V. I.   Lenin





Gerhard Hildebrand, The Shattering of Industrial Domination and Industrial Socialism, 1910 (Jena).

A summary (mostly a random selection) of figures on the “increased industrial independence of peasant countries” (p. 88)—“the industrial self-development of hitherto peasant countries” (138)....

§ 11. “The Chinese danger”.... By 1920–25 the Chinese will have gone such a long way, etc., etc.

...“The industrial monopoly of the West-European sphere of civilisation is doomed”... (203).

|| p. 207. The question amounts to this: will the proletariat in the industrial countries be able “to replace or retain the vanishing peasant basis of food and clothing”?

[DITTO: || ] “The answer to the clear-cut question must be a downright, clear, remorseless No ” (207).

209: It is impossible to obtain (in Europe) 200 million sheep
15-20 million bales of cotton, etc.

“There is no point in it (the proletariat) wanting to expropriate the capitalists, for the industrial means of production are no longer utilisable” (210), and it will not be able to go over to agriculture (211)....

“The possibility is thus excluded of a democratic socialism in the sense of a uniform, tightly-knit regulation of production as a whole by the mass of the || ! people who possess nothing and rule everything.... Much more probable than the domination of peasant production by an industrial democracy is the || ! domination of industrial production by a peasant democracy” (213).

“However, the realisation of democratic socialism through an industrial democracy is absolutely ruled out if we accept:

| ? “1. that peasant economy holds sway in the most important spheres of organic production;

[DITTO: | ] ? “2. that the peasant masses hold fast to the private basis of production;

[DITTO: | ] “3. that the peasant countries naturally endeavour to draw into their sphere the greatest possible share of industrial production;

[DITTO: | ] “4. that, under the prevailing conditions of inter national competition, especially with the Chinese quarter of mankind drawn into the nexus of world economy, and with the conversion of other hitherto agrarian countries into industrial states, they can quite freely dispose of their industrial incomes which have already been monopolised not by them (215);

“5. that, on the other hand, the industrial states are to a growing extent dependent on foreign peasant bases for their supplies of food and clothing raw materials” (216)....

...“The unfortunate thing is that the industrialisation !?! || of the East, following the penetration of Western technical culture, can proceed much faster than the agrarianisation of the West, with its industrial over-tension and, it can be safely said, its industrial degeneration” (219)....

“Agrarian educational colonies” (224)—“a peasant internal colonisation” (225)—those are the “means” proposed by the author.

!!! || Conclusion (i.e., last chapter): “United States of Western Europe” (229)....[1]

The African peoples require “guidance and care” “for an indefinite time to come” (232).... In 20–30 years it will be difficult even for Russia + Great Britain + France “to oppose a Chinese-Japanese coalition” (231)....

!! || there is the possibility of a “great Islamic movement” in Africa, which will be “simultaneously both revolutionary and reactionary” (233).

!!!! || “To prevent” (p. 233 in fine) such a movement—is in the “vital interest” of Western Europe.

sic!! ||| 234—“Consequently” “joint action in Africa by all the West-European states” is essential.

sic!!! || 234—It is hopeless to expect Russia (+Japan, China and the United States) to join in agreements (on disarmament and so forth)—the West-European nations must unite.

|| 235: We must “slow up” (verlangsamen) “the tempo of capital formation in Western Europe”... “moderate” the “industrial tempo”... “strengthen the peasant basis” ... a customs union ... progressive taxation, etc....

|| 236——an import duty on grain is needed, but a “moderate” one.

|| 238—a democratic union of workers (down with “Communist utopias”) and peasants (238).

|| 239—“as a matter of course”, a “United States of Western Europe” will need a strong army and navy. |||

240—Britain will prefer to join rather than remain in “imperialist isolation”.... ||

{{ Useful for understanding the tendencies of opportunism and imperialism within Social-Democracy! }}


[1] See present edition, Vol. 22, p. 281.—Ed.


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