Marxists Internet Archive: History Archive: Algeria
Principal Dates and Time Line of
From Timelines of History
1945 April 24 Messali Hadj is interned at El Golea. April 30 Maurice Torres lays the cornerstone of La Masion du Peuple on the Place Desaix in the Communist stronghold of Bab el Oued. May 1 Nationalists marchers in the May Day parade unfurl their banners in front of 10th Military Region headquarters on the Rue d'Isly, Algiers. The garrison opens fire killing 11 marchers and wounding many more. May 1 Supporters of Messali Hadj commemorate the Liberation with riotous demonstrations that bring out the Army. Several nationalists are killed or injured in Bône and Oran. May 2 -- 7 Nationalist leaders throughout Algeria are arrested. Ferhat Abbas is left at liberty. May 8 -- 17 Thousands of rioting Moslems attack military posts and police stations, burn farms and destroy bridges in Petite Kabylia. Europeans and Jews are massacred (200 dead and 300 injured). The bloodiest rioting takes place in the triangle bounded by Bougie, Djidjelli and Constantine. Sétif, the stronghold of Ferhat Abbas, is the scene of the worst violence. May 8 -- 17 The Army exacts bloody reprisals. The Air Force and Navy bombard insurgent Arab villages. Official figures, based on ration cards, show 1,150 Moslems killed. Nationalists claim that 25,000 have been killed. May 9 “The Algerian Communist Party appeals to the Algerian population to unite to exterminate the vestiges of fascism everywhere they remain. It is time to punish the traitors, to confiscate their property. It is time, finally, to call on the populations of Algeria to found a true democracy.” The Europeans of the PCA organize militias and actively participate in the repression of the Moslems. May 10 General de Gaulle wires Governor General Yves Chataigneau, “Please transmit to the families of the victims of the aggression at Sétif, the sympathy of General de Gaulle and the entire government. Please affirm, publicly, the will of victorious France to not allow any attack on French sovereignty in Algeria. Please take all necessary measures to repress any anti-French intrigues by a minority of agitators. Please affirm that France retains its confidence in the mass of French Moslems of Algeria.” May 22 Amnesty is granted all who submit to French authority and disposed of their arms. May 22 General Duval, Army commander in Algeria, tells a gathering of local politicians, “I have given you peace for 10 years. But one should not be deluded. Everything must change in Algeria.” May 26 Order is restored. The rebellion is crushed. 3,696 insurgents have been arrested. 99 will be sentenced to death, the others are handed hard labor and prison sentences. June 15 The French Government orders the closure of United States military bases in Algeria in response to American policy favors decolonization. July 3 Interior Minister Adrien Tixier declares order restored in the Department of Constantine and announces plans for, "the integration of Moslems into the French Community," by granting the vote about 800,000 of them. November 30 Marcel Cerdan wins the Middleweight Boxing Championship of France with a 3rd round knock out of Assane Diouf at the Palais des Sports in Paris. 1946 February Three hundred people are killed when earthquakes rattle Sétif and Batna. March 15 An amnesty is granted to most of the Nationalists imprisoned for the 1945 riots. Ahmed Francis, Ferhat Abbas, Ahmed Boumendjel, Mohamed Khider and Larbi Ben M'Hidi are released. March 16 Ferhat Abbas calls on Algerians, “French and Moslem” to reconcile within a democratic Algerian homeland, an Algerian Algeria within the French Union. April 14 Ferhat Abbas reconstitutes the Union Démocratique du Manifeste Algérien (UDMA). June 2 Ferhat Abbas' UDMA wins 11 of the 13 National Assembly seats allotted to the 2nd electoral college. Socialists deputies represent the other Moslem constituencies in the new chamber. August 2 UDMA deputies introduce a bill in the National Assembly calling for the creation of a, “Constitution of the Algerian Republic” within the French Union. August 14 Admiral Jean Charles Abrial, Governor General of Algeria under Vichy, is convicted of collaboration and sentenced to 10 years at hard labor. October 13 The Constitution of the Fourth Republic is approved in a referendum despite the opposition of General de Gaulle. The charter is approved by 53% of voters in Metropolitan France but less than 39% of Algerian voters are in accord. November 10 The Movement for the Triumph of Democratic Liberties (MTLD) elects 5 members to the National Assembly. December 19 Ten prisoners are executed for acts committed during the May, 1945 riots. 1947 February 2 Marcel Cerdan wins the European Middleweight Boxing Championship with a 1st round knock out of Belgian Leon Fouquet in Paris. March 23 Belkacem Krim, who fled to the bush, is sentenced to death in absentia. August 27 The National Assembly approves an Organic Act for Algeria by a vote of 328 to 33 with 208 deputies abstaining including all 15 Moslems. The Act: Replaces government by decree with a 120 member Algerian Assembly but maintains the two college electoral system. Half the members are to be elected by French citizens and half by French subjects i.e. most Moslems. Provides for separation of Mosque and State. Replaces communes mixtes with democratically elected local councils. Recognizes Arabic along with French as an official language and language of school instruction. Replaces the military government of the Saharan territories with civil departments. Enfranchises Moslem women. The 21st Congress of the PPA-MTLD decides to maintain the PPA as a clandestine organization, constitute