The Child and his Behavior. A. R. Luria

Author’s Notes

1. We are grateful to T. N. Baranova, of the Central Asian University, for permission to reproduce this drawing.

2. For compilation of data, see P. P. Blonsky, Pedagogia. Moscow 1926.

3. Cf. H. Werner, Einfurung in die Entwickfungspsychologie, 1926.

4. Example quoted in Wilder’s book Dukhovnoye razvitiye rebyonka

(The Spiritual Development of the Child.), Moscow 1927, page 161. Data on spatial perception in the child may be found in Troshin, Sravnitelnaya psikhologia normalnykh i nenormalnykh detyei (Comparatim Psychology of Normal and Abnormal Children), St. Petersburg, 1915, 1.

5. Cf. E. R. Jaensch, Die Eidetik 1925. Uber die Aufbau der Wahrnehmungswelt, 1927. Th. Bonte, Liefmann, F. Roessler, Untersuchung uber die eidetische Veranlagung von Kindern und Junglichen, 1928.

6. In our most recent studies, devoted to children’s drawings, we have been able to explore this phenomenon by visual demonstration. We shall have to dwell on this matter in greater detail elsewhere, adducing numerous facts to support our thesis.

7. Major, First Steps in Mental Growth. page 251.

8. We have borrowed this transcript from material kindly supplied to us by V.F. Schmidt.

9. J. Piaget, Le langage et la pensee chez l'enfant, (Language and Thought in Children) 1923, page 28.

10. Ibid, pages 14 to 15. The separate letters are the names of children.

11. Russian material obtained during the lengthy research of Professor S. O. Lozinsky, yielded a much lower percentage of egocentrism among the children in our children’s institutions. This provides further evidence of the way different environments can produce significant differences in the structure of the psyche of the child.

12. Cf. L 5. Vygotsky, Geneticheskiye korni myshleniya i rechi (The Genetic Roots of Thought and Speech), Yestestvoznaniye i marksism (Natural Science and Marxism), 1929, No. 1; A. R. Luria, Puti razvitiya detskogo myshleniya (Paths of the Development of Thought in Children), “Yestestvoznaniye i marksism”, 1929, No. 2.

13. It is worth pointing out, however, that these data are characteristic of children growing up in the specific circumstances in which Piaget studied them but that our children, growing up in different conditions, may yield entirely different results.

14. M. Klein, Razvitiye odnogo rebyonka (The Development of One Child), >Moscow, 1925, pages 25-26.

15. Reported by W. F. Schmidt.

16. Ibid.

17. This drawing is from the collection of T. N. Baranova, who kindly supplied it to us.

18. Piaget, Le jugement et le raisonnement de l'enfant, (The Judgement and Reasoning of the Child) page 163. 19 K. Chukovsky, Malenkiya dyeti (Small Children), Leningrad,


21. It is interesting to note that in one instance syncretic thinking may recur, even on a large scale, in adults: that is, in the learning of foreign languages. For an adult reading a foreign book, written in a language he does not know well, the process of the syncretic, rather than concrete, understanding of individual words plays a very important role. In this respect it virtually reproduces the primitive features of the thinking of the child.

21. Piaget, Le jugement et le – raisonnement de I'enfant, (judgement and Reasoning in the Child) pages 230-240.

22. Carla Raspe, Kindliche Selbstbeobachtung und Theoriebildung, (Observation and Theorizing in Children) “Zeitschrift f. angewandte Psychologie”, 1924, Bd. 23.

23. Studies done by the school of Academician I. N. Pavlov have objectively shown that a dog is capable of unerringly distinguishing one eighth of a tone, whereas very few humans are capable of such a feat

24. Cf. in this connection the interesting book by O. Viner,

25. Rasshireniye nashykh chuvstv (The Expansion of Our Senses), St. Petersburg 1909. 25 See above, Chapter 1.

26. See Bühler, Dukhovnoye raztitiye rebyonka (The Spiritual Development of the Chad), Moscow 1926; 1. Peiser, Prufungen hoheren Gehirnfunkionen bei Kleinkindern, Jahrbuch fur Kinderheilkunde, Bd. 91.

27. O. Lipmann and H. Bogen, Naive Physik, 1923.

28. They are taken from the work of 0. Lipmann and H. Bogen, Naive Physik.

29. Norsworthy, The Psychology of Mental D~ Children, New York 1906. Quoted from Vinnill.

30. See Chapter 2 above.

31. This material is taken from the study by A. N. Leontiev, Razvitiye pamyati u detyei (The Development of Memory in Children), done in the psychological laboratory of the Academy of Communist Education.

32. His study “Issledovaniye oposredstvovannogo vnimaniya u detyei” (Study on mediate attention in children) is published in Trudy psikhologicheskov Laboratorii Akadmii kommuniseskodiei"o vospitaniya (Research of the psychological laboratory of the Academy of Communist Education).

33. These experiments were repeated and continued in our laboratory by Ye. Kuchurin.

34. More detailed work on this question has been done in our laboratory by a number of students from the Academy of Communist Education. The figures are taken from the work of students Novitsky and Yelmenev.

35. K. Chukovsky, Malenkiye dyeti (Small children), Leningrad, 1928.

36. Perhaps unaware of the existence of the homophone moshennik, ‘swindler’ (translator’s note).

37. Tracy, The Psychology of Childhood, Boston, 1894.

38. One of us has dealt with this subject in detail elsewhere: A. Luria, volume I, Rech i intellekt v razvitii rebyonka (Speech and intellect in the development of the child), Moscow, 1928. (Trudy psikhologicheskoy laboratorii Akademii kommunisticheskogo vospitaniya) (Research of the psychological laboratory of the Academy of Communist Education), and volume II, Rech i intellekt krestyanskogo, gorodskego i besprizornogo rebyonka (Speech and intellect of peasant, urban and homeless children), Moscow, GIZ, 1929 (ibid.)

39. I.I. Blonsky, Pedologia (Pedology), Moscow 1925, page 96.

40. A number of studies have established that such a substitution may also occur with regard to the cerebral hemispheres. If the speech centers of the left hemisphere are damaged, the function of speech maybe restored through the development of the same function in the right hemisphere. This involves great difficulties, as there can be no question of a straightforward switch between the two.

41. Cf. K. Burklen, Blinden psychologie, 1924.

42. It is interesting to note that all the types of speech referred to here are often retained by the deaf-mute, and used for the transmission of different kinds of material. For example, when communicating with adults, deaf-mute children tend to rely on finger-and lip-reading, whereas among themselves and in the expression of their emotional states, mimicry is the predominant form of speech.

43. Th. Gelpke, Uber die Bezienung des Sehorgans zum jugendlichen Schulachsinn, 1904. Quotation from Troshin.

44. Sravnitelnaya psikhologia mwmalnykh i nenormalnykh detyei (The comparative psychology of normal and abnormal children), Vol. U, pages 683,687 and 688.

45. E. Seguin, Traitement moral, hygiene et education des idiots et des autres enfants arrieres, 1846. (Sib., 1903, pages XXXVII-VIII).

46. We have adduced a number of cases here merely as illustrative material. Detailed statistical data will be found in the study by A.M. Leontiev, which is being issued in the publications of the psychological laboratory of the Academy of Communist Education.

47. The Medico-Pedagogical Institute of the Narkompros (People’s Commissar for Education).