Alexandra Feodorovna (Alix) (1872-1918): Princess of Hesse-Darmstadt, grand-daughter of Queen Victoria of England. Became Czarina in 1894 by marriage to Czar Nicholas II. In her last years she hecame involved in the Rasputin scandals. Executed with husband and family 1918.
Alexeyev, Mikhail Vasilevitch (1857-1918): Czarist General. Chief of Staff under Nicholas II, 1915-17. Commander-in-Chief under Provisional Government 1917. Dismissed by Kerensky, June 4th 1917. Founder of counter-revolutionary Volunteer Army 1918.
Alexinsky, Grigory Alexeyevich (1879-??): Moscow Bolshevik in the early days. Social Democratic member of 2nd Duma 1907. “Otzovist” after the 1905 Revolution. Social-chhauvinist in the War. Joined Plekhanov’s Yedinstvo Group during the revolution. After July, a counter-revolutionary. Author of forgeries against Lenin as a German agent. In emigration since April 1918, joined counter-revolutionary organization of General Wrangel.
Avksentiev, Nikolai Dmitrievich (1878-1943): Old and leading Right-Wing Social Revolutionary. Member 1905 Soviet and Executive Committee. A chauvinist in the War. Minister of the Interior under Kerensky, August-September 1917. Chairman, All Russian Soviet of Peasants’ Deputies of the Democratic Conference and the Pre-Parliament. On Ufa Directorate, expelled from Siberia by Whites. Emigrated 1919.
Bakhnietiev, Boris Alexander (l880-l95l): Engineer, member War Industries Committee 1914-15. Deputy Minister Trade & Commerce under Lvov. Ambassador to Washington 1917. Lived after October in the USA.
Bogdanov, B.O. (1884-1919): Menshevik Liquidator. Member of War Industries Committee. Member Executive Committee of Petrograd Soviet, Bureau and Committee of Defence. Representative of Soviet on Duma Committee.
Bonaparte, Napoleon (1769-1821): France’s great post-revolutionary general and Emperor 1804-1815.
Brassilov, Mexil Alexeyevich (1853-1926): Czarist General. Led invasion of Galicia 1915-1917. Commander-in-Chief under Provisional Government June-July 1917, replacing Alexeyev. Commanded the July offensive. Replaced by Kornilov. Joined the Red Army in 1920. Retired 1924.
Bablikov A.A. (1875-??): Engineer. Member 4th Duma. After February 1917 on Provisional Committee of State Duma. Member of Petrograd Soviet. Participated in State Conference at Moscow.
Bnrtzey, Vladimir Lyovich (1862-1936): Revolutionary, anti-Bolshevik. Emigrated 1917. Later joined Wrangel.
Chernov, Victor Mikhailovich (1876-1952): Entered politics in early nineties. Founder and leader of Social-Revolutionaries. Emigré 1899-1917. Participated in Zimmerwald anti-war Conference. Minister of Agriculture in Provisional Government May-September 1917. Chairman, Constituent Assembly 1918. Helped counter-revolutionary Caechoslovaks. Headed Ufa Directorate. Arrested by Koichak and released. Emigré 1921. Member Executive Committee of Second International.
Chkheidze, Nikolai Sesnenovich (1864-1926): Georgian Menshevik. Member 3rd and 4th Dumas. In War, a centrist. Member Provisional Committee of Duma. 1st Chairman Petrograd Soviet 1917. Chairman, Central Committee of All-Russian Soviets. Chairman, Constituent Assembly of Georgia 1918. Emigré 1921. Retired from politics, committed suicide.
Dan, F. (Fedor Ilich Gurvich) (1871-1947): Physician. Emigré 1891. Member Emancipation League and Iskra Group. Arrested in Russia 1902, exiled, escaped 1903. Joined Mensheviks, close associate of Lieber. Arrested and mobilized 1914. Active in Soviets 1917, on Praesidium of Petrograd Soviet. Arrested 1921 and expelled from the Soviet Union 1922. Died in the USA.
Gotz, Abrain Raphailovich (1882-1937): Social Revolutionary leader in Petrograd Soviet. Opposed October Revolution and fought Soviets till 1920. Condemned to death 1920, freed, later held hostage and shot in 1937.
Gurko, Vasili Iosifovich (1864-1937): Czarist General. Fought in Russo-Japanese War, and under Rennenkampf in World War I. Chief of Staff 1916-19l7. Commander Rumanian Front 1917. Counter-revolutionary monarchist, and Black Hundred leader. Dismissed by Kerensky May 1917. Emigrated to England.
Guchko, Alexander Ivanovich (1862-1936): Moscow landowner and industrialist. Founder and leader of “Octobrists” 1905. President 3rd Duma. Minister of War and Navy, March-May 1917. Resigned 31st May 1917. Counter-revolutionary. Emigrated to Berlin.