the MTLD as a legal front and organize an army, the Organization Spéciale (OS). September 20 The Saharan territories are organized as French departments. October 9 Hocine Aït Ahmed is sentenced to a year in prison for advocating insurrection. October 12 Charles de Gaulle declares that, “any policy which would have the effect of reducing the rights and duties of France, here (in Algeria), or cause the French Moslems to think it would be permissible for them to one day separate their fate from that of France, would that not open the door to decline?... to those Frenchmen, Moslem or not, who are misled in the dream of secession, I say today, before you all, you are mistaken and mislead the others! Your future as proud and free men and that of your children can only be found with France and in France.” November 28 General Philippe Leclerc is killed in an airplane crash near Colomb Bechar. During the Year Albert Camus' novel La Peste (The Plague) is published. The fictional story of rat infestation and an ensuing epidemic set in Oran is interpreted by some as a metaphor for the German occupation of Paris. 1948 April 11 Second round balloting in the first elections for the Algerian Assembly is marked by widespread fraud and intimidation of Nationalist voters. Thirty percent of the 2nd college electorate abstains from voting. Resulting Distribution of Seats First Electoral College Gaullists 38 Independents 14 Socialists 4 Communists 1 Radicals 1 Second Electoral College Independents 43 MTLD (Messali Hadj) 9 UDMA (Ferhat Abbas) 8 May 6 Collaboration charges against General Maxime Weygand, who served as Governor General of Algeria and commander of the French Army in North Africa from July to November, 1941, are dismissed for acts of resistance. September 21 Marcel Cerdan wins the World Middleweight Boxing Championship with a 12th round knock out of American Tony Zale in a match at Jersey City, New Jersey. October The Departmental General Council of Algiers approves a resolution calling for a ban on the Communist Party of Algeria by a vote of 24 to 2. November 25 Collaboration charges against Air Minister and General Jean Bergeret are dismissed for acts of resistance. During the Year Alain Mimoun wins the silver medal in the men's 10,000 meter race at the London Olympic Games. Geologists discover oil and gas reserves in the Sahara. Aït Ahmed Hocine takes charge of the OS. 1949 May 8 President Vincent Auriol makes the first visit to Algeria by a French head of state since 1930 to present the Croix de Guerre to the cities of Algiers and Bône. May 10 Saiah Abdelkader is elected speaker of the Algerian Assembly by a vote of 96 to 24. May 26 - 28 The 5th Congress of the Algerian Communist Party meets in Oran. The Congress condemns the Arab League as a, "tool of the Anglo-American imperialists and the Arab landowners." August 4 An OS gang led by Ahmed Ben Bella and Hocine Aït Ahmed steals 3 million francs from the Oran post office. A guard is killed during the robbery. October 15 Governor General Marcel Naegelen dedicates a monument to Abd el Kader on the Cacherou plateau. The memorial is inscribed with the Emir's words, “If the Moslems and the Christians will listen to me, I will end their quarrels and they will become brothers inside and out.” October 27 Marcel Cerdan is killed when his Air France flight to New York crashes in the Azores. The boxer was en route a World Middleweight Championship rematch with Jake LaMotta. His career ends with 106 wins including 61 knock outs and 4 losses. 1950 Amhed Ben Bella is arrested and sentenced to 8 years in prison for robbing the Oran post office. Belhadj Djilali Abd el Kader is arrest and sentenced to 3 years in prison for nationalist conspiracy. March 18 Khiarri Abd el Kader, who resigned from the MTLD, is murdered by the OS. The killers are arrested at the scene. Information obtained during their interrogation leads to the arrest of over 200 other OS members. April 30 Conrad Kilian, who failed in his quest to attract support for development of Saharan petroleum resources during the 1920s, is found hanging from the window shutters of his room. The death is ruled a suicide. September Over 1,000 Algerian Nationalists are arrested in Paris and Marseilles following protests against a decree banning the Nationalist newspaper Algérie Libre. December 15 Bachir Rouighi, a Frenchman from Laghouat, wins the Algiers -- Capetown Rally in a Berliet truck. During the Year The Pasteur Institute of Algiers announces the development of a serum which is 92% effective in the treatment of scorpion bites. 1951 April 19 Roger Léonard, the newly appointed Governor General, arrives in Algiers. June Electoral fraud deprives the Nationalists of victory in elections for the National Assembly. July Messali Hadj, Ferhat Abbas and the Oulemas agree to join the Communists in an Algerian Front for the Defense and Respect of Liberty. The Front is a protest against the fraud and coercion exercised by the administration in the June elections, restrictions on civil liberties and state interference in Moslem religious institutions. The Nationalists and Communists agree to ignore their differences on foreign policy but fail to reach agreement on a common slate of candidates. July 23 Ramdane Abane, a member of the PPA, is sentenced to 6 years in prison. October Nationalists boycott municipal elections. Only 20% of 2nd college electors cast their ballot. 1952 March 16 Ahmed Ben Bella escapes from Blida Prison with Ali Mahsas, another nationalist, and flees to Cairo. May 7 General Alphose Juin, a native of Bône, is made a Marshal of France. May 14 The arrival of Messali Hadj at Orléanville incites a riot. Police kill 2 demonstrators. A police commissioner is seriously injured. The leader of the MNA is exiled to France. During the Year Alain Mimoun wins silver medals in the men's 5,000 and 10,000 meter races at the Helsinki Olympic Games. 