Sigmund Schilder. “World-Economic Background of the World
War”. Weltwirtschaftliches Archly. Vol. 5 (I) (pp. 1–22).
A very good outline (Germanophile, of course).
The transition of other countries to protectionism caused
Britain in the 19th—20th century to pass to plans for war.
Austria. Her Balkan aspirations.
Interesting to note: in Serbia(at the time of the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina) in 1908–09 there were voices in favour of war with Austria-Hungary on the following grounds. If we win, we shall | !! take the Serbs away from Austria-Hungary. If we are defeated, Serbia will be included in the customs | N.B frontier of Austria-Hungary. That would suit us too. We have nothing to lose (p. 11).
For Russia > “first and foremost” “the private economic advantage of the military-bureaucratic ruling class” (12). Exception: the drive for the Dardanelles.
In France dissatisfaction over the Morocco-Congo agreement of November 4, 1911.
Belgium can retain her Congo only with the help of Britain; the agreement of February 5, 1895 gave || N.B. France “first option” to the purchase of the Congo (p. 16).
Japan aims at domination over China.
Turkey prior to 1913 was “an object rather than a subject of world politics” (19).
Portugal is dependent on Britain.
Spain (by the November 27, 1912 treaty with France) obtained a northern portion of Morocco (France was against, Britain was in favour). Spain has gone a long way in the 16 years, 1898–1914.