Marx/Engels Internet Archive

The German Ideology



Chapter One, Feuerbach

Materialism and Idealism

Ideology in General, German Ideology in Particular

First Premises of Materialist Method

Division of Labour and Forms of Property

The Essence of the Materialist Conception of History

History: Fundamental Conditions

Private Property and Communism

The Illusions of the Epoch

Summary of the Materialist Conception of History

The Real Basis of Ideology

Proletarians and Communism

The Necessity, Preconditions and Consequences of the Abolition of Private Property

The Necessity of the Communist Revolution

Chapter Two, Bauer

On Bruno Bauer

Chapter Three, Stirner

On Max Stirner

On Religion


The Professional Thinkers

The Bourgeoisie and the Family

On Ideas and Social Conditions

Free Labour


Individuality and Property

Private Property and Alienation

On Criticism of Religion

On Class Interests

On Communism and Morality

On Human Nature

On Desire and the Conditions of Life

On Individual and Class Interests

The Conditions of Life of a Class Appear as Universal

Social Development Exposes Falsehoods

On Freedom

Material Life the Basis of the State

Economic Dependence of the State on the Bourgeoisie




Revolutionary Tasks

The Idea and the Realisation of Freedom

On Individuality

Thought and Language

Language and Life

Chapter Four, German Socialism

True Socialism

Die Rheinischen Jahrbücher




On Communism and Inequality