1954 January 16 René Coty is inaugurated as President of the French Republic. March 10 Natural gas reserves are discovered at In Salah in the Sahara. March 30 The “nine historic leaders” of the Algerian Revolution form the Comité Révolutionnaire d'Unité et d'Action (CRUA). The move follows the breakup of Messali Hadj's Mouvement Nationaliste Algérienne (MNA), June 3 Mohamed Boudiaf, leader of the Mouvement pour le Triomphe des Libertés Démocratiques (MTLD), becomes the first President of the CRUA. June 18 Pierre Mendés France becomes Premier of France. August 1 General Paul Cherrière assumes command of the Army in Algeria. August Ferhat Abbas meets with Pierre Mendes France in Paris. Abbas warns the Premier that unless the 1947 Organic Act is fully implemented, “without fraud, and with the minimum delay,” moderate leaders such as Abbas will be swept aside by the course of events. September 9 A strong earthquake rocks the Orléansville region killing 1,450 people. October 10 Six of the “nine historic leaders” of the Algerian Revolution; Rabah Bitat, Mostefa Ben Boulaid, Mourad Didouche, Mohamed Boudiaf, Belkacem Krim and Larbi Ben M'Hidi approve the transformation of the CRUA into the National Liberation Front (FLN), establish the Army of National Liberation (ALN) and decide to launch an insurrection on November 1st during a meeting at the Climat de France, a house overlooking Bab el Oued. The missing “historics”, Mohamed Khider, Ahmed Ben Bella and Hocine Ait Ahmed are in Cairo. October 30 The French Army in Algeria numbers 56,000. Algeria's police force numbers 2,300 for a population of 10 million, a little more than one fifth the per capita size of the force in metropolitan France. October 31 Jean Vaujour, Prefect of the Algiers police, alerts the 10th Military District to the possibility of an insurrection during the next 48 hours. October 31 The first bombs explode shortly before midnight. The military is put on alert. Arms are removed from Boufarik and other barracks. October 31 Around midnight, the first civilian casualty of the revolution, 19 year old François Laurent, is killed outside the Cassaigne police station near Oran. November 1 An FLN announcement broadcast over Cairo's Voice of the Arabs declares, “Algeria is returning to the fight for the freedom of Islam.”November 1An FLN announcement broadcast over Cairo's Voice of the Arabs declares, “Algeria is returning to the fight for the freedom of Islam.”November 1Rebels halt a bus in the Aurés. The Caid of M'Chouneche Ben Hadj Sadok, a well known, "Friend of France", and Guy Monnerot, a school teacher recently arrived from metropolitan France, are killed. Monnerot's wife Jeannine is seriously injured in the attack. November 1 The first military casualties of the Algerian Revolution are Pierre Audat, a Chasseur from the 9th Régiment Coloniale d'Artillerie and Brigade Chief Eugène Cochet from the 2/4 RA killed at Batna; André Marquet of the 4th RA and Lieutenant Gérard Darneau of the Spahis killed at Kenchela and Hamed Harouk, a police detective, killed at Dra El Mizan. November 2 The Communist Party journal Alger Républicain labels the perpetrators of the, “All Saints Day tragedy”, “provocateurs”, “sowers of panic” and, “a handful of unconscionable or corrupt agitators” and calls on the authorities to, “appeal to the masses for the annihilation of the rebellion.” November 2 Moulay Merbah, General Secretary of the MTLD, is arrested. November 3 A court rules that soldiers involved in clashes with civilians in peacetime must be arraigned before and an examining magistrate. Repression of the 1945 riots is held to be legal because it occurred while the laws of war were still in force. November 4 Troops are sent into the Aurès to relieve Arris and Foum Toub which are surrounded by the rebels. November 5 Messali Hadj founds the Mouvement Nationaliste Algérienne. November 6 Several civilians are killed when rebels machinegun a bus enroute from Camp du Maréchal to Dellys. November 9 Arms purchased in Toulon and Marseilles are seized from the steamer Governor General Chanzy. November 10 The walls of Algiers are covered with nationalist slogans, some in Arabic script, reading; “VIVE LE FLN, MNA, MESSALI HADJ, ALGÉRIE ALGÉRIENNE or LA VALISE OU LE CERCUEIL (THE SUITCASE OR THE COFFIN, a reference to the choice the FLN proposes to give Algeria's Europeans). November 12 Premier Pierre Mendés France declares that, “The Algerian departments constitute a part of the French Republic. They are of an irrevocable character. Never will France, any Government, any French Parliament, yield on this fundamental principal.” November 12Interior Minister François Mitterrand declares, “I will not permit negotiation with the enemies of the country. The only negotiation is war.”November 16Several people are killed in FLN attacks on the villages of Pasteur and Makouba. November 29 The 18th Régiment Parachustiste Coloniale kills 23 rebels including the leader, Belkacem Grine, and takes 18 prisoners during a ten hour skirmish near Arris in the Aurès. The French lose 4 dead and 7 wounded. November 30 The courts order an autopsy on the bodies of those killed in the Arris skirmish. November 31 The rebels captured at Arris are arraigned before a magistrate who asks, “Did you give the customary warnings before opening fire? Was in necessary to use a machinegun?”December 1General Cherrière's forces number 76,000. December 7 Messali Hadj, under house arrest at Sables d'Olonne in France, intimates to his followers that he gave the go ahead for the November 1st uprising. December 14 The rebels kill 15 Moslem Francophiles in the Aurès. December 22 Police in Algeria and metropolitan France place MTLD militants under surveillance. December 24 The church of Dahroussa near Randon is destroyed by order of terrorist leader Zedam Mohamed. 