), Russian translation, St. Petersburg, 1897, The Theory of Marx and Its Criticism, and also his Kapital und Kapitalzins, 2nd ed., two volumes, Innsbruck, 1900-02 (Russian translation, Capital and Profits, St. Petersburg, 1909). See also: Riekes, Wert und Tauschwert (1899)[22]; von Bortkiewicz, Wertrechnung und Preisrechnung im Marxschen System (Archiv für Sozialwissenschaft, 1906—07)[23]; Leo von Buch, Über die Elemente der politisczen Olconomie. I. Th. Die Intensität d. Arbeit, Tvert u. Preis[24] (published also in Russian). For an analysis of Böhm-Bawerk’s critique from a Marxist point of view see Hilferding’s Böhm-Bawerks Marx-Kritik[25] (Marx-Sludien, I. Band, Vienna, 1904), and in shorter articles published in Die Neue Zeit.

On the question of the two main currents in the interpretation and development of Marxism—the “revisionist” and the radical (“orthodox”)—see Eduard Bernstein’s Voraussetzungen des Sozialismus und die Aufgaben der Sozialdemokratie (German original, Stuttgart, 1899; Russian translations: Historical Materialism, St. Petersburg, 1901, and Social Problems, Moscow, 1901); see also his From the History and Theory of Socialism, St. Petersburg, 1902. A reply to Bernstein is contained in Karl Kautsky’s Bernstein und das sozialdemokratische Programm (German original, Stuttgart, 1899; Russian translation in four editions; 1905-06). For French Marxist literature see Jules Guesde’s Quatre ans de lutte des classes, En garde and Questions d’hier et d’aujourd’hui (Paris, 1911)[26]; Paul Lafargue, Le déterminisme économique de K. Marx (Paris, 1909)[27]; Anton Pannokoek, Zwei Tendenzen in der Arbeiterbewegung.[28]

On the question of the Marxist theory of the accumulation of capital there is a new work by Rosa Luxemburg, Die Accumulation des Kapitals (Berlin, 1913),[29] and an analysis of her incorrect interpretation of Marx’s theory by Otto Bauer, Die Accumulation des Kapitals (Die Neue Zeit, XXXI, 1, 1913, §.831 und 862).[30] See also Eckstein in Vorwürtsand Pannekoek in Bremer Bürger-Zeitung for 1913.

Of the older Russian literature on Marxism the following should be noted: B. Chicherin, “The German Socialists,” in Bezobrazov’s Collection of Political Science, St. Petersburg, 1888, and The History of Political Doctrines, Part 5, Moscow, 1902, 156 pages; a reply to the above by Zieber, “The German Economists Through Mr. Chicherin’s Glasses,” in his Collected Works, Vol. II, St. Petersburg, 1900; L. Slonimsky, The Economic Doctrine of Karl Marx, St. Petersburg, 1898; N. Zieber, David Ricardo and Karl Marx in Their Socioeconomic Investigations, St. Petersburg, 1885, and his Collected Works, in two volumes, St. Petersburg, 1900. Also J. Kaufmann’s (J. K-n) review of Capital in Vesinik Yevropy for 1872, No. 5—an article marked by the fact that, in his addendum to the second edition of Capital, Marx quoted J. K-n’s arguments, recognising them as a correct exposition of his dialectical-materialist method.

The Russian Narodniks on Marxism: N. K. Mikhailovskyin Russcoye Bogatstvo, 1894, No. 10, and 1895, Nos. 1 and 2; also reprinted in his Collected Works—remarks on P. Struve’s Critical Notes (St. Petersburg, 1894). Mikhailovsky’s views were analysed from a Marxist point of view by K. Tulin (V. Ilyin) in his Data Characterising Our Economic Development (St. Petersburg, 1895, destroyed by the censor), later reprinted in V. Ilyin’s For Twelve Years, St. Petersburg, 1908. Other Narodnik works: V. V., Our Lines of Policy, St. Petersburg, 1892, and From the Seventies to the Twentieth Century, St. Petersburg, 1907; Nikolai-on, Outline of Our Post-Reform Social Economy, St. Petersburg, 1893; V. Chernov, Marxism and the Agrarian Problem, St. Petersburg, 1906, and Philosophical and Sociological Sketches, St. Petersburg, 1907.

