MIA: Encyclopedia of Marxism: Glossary of Periodicals



Toiler, The (1919-1922)

The Toiler was a weekly regional transitional publication of the American Communist movement. Although little-known, the paper occupied a significant place between its state-oriented Socialist Party predecessor, The Ohio Socialist, and its well-known national Communist successor, The Daily Worker. Some 113 issues were produced on the road from Point A to Point B, a trip which took more than three years. The transitional nature of this publication reflected the ongoing fationalism in the communist movement during the consoldiation of the movement into one national party instead of the previous two parties, the Communist Labor Party and the Communist Party of America. The paper was published out of Cleveland, Ohio, as was its predecessor, The Ohio Socialist but moved to New York City and became the main, central public "labor" organ of the United Communist Party and then the merged CP. On its masthead read “Official Organ of the Communist Labor Party of Ohio”. The Toiler was edited by Elmer T. Alison. The size of the paper varied all the way from large broadsheet down to journal size before it merged with Workers Council paper and became The Worker which then, going daily, became the Daily Worker.

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Tovarishch (The Comrade)

A daily that was published in St. Petersburg from March 1906 till January 1908. Formally not the organ of any particular party; it published some contributions from Mensheviks.