1955 January 18 Mourad Didouche, one of the nine historics and leader of the FLN in the Northern Constantine, is killed during an attack on a military post at Condé Smendou. January 19 Operation Véronique is launched in the Amar Khadou Mountains north of the Aurès. January 22 Abane Ramdane is released from prison and joins the FLN. January 23 Operation Violette begins in the Tizé and Fouchi Mountains south of the Aurès. January 23 The President of the Djemaa of the M'Chot douar is killed in plain sight by an outlaw who takes flight. January 28 Two people are killed and 3 wounded in a rebel attack on an ambulance near Biskra. February 6 The Government of Premier Pierre Mendés France falls. February 9 Mostefa Ben Boulaid is arrested at Ben Gardane on the Tunisian - Libyan border. February 10 The freighter Athos docks at Nador, Spanish Morocco, where it takes on an arms shipment destined for delivery to the rebels. February 15 The new Governor General, Jacques Soustelle, arrives in Algiers where he receives a cool reception from the Europeans who believe he is ready to write them off. February 16 Algeria's forces of public order include 73,000 troops and 5,700 police. February 23 The Government of Premier Edgar Faure takes office. February 27 Rabah Zerrari, the future Commandant Si Azedine, is surprised while robbing the safe at the Caterpillar factory where he works as a welder. He manages to escape and joins the FLN near Palestro. March 3 Governor General Jacques Soustelle reestablishes the Bureaux Arabes which were abolished in 1871 under the name Section Administrative Spécialisée (SAS). Nearly 700 offices are immediately opened. March 9 The Unités Territoriales are formed by reservists living in Algeria. They serve every 10th day or 10 days every 4 months manning check points and providing protection for youth groups. March 23 Rabah Bitat, one of the nine historic founders of the FLN, is arrested. March 28 The Army introduces heavy helicopters to carry out mobile operations against the rebels. April 1 A state of emergency is declared in the Grande Kabylie and in the Aurès. April 6 Messali Hadj, founder of the MNA who is living under house arrest in France, is transferred from Belle Ile en Mer to Angoulême. April 14 Municipal Councilor Saibi Mohamed is kidnapped from the Douar of Tarfana, Constantine. April 22 Ali la Pointe, future aide de camp to Yacef Saadi, escapes from the Damiette labor camp near Médéa where he is serving a sentence for attempted murder. May 6 Messali Hadj is released from house arrest. May 6 Two forest rangers, Moertens and Dauty, are killed in Kabylia and near Ain Kechera. May 12 Fourteen people are killed and more than 20 wounded in rebel attacks in the Aurès and the Constantine region. May 12 Ludovic Ferracu, stonemason, has his throat cut, near Batna, by a Moslem who flees the scene. May 15 The French Army is forced to withdraw from Nemencha in the Aurès. May 16 Algiers mayor Jacques Chevalier secures the parole of 11 FLN detainees arrested after the November 1954 attacks including Yusef Ben Khedda, the future President of the Provisional Government. May 16 A band of outlaws invades the village of Ain Naga near Biskra. Ten of them are killed by the veterans home guard. May 18 The French Cabinet authorizes aerial bombardment in Algeria. May 18 2,000 feet of vines are uprooted at a farm in Bimandreis near Algiers. May 21 A decree authorizes the mobilization of reservists living in Algeria. May 22 Two Algiers shopkeepers, Mr. Bonnier and René Fernandez, are gravely wounded by a terrorist who is cut down. May 22 Rebels uproot 25,000 feet of vines covering 6 hectares on the farm of M. J. Torres, Mayor of Fondouk. May 22 The small village of Youks Les Bains is attacked for a second time by the rebels. May 22 Caid M'Touza, President of the Djemaa and the home guard is kidnapped by the outlaws. May 23 Mohamed Boudiaf, Yacef Saadi and Ali Mahsas meet in a Zurich hotel. They decide to back the anti-MNA terrorists and physically liquidate the leaders of the MNA including Messali Hadj. May 24 Six paratroopers held prisoner by the FLN overwhelm their guards and escape. May 25 The bodies of an administrator and five soldiers killed in an ambush near Guentis in the Aurès are found mutilated. May 28 The bus from Tizi Ouzou to Boghari is machine-gunned by the FLN. Several Moslem passengers are left dead or wounded. June 2 The 2nd Mechanized Infantry Division arrives in Algeria and is stationed in the Grande Kabylie. June 3 General Henri Lorillot replaces General Cherrière as Commander in Chief of the Army in Algeria. June 7 Yacef Saadi is arrested at Orly Airport, Paris. Saadi is sent to Algiers where he is released by the Direction de la Surveillance du Territoire (DST) which believes he will act as an informant. The only names given by Saadi are those of the Messalistes (MNA) leaders in the city. June 11 The Algiers - Grande Kabylie bus is machine-gunned by European counter terrorists at Hussein Dey. Several Moslem passengers are wounded. June 18 The FLN “commemorates” the anniversary of General de Gaulle's 1940 appeal for continued French resistance in World War II with a wave of attacks at Philippeville. Seven bombs go off killing several civilians. June 20 The Central Committee of the Algerian Communist Party decides to ally itself with the FLN during a secret meeting