MIA: Encyclopedia of Marxism: Glossary of Organisations



Habsburg Dynasty

Ancient feudal ruling family taking its name from the "Habitschburg" (Castle of the Hawk) of Alsace. The family began with a few acres of land. Rudolph I (1218-1291) originally a Swiss Count, having defeated Ottoker of Hohenstauffen in 1278, was elected King of the Holy Roman Empire of 400 feudal baronies, thus acquiring Austria and its dependencies. The dynasty ruled over many peoples, hut could never hold them together into a single nation. Between 1298 and 1499, the Habsburgs tried to annex Switzerland and failed. In 1806 title of Holy Roman Emperor was abandoned. The male line died out in 1740 and on Maria Theresa's marriage the dynasty was known as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine. After the Ausgleich of 1867, the Habsburg-Lorraine ruled over Austria-Hungary. With the Austrian Revolution Emperor Karl abdicated on November 12, 1918.