Besides the Narodniks, the following may also be mentioned: N. Kareyev, Old and New Sketches on Historical Materialism, St. Petersburg, 1896, 2nd edition in 1913 under the title A Critique of Economic Materialism; Masaryk, Philosophical and Sociological Foundations of Marxism [in Russian], Moscow, 1900; Croce, Historical Materialism and Marxian Economy [in Russian], St. Petersburg, 1902.

For a correct appraisal of Marx’s views, an acquaintance is essential with the works of Frederick Engels, his closest fellow-thinker and collaborator. It is impossible to understand Marxism and to propound it fully without taking into account all the works of Engels.

For a critique of Marx from the point of view of anarchism, see V. Cherkezov, The Doctrines of Marxism, two parts, St. Petersburg, 1905; V. Tucker, In Lieu of a Book [in Russian], Moscow, 1907; Sorel (a syndicalist), Social Studies of Modern Economy, Moscow, 1908.



[1] Engels, in his article on Marx in the Handwörterbuch der Staatswissenschaften, Band VI, S. 603, and Bernstein, in his article on Marx in the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911, erroneously give the dates as 1853-60. See Briefwechsel of Marx and Engels, published in 1913.—Lenin

[2] “A Contribution to the Bibliography of Marxism” published in Archive for Social Science and Social Politics, Vol. 20, Book 2.—Ed.

[3] Bibliography of Socialism and Communism, Vols. 1—3.—Ed.

[4] Bibliography of the Social Sciences, Berlin, the first year of publication, 1905, and the following years.—Ed.

[5] People’s Calendar.—Ed.

[6] Dictionary of the Political Sciences, Vol. 6, pp. 600—03.—Ed.

[7] W. Liebknecht, Karl Marx, Biographical Memoirs.—Ed.

[8] Paul Lafargue, Personal Recollections of Karl Marx.—Ed.

[9] Karl Kautsky, The Historical Contribution of Karl Marx. On the Twenty-Fifth Anniversary of the Master’s Death.—Ed.

[10] Clara Zetkin, Karl Marx and His Life Work.—Ed.

[11] E. Untermann, The Logical Defects of Narrow Marxism.—Ed.

[12] Hogo Riekes, “The Philosophical Roots of Marxism,” in the Journal of All Political Sciences, 62nd year of publication, 1906, Book 3, pp. 407—32.—Ed.

[13] Benno Erthnann, “The Philosophic Assumptions of the Materialist Conception of History” in the Yearbook for Legislation, Administration and National Economy (Schiller’s Yearbook), 1907, Book 3, pp. 1—56.—Ed.

[14] Rudolph Stammier, Economy and Law According to the Materialist Conception of History.—Ed.

[15] V. Ilyin—one of the literary pseudonyms of V. I. Lenin.—Ed.

[16] Hermann Gorter, Historical Materialism.—Ed.

[17] Flarnmacher, The Philosophic-Economic System of Marxism.—Ed.

[18] Max Adler, Causality and Teleology and Marx as a Thinker.—Ed.

[19] Giovanni Gentile, The Philosophy of Marx.—Ed.

[20] Compbre-Morel, Agrarian Question and Socialism in France.—Ed.

[21] Böhrn-Bawerk, Karl Marx and the Close of His System.—Ed.

[22] Riekes, Value and Exchange Value, (1899).—Ed.

[23] Von Bortkiewicz, Calculation of Value and Calculation of Price in the Marxian System (Archive for Social Science, 1906—07).—Ed.

[24] Leo von Buch, On the Elements of Political Economy. Intensity of Labour, Value and Price.—Ed.

[25] Hulferding Bohm-Bawerk’s Criticism of Marx.—Ed.

[26] Jules Guesde, Four Years of Class Struggle, On-Guard! Questions of Today, Paris, 1911.—Ed.

[27] Paul Lafargue, Economic Determinism, The Historical Method of Karl Marx, Paris, 1909.—Ed.

[28] Anton Pannekoek, Two Tendencies in the Labour Movement.—Ed.

[29] Rosa Luxemhurg, The Accumulation of Capital, Berlin, 1913—Ed.

[30] Otto Bauer, The Accumulation of Capital (Die Neue Zeit, XXXI, 1, 1913, pp. 831 and 862).—Ed.



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