in Bab el Oued. June 20 Paul Caballero, General Secretary of the Algerian Communist Party, is arrested for collusion with the FLN. July 2 General Jacques Massu arrives in Algiers from Tunisia. July 3 Four Frenchmen are wounded by terrorists in Philippeville. July 5 The 8th Spahis leave Saigon for Algiers. July 30 An Aïd el Kébir demonstration organized by the FLN incites a riot in the La Chapelle quarter of Paris. August 1 The French Army in Algeria numbers 145,000 men. August 5 The French Army reoccupies Nemencha in the Aurès. August 6 Soldiers participating in operations related to the maintenance of order and security in North Africa are granted the same rights as those participating in external conflicts. August 7 Bône and surrounding districts are separated from Constantine to form a fourth Algerian department. August 20 Over a thousand FLN supporters attack Philippeville at midday. French troops kill 134 and wound 300 of the insurgents who are forced to retreat. August 20 The FLN forces Moslem workers to participate in the massacre of 35 Europeans at the El Halia mining camp near Philippeville. French troops sent to aid the survivors kill 83 of the assailants and take 58 prisoners. August 20 Thirty nine localities including Kenifra and Oued Zen are attacked by the men of FLN Chief Zighout Youssef. The rebels cut the throats of 171 Frenchmen. 500 rebels are killed, 70 wounded, 1000 taken prisoner. August 20 Allouah Abbas, Constantine municipal councilor and nephew of UDMA leader Ferhat Abbas, is killed by FLN terrorists acting under orders from Ben Tobbal. August 22 Terrorists attack 25 towns in the Constantine. Thirty one Europeans are killed and 66 wounded. August 22 Three French journalists, André Leveuf, Ladeveze and Roland Jourdan are killed at Khenisra. August 23 The Mayor of Fort National is shot in the head and killed by the FLN. August 23 Baiche Areski and his cousin are killed by the fellagha in the Algiers Casbah. August 24 The military classes of 1952 and 1953 are mobilized. August 29 The military class of 1954 is mobilized. The term of service remains 18 months but draftees are conscripted for the duration and receive the same pay as volunteers. Some will serve 32 months, others 27 months. Underground miners serve 18 months. September 3 The Communist Party of Algeria is outlawed. September 11 Riot police clash with protestors at the Gare de Lyon in Paris. The demonstrators are attempting to block the departure of reservists called up for service in Algeria. September 17 Five civilians are murdered in the Constantine Department. September 24 Premier Edgar Faure declares, “All the honor of France, as her humanitarian mission, we impose, without equivocation and without reticence, to keep and Algeria French and in France.... Our goal has become the complete integration of Algeria.”September 25Bachir Chihani's 150 man Aurés FLN unit is put out of action. October 1 Albert Camus, writing in Communauté Algérienne, declares, “I have the Algerian problem like others have lung problems.”October 2Liberté, the clandestine journal of the Algerian Communist Party, publishes the FLN's response to a question posed by Francis Jeanson, “Islam cannot flourish under colonialism...We would accept a Jew, a Protestant, a Catholic, provided that they decide to fight for national liberation and that they accept the program of the Front and only this program." October 3 Ten members of the FLN's El Biar cell are arrested. Their leader, municipal councilor Allal Mezzi, manages to escape. October 4 Twenty people are murdered in the Constantine Department. October 6 Six Europeans and four Moslems are kidnapped at Lannoy near Jammapes in the Constantine Department. October 9 North African demonstrators, led by the agents of the FLN, clash with the forces of public order in Paris, Saint Etienne and Douai, where a police detective has his throat slit and three others are wounded. Two demonstrators are cut down. October 20 Amar Ali aka Ali la Pointe, recently escaped from prison, contacts Yacef Saadi who will make Ali his assistant. October 24 Lieutenant Colonel Marcel Bigeard assumes command of the 3rd Régiment Parachustiste Coloniale. October 25 Bachir Chihani, FLN commander in the Aurés, is executed by his compatriots for incompetence. October 30 The FLN instructs Moslems to, “Drink no more, smoke no more, play no more.”November 2Larbi Ben M'Hidi takes command of the Algiers Autonomous Zone (ZAA) with Yacef Saadi as his aide. November 8 Deputy Marcel Paternot of Algiers denounces the Alfalfa Scandal in the National Assembly. The royalty paid by La Société Général des Alfas on alfalfa harvested from its 690,000 hectare concession in Algeria has been fixed at 15 centimes per ton since 1873. The company pays only 15,000 francs to the French treasury on 3 billion francs worth of grain harvested during the year. November 10 Hassiba Ben Boulaid, commander of the rebels in the Aurès, escapes from the Constantine prison. November 15 The FLN undertakes an offensive against criminal gangs operating in the Algiers Casbah. Most of the gangsters are killed or join the ranks of the FLN. November 18 A civil administrator's escort is attacked in the Constantine: 3 guards are killed, 3 others wounded and an NCO is kidnapped and murdered.November 18 The Chief of the Sûreté Urbaine of Constantine is wounded in an attack. November 24 René Fredy, Police Commissioner of the Reboute quarter, is killed by a terrorist in Algiers. November 27 Nineteen people are killed in an ambush at Tizi Ouzli. November 29 The Government of Edgar Faure falls. December 1 The French Army in Algeria number 160,000 men. December 5 An attack on the center of Lamy, in the