Hohenzollern Dynasty: The ruling family of Prussia and, since 1871, of Germany. Overthrown 1919.
Kaledin, Alexel Maximovich (1861-1918): Czarist General, Commander 8th Army. Dismissed May 1917. Elected Ataman of Don Cossacks and led counterrevolutionary armies. Suicide February 1918.
Kant, Immanuel (1724-1804): German idealist philosopher.
Kerensky, Alexander Fedorovich (1881-1970): Social Revolutionary. Leader Trudoviks in the 4th Duma. Defence counsel in pre-war political trials. Vice-Chairman Petrograd Soviet. Minister of Justice, March-May 1917 under Lvov. Minister of War & Navy May-September 1917. Premier Provisional Government July 20th-November 7th 1917. After Bolshevik seizure of power fled Petrograd. Lived in USA.
Kokoshkin, Fedor Fedorovich (1871-1918): Cadet. Professor of Constitutional Law, Moscow University. State Comptroller under Kerensky, August-September 1917. Arrested and imprisoned by Bolsheviks November 1917. Later killed by sailors.
Konovalov, Alexander Ivanovich (1875-1948): Industrialist, textile tycoon. Progressive Block 4th Duma. Minister of Commerce and Industry March-June, and October-November 1917. Arrested in Winter Palace, November 7th 1917, Emigré.
Kornilov, Lavr Georgevich (1870-1918): Siberian Cossack. Commander South Western Front 1917. Replaced Brussilov as Commander-in-Chief under Provisional Government, July 1917. Arrested 14th September, after attempt at counter-revolutionary uprising 7th-l2th September. Escaped later and led Volunteer Army. Killed in action April 18, 1918.
Mediev, V. L: Social Revolutionary. Deputy Minister to Kerensky for Military and Naval Affairs in July Coalition.
Lieber, M.I. (Mikhail Issakovich Goldman) (1885-1937): Leader of Jewish Bund. Exiled and escaped several times. Later joined Mensheviks and was a close associate of Dan. As Member Central Executive Committee of Soviets, favoured Coalition. Anti-Bolshevik. Shot in 1937.
Liebknecht, Karl (1871-1919): Left-Wing German Social Democrat. Member German Reichstag and Prussian Landtag. Anti-militarist. Was first to oppose war credits in Reichstag in 1914. Drafted during the War, imprisoned for anti-war activity May 1916 to November 1918. Leader of “International Group” and “Spartacus League”. Founder member of German Communist Party (KPD). One of the leaders of the Berlin Uprising 1919. Assassinated by counter-revolutionary soldiers, January 15th 1919, with Rosa Luxemburg.
Lloyd-George, David (1863-1945): Liberal Welsh MP since 1890. Chancellor of the Exchequer 1908-1915. Minister of Munitions 1915-1916. Secretary of State for War 1916. Premier 1916-1922. Co-author of Versailles Treaty and active anti-Soviet interventionist.
Lvov, George Eugeneyevich (1861-1925): Russian Prince. Member 1st Duma. Premier of the 1st Provisional Government March-July 1917. Emigrated 1918.
Maklakov, V.A. (1869-1970): Moscow landowner and leading lawyer. Right Wing Cadet. Member 2nd, 3rd and 4th Dumas. Ambassador of Provisional Government to Paris. Emigré.
Martov, L. (Yulii Ossipovich Tsederbaum) (1873-1923): One of the founders of the Russian Social Democracy and in early years a close associate of Lenin. Later left-wing Menshevik leader. Zimmerwaldist. Opposed Bolsheviks in the Revolution. Emigrated to Berlin 1920. Member of the Vienna International.
Mehring, Franz (1846-1919): German scholar and historian. Left wing Social Democrat. Leading member of “International Group” and “Spartacus League".
Miliukov, Pavel Nikolaievich (1859-1943): Professor of History Moscow University. Cadet leader. Member 3rd and 4th Dumas. Minister of Foreign Affairs, Provisional Government March-May 1917. Anti-Bolshevik 1918-19. Emigrated to Paris.
Nabokov, Vladimir Dmitrievich (1860-1922): Jurist. Cadet. Member 1st Duma. Delegate to Moscow State Conference. Member Praesidium PreParliament. Executive Secretary, Provisional Government. Minister of Justice in Crimean (counter-revolutionary) Government. Killed in Berlin by Russian reactionary in an attempt on the life of Miliukov.
Nekrassov, Nikolai Vissarionovich (1879-1940): Cadet. Professor Tomsk Technological Institute. Member 3rd and 4th Dumas. Minister of Communications, March-July 1917. Minister of Finance, August-September 1917. Remained in Russia after the Revolution and worked for the Soviet Government.
Peshekhonov, A.V. (1867-1934): Narodnik. Leader of “Peoples’ Socialists” (left of Cadets). Minister of Supplies in 1st Coalition Provisional Government. Expelled from Russia for counter-revolutionary activity.