Constantine, near the Tunisian frontier, leaves 40 dead among the Moslem population and the outlaws. December 7 A letter circulating between, Ferhat Abbas, Ahmed Francis (Future GPRA finance minister) and Amara Mohamed, the President of the Algiers Moslem Students Association, is discovered by the authorities. Francis and Mohamed are arrested and quickly released. December 10 The leader of the MNA in Algiers is killed by the FLN. December 12 The FLN acts to enforce its edict banning Moslems from engaging in amusements. Bombs are setoff in the Olympia and Donyazad cinémas which are showing Arabic language films. Twenty one Moslems are injured. December 12 Election of deputies to National Assembly is postponed in Algeria. December 18 Five people are killed in an ambush near Bône. December 18 An attack on the civilian hospital in Constantine fails. December 24 A forest ranger, Antoine Gheradi, his wife, and three of their children are savagely murdered near Sétif. December 27 An attack on the Governor General's palace in Algiers fails. December 30 Several Communists are arrested in the Constantine Department while preparing terrorist attacks for January 2nd. 1956 January 1 The French Army in Algeria numbers 186,000 men. January 4 Sixty one members of the National Assembly, Algerian Assembly and French Union Assembly demand recognition as Algerian rather than French citizens and begin a boycott of their respective institutions. January 4 Five French Moslems are murdered in the Constantine. January 4 A Berber grocer, the father of six children, is killed by a terrorist in the Clos Salembier, Algiers. January 7 Governor General Jacques Soustelle writes Premier Edgar Faure, “Generally, it is the 'petits' [small colons] who are most desperate, having no other country, only this one, nor the means to settle elsewhere. These 'petits' constitute the majority of Europeans in Algeria.” He paraphrases the attitude of loyal Moslems, “Since you can neither guarantee our safety nor lay down a firm policy, what would you have us do? We are obliged to give pledges to the FLN, either by resigning or succumbing to violence...We fear that in the event France liquidates its position, we will become the victims of our loyalty to France.” January 7 Three French schoolteachers are kidnapped in Kabylia. Pierre Morer and François Defour of Sete eventually escape. Paul Dupuy of Montpellier disappears. January 8 The FLN kills 8 Europeans and 112 Moslems, wounds 28 Europeans and 99 Moslems and kidnaps 30 Moslems in the Constantine region. January 8 Gilbert Meloni and André Krief, Algerian conscripts, are murdered by the workers at the farm they are guarding. January 8 Sheik Hammarbe Seghir, and his nephew, Natbi Said, are murdered by the rebels near Tazmalt. January 8 Three employees are murdered at the Chettaba Plasterworks near Constantine. January 10 FLN rebels, acting on orders from Ait Hamouda Amirouche, massacre 1,000 Moslems at Oued Amizour in the Soummam Valley. January 10 Five people are wounded in grenade attacks at Bône. A taxicab driver, Seghir Miloud is murdered in the same city. January 15 Bellounis establishes an MNA maquis between Palestro and Bouira to prevent the FLN from gaining a monopoly on freedom of movement among the native population. FLN attacks quickly force him to move to the high plateau near Aumale south of Algiers. January 19 The funeral of Doctor Benzerdjeb, who was killed by the Army while working with the FLN, incites fighting between Moslem demonstrators and Europeans in Tlemcen. January 20 The 3rd Regiment Étranger d'infanterie annihilates Ben Boulaid's rebels in a battle 50 kilometers southwest of Arris.January 21 Tunisian troops kill 29 FLN rebels and take 9 prisoners in a battle 40 kilometers south of Gafsa, Tunisia. January 22 Albert Camus and Emmanuel Roblès travel to Algiers where they call for a civil truce. Camus, “begs the combatants to put an end to the murder of the innocent, victims of nationalist terrorism and French repression".January 23 The FLN introduces a new slogan to rally the Moslem masses, “Hunt the infidels to take their land and their houses.”January 26Algerian rebels based in Morocco attack a bus carrying newly arrived French conscripts from Marnia to Port Say. The rebels kill all on board then slip back into Morocco. January 27 Six soldiers, kidnapped in Orania, are massacred by the rebels. January 27 A Sergeant is killed and two Tirailleurs are wounded near Bordj Menaiel. February 1 The Government of Guy Mollet takes office in France. February 2 An FLN demonstration in Oran turns into a riot. Eight people are killed, a dozen vehicles burned and 20 shops pillaged, ransacked or burned. February 2 Jacques Soustelle receives the acclaim of 50,000 Algérois who try to block his departure for metropolitan France. February 5 Police and demonstrators clash in Oran. One demonstrator is killed and two are injured. Six policemen are wounded. 15 cars and 2 buses are damaged, 9 fires set, and 20 stores including 2 cafés and 7 jewelers are looted. Thirteen people are arrested. February 5 The Régiment de Tirailleurs Algériens post at Sebabna near Relizane on the Moroccan border is attacked by a band of 150 uniformed rebels. The garrison is annihilated with the help of some Moslem tirailleurs. February 5 Louis Pitot, a cashier at the Ain Farroun post office is killed by a terrorist. February 6 Premier Guy Mollet's arrival in Algiers is marked by violent demonstrations. February 6 A bar at Sainte Amélie in the Sahel is attacked by a bomb thrower. February 9 Resident Minister General Georges Catroux, who favors decolonization, resigns. Robert Lacoste is appointed to succeed him. February 7 The FLN outlines its conditions for a settlement at press conference in Cairo, recognition of the principal of Algerian independence, formation of an Algerian government by negotiation and no statute of privilege for the Europeans of Algeria. February 12 The FLN decrees that Moslems forego the customary sacrifice of sheep for the festival of Aïd for the duration of the revolution and donate the price of the sheep to its treasury. February 13 General Marie André Zeller resigns to protest the slow pace in dispatching reinforcements to Algeria. February 14 Generals Zeller and Guillaume are replace by Generals Ely and Piatte on the Army General Staff in Paris. February 16 Mr. and Mrs. Cruet and their niece are murdered at their farm in the Boudouaou Valley. The farm buildings are burnt. February 21 Operation 744, the first helicopter airlift of the Algerian War, begins in the Kabylia west of Bougie. February 21 Twenty one soldiers of the 51st Infantry Regiment are killed in an ambush near El Milia. February 23 The Robles Farm in the Boudouaou Valley is burnt. February 23 A day of attacks and skirmishes leaves 106 people dead throughout the country. February 24 Seven Europeans including a 7½ year old girl and 2 Moslems are killed in an attack on the Bou Saada - Algiers bus. February 24 Three farms at St.Pierre -- St. Paul are attacked by the FLN.February 25 Five hundred rebels attempt to take a police arms depot by storm. One attacker is killed and 3 are wounded. February 28 Resident Minister Robert Lacoste calls for an additional 200,000 troops and declares, “France will not abandon Algeria.”March 4A terrorist shoots and kills Seridi, Abdel Majid, Hazzab of the Guelma Mosque. March 8 French paratroopers trap a company of Tirailleurs Algériens who deserted their post near Guelma after slitting the throats of the European officers. 126 deserters are killed and 6 are taken prisoners. The paras lose one man. March 8 Terrorists posing as French soldiers annihilate nine members of the Benejean and Servat families at their farms outside Palestro. March 8 Rebellious Tirailleurs Algériens murder 8 French soldiers and 3 French women at Souk Arras. March 8 Five Moslem notables are murdered in the Constantine. March 8 Farmer Cyprien Avanza is murdered near La Calle. March 9 10,000 Moslems demonstrators riot in Paris. Police arrest 2,300 and seize arms. March 10 A large quantity, 10 to 12 tons, of arms and munitions are hidden for the rebels at the Camp des Trois Fontaines near Nancy, France. March 11 Six soldiers are killed in a terrorist attack on the Degoul Farm at Vialar. March 12 The National Assembly grants special powers to the Mollet Government which in turn gives the Army carte blanche to deal with the rebellion and terrorism. March 12 Twelve people are wounded in a grenade attack on a café in Khroubs. March 13 Moslem children are withdrawn from Algiers schools on the pretext that they are being given poisoned milk. March 15 France orders 300 light reconnaissance aircraft from the United States. March 16 A curfew is imposed on Algiers. March 17 The Government decrees that henceforth persons accused of acts of pillage, plundering, desertion and terrorism will be tried by military tribunals. March 17 Rebels attack farms in the Boudouaou Valley. The manager of the Raisinette Estate is murdered, the citrus groves are cut down and hay sheds burnt. March 19 19,000 North African workers go on strike in northern France. March 20 University of Algiers professor André Mandouze is expelled from Algeria for supporting the FLN. March 21 The bodies of 15 Moslems whose throats were slit by the fellagha are discovered near Seddouk. March 21 Philippe Buret, proprietor of the Café de l'Avenir, at Fort National, is murdered by the rebels. March 21 Six members of the Beni Abyles family are killed by the rebels at a market near Chevreul in the Constantine. March 22 Mustafa Ben Boulai, leader of the FLN guerillas in the Aurès, is killed when a radio controlled bomb planted by the French Special Services is detonated. March 22 The bodies of 20 rebels are discovered near Akbou with their throats slit. March 23 5,000 Berbers in the Palestro region affirm their loyalty to France. March 23 Striking North African workers clash with police in Roubaix, France. Police arrest 300 strikers in Lille. March 24--27 The 2nd Congress of UGEM (Moslem Students Union), meeting in Paris, approves a resolution denouncing, “colonialism” as “the source of misery and illiteracy.” March 25 Four Communists are arrested in Algiers and charged with threatening the security of the state. March 26 Noël Sabatier, age 27, is killed by rebels on his property near Maillot. March 26 Rebels attack the Grosrenaud Farm in the Boudouaou Valley which is occupied by a military detachment. One soldier is killed. March 27 Ben Boulaid, FLN commandeer in the Aurès, is killed in his headquarters when the French intelligence services succeed in setting a trap with a radio message. March 27 Hammami Boussad, his wife and his 18 month old son, are murdered in the village of Out Saada, in Kabylia. Four other children are wounded in the attack. March 29 The Council of the Arab League approves are resolution of support for the Algerian people in their fight for independence at a meeting in Cairo. March 29 A medical officer, Lieutenant Guillemont, is kidnapped at Djidjelli. March 29 Medical auxiliary Maurice Feignon and Moslem NCOs captured by rebels at Sebdou are tortured with hot irons and boiling liquid then have their throats cut. March 30 7,000 North African workers strike in Lyon, France. March 30 Three French soldiers are kidnapped by the FLN at Texena. March 30 Constantine police commissioner Jean Sanmarcelli is murdered