Plekhanov, George Valentinovich (1856-1918): Founder of Russian Marxism. Emigré since 1883. Edited Iskra and Zarya. During the Revolution opposed the Bolsheviks. Edited Yedinstvo and headed the Group. Died in Finland.
Polovstev, P.: Colonel, later General. Military Governor of Petrograd under the Provisional Government. Crushed the July uprising.
Potressov, Alexander Nikolalevich (1869-1934): A Founder of the Russian Social Democracy. Member, Iskra Group. In 1917 a Right Wing Menshevik and active anti-Bolshevik in the Civil War. Emigrated 1922 to Paris.
Ribot, Alexander (1842-1923): French Moderate Republican. Deputy from 1878. Premier of France, March-September 1917.
Robespierre, Maximilien (1758-1794): Leader of the Jacobins in the Great French Revolution.
Rodichev, Fedor Izmailovich (1854-1933): Landowner, leader of the liberal opposition in the Zemstvos. A founder of the Cadet Party. Deputy to 1st to 4th Dumas. In 1917, Provisional Government Commissar in Finland.
Rodzianko, Mikhail Vladimirovich (1859-1924): Landowner, Octobrist. President 4th Duma. Member Provisional Committee of Duma, 1917. Emigrated.
Rothschild: Famous Banking family of Austria. Founder Meyer Amschel (1743-1812) had five sons, all of them becoming Barons of the Austrian Empire in recognition of services rendered during Napoleonic wars and in the industrial and commercial development of Austria. Son Nathan became the greatest financier of the 19th Century.
Ryabushinski, Pavel Paviovich (1871-1924): Textile king and multi-millionnaire. Cadet. Member Progressive Bloc in Duma. Supported Kornilov.
Savinkov, Boris Viktorovich (V. Ropshin) (1879-1925): Writer and revolutionary. Member Social Revolutionary Combat Organization. Involved in assassination of Count Plehve and Grand Duke Sergei. Volunteer in French Army during the War. Assistant Minister of War to Kerensky. Anti-Bolshevik 1918-21. Sentenced to 10 years under the Bolsheviks. Committed suicide 1925.
Shingariev, Alexel Ivanovich (1869-1918): Physician. Cadet. Member 2nd, 3rd and 4th Dumas. Finance Minister March-May 1917. Minister of Agriculture May-July 1917 in Lvov Cabinets. Resigned July 15th, 1917. Arrested and imprisoned by Bolsheviks in November 1917. Killed by sailors 1918.
Skobolev, Matvei Ivanovich (1885-1939): Menshevik. Member 4th Duma Vice-President Petrograd Soviet and member of Executive Committee. Minister of Labour in Provisional Government May to September 1917. Joined the Communist Party 1922.
Sukhomlinov, Vladimir Alexandrovich (1848-1926): Minister of War under Nicholas II 1909-1914. Suspected of being pro-German, dropped June 1915 and sentenced to life imprisonment. Escaped abroad after October.
Teresehenko, Mikhail Ivanovich (1888-1959): Financier and sugar tycoon. Minister of Finance March-May 1917; for Foreign Affairs, May-November 1917. Associate Premier with Kerensky from September 18th. Emigrated.
Tseretelli, Irakili Georgevich (1882-1959): Georgian Menshevik. Member 2nd Duma. Exiled to Siberia by Czar. Member Executive Committee of Petrograd Soviet 1917. Minister of Posts March-August 1917; of the Interior, July-August 1917. Member Georgian Republican Government. Executive Committee member 2nd International. Emigrated.
Venizelos, Eleftherios (1864-1936): Cretan. Leader of anti-Turk rebellion. Premier of Greece l910-15. From 1915 he was constantly in and out of the Government in a tussle with King Constantine. In June 1917, Constantine was forced to abdicate, and Venizelos brought Greece into the war on the side of the Entente. Resigned 1920, and staged a short come-back in 1923.
Voitlasky, Vladimir Sysvelevlch (1887-1960): Bolshevik. Joined Mensheviks after April Conference, 1917. Military Commissar of Provisional Government for the Northern Front. After October, member Georgian Menyshevik Government. In emigration, Professor of Economics, John Hopkins University, USA.
Wilson, Theodore Woodrow (1856-1924): President of the USA, 1913-1921.
Zarudny, A.S. (1863-1934): Petrograd Lawyer. Minister of Justice in July Coalition Provisional Government. Issued orders for arrest of Lenin, Trotsky, Kamenev and Zinoviev.
Zinovlev, Gregory Evseyevich (1883-1936): Bolshevik. Member Central Committee. President Petrograd Soviet 1919-1926. Chairman, Executive Committee of 3rd International. Expelled from the Party 1927. Capitulated to Stalin. Expelled again 1934. Executed after “trial” 1936.
Last updated on: 8.12.2006