on the street in broad daylight. March 31 The proprietors of the Serra Farm are murdered. The following day the murderers return and carry off the chickens. March 31 Léon Martel, Commandant of the Unité Territoriale de Protection, President of the Rhine and Danube Society and Officer of the Legion of Honor, is killed by five knife stabs at L'Alma. March 31 Police clash with striking North Africans in Longwy, France. Three officers are injured and 150 strikers arrested. April 1 The French Army in Algeria numbers 193,000 men. April 2 A four year old child is injured in a grenade attack on an Algiers cinéma. April 4 Conscript Henri Maillot, a bookkeeper for the Communist newspaper Alger Républicain, deserts in a truck loaded with 97 rifles, 85 machine guns, 90 pistols and 12 cases of grenades and munitions which he turns over to 3 other Communists in the forest of Bainem, 8 kilometers from Algiers. He is then sheltered by a priest in Bab el Oued. April 4 Fifteen Moslems are killed, 3 policemen and 3 soldiers are wounded in terrorist attacks in the Constantine. April 6 A battle of unprecedented magnitude (400 combatants on each side) at Djebel Djorf in the Aurès ends in a stalemate. April 7 A Red maquis is formed by European and Moslem members of the Algerian Communist Party in the Ouarsenis region. April 10 An FLN ambush and French counter attack leaves 120 rebels and 20 French soldiers dead. April 10 The rebels burn a bus and steal 4 million francs in an attack near Tizi Ouzou Lieutenant Touati of the 5th Regiment de Tirailleurs Algériens is arrested for supplying the rebels with information to carryout the robbery. April 10 Simone Minguet, Raymond Bouvet and Jaime Weill are arrested in Paris for distributing copies of La Résistance Algérienne. April 11 A decree calls 170,000 members of the military classes of 1951 to 1954 in Algeria to the colors. April 11 La Croix de la Valeur Militaire is instituted to reward acts of valor. Official policy denies that there is a war under way in Algeria therefore it is not possible to award la Croix de Guerre for such acts. April 11 Pierre Covello and his son are murdered on their farm near Jemmapes. April 12 French diplomat Georges Gorce establishes secret contacts with representatives of the FLN in Cairo. April 12 Reserve Second Lieutenant Lucien Guerrab, a Berber stationed at the Ducros Hospital, and a nurse, both Communists, desert to the ranks of the outlaws. April 13 The Tirailleurs Algériens, the last French Battalion in Saigon, parade through the city before embarking for Algeria. April 13 French workers stage work slowdowns and strikes to protest against the call up of conscripts. April 14 Rebels enter the village of Tifrit N'ait Ou Malek despite fierce resistance. Sheikh Hadj Mouhab, a venerable religious personage to all the Upper Kabylia and chief of Zaouîa, is tortured before his throat is cut in front of the inhabitants. Five members of the Sheikh's family including, his father, Bachaga Mouheb, a Knight of the Legion of Honor, suffer similar fates. The Bachaga was requested to place himself under the protection of the rural protection guards when the war began.April 15 Doctor Counillon, who disappeared from the psychiatric hospital at Blida at the end of 1955, organizes a medical service for the rebels in the Aures. April 15 Rallies are held at Avignon, Saintes and Oyonax, France to protest the call up of conscripts. April 16 The wife of the head guard at the civil prison in Cherchell is murdered by prisoners who escape and join the FLN. April 16 Four people are wounded in a grenade attack on La Taverne Sétifienne April 16 Taleb Ata el Aoues is murdered during prayer in the Grand Mosque of Algiers. April 18 Felicien Goet is killed at his farm near Camp Du Maréchal. April 20 Demonstrators lie down on the tracks to prevent the departure of an Algeria bound troop train from the Gare de Lyon in Paris. April 20 A Frenchman named Pereta and two French Moslems are murdered by the rebels at Birrabalou. April 21 Ferhat Abbas and Ahmed Francis arrive in Cairo to join the ranks of the FLN. April 21 Three Moslems are raped and their throats slit by the rebels at Canrobert. April 22 Electricity transmission lines are sabotaged at several points throughout the country. April 24 Fathers Augros, Manet and Merlan, members of the Mission of France and Hippo an order of worker priests are expelled from the Departments of Bône and Constantine for aiding the rebels. April 24 Rebels slit the throats of 70 Moslems in attacks on Berber villages. April 25 Ferhat Abbas speaking in Cairo declares, “Neither peace nor negotiations on Algeria will take place before the proclamation of independence.”April 25A bomb explodes in the Café Bar Marcel in Philippeville killing customer Raymond Nicolas and wounding his wife. April 25 Two inspectors from the Soil Conservation and Restoration Service, Georges Bompar and Jean Perez, are murdered by the rebels at their work site near Arba. April 27 Rebels slit the throats of several peasants in the Soummam Valley. April 27 The fellagha burn a tobacco shed near Tizi Ouzou destroying 500 million francs worth of property. April 28 FLN attacks on the Algier's Casbah, Belcourt, Hussein Dey, Bd St. Saens, Maison Carrée, Rue Randon leave several people dead and many wounded. April 28 A farm worker is murdered at Fort de l'Eau and a shopkeeper at Laverda. April 28 Two people are injured by a grenade explosion in a café at Saint-Ferdinand. April 29 Abdelkader Doumenc, former Algiers municipal councillor and Messali Hadj, is killed in Algiers. May 1 North Africans provoke serious incidents during May Day demonstrations in Paris, Marseille, Lyon, Saint Étienne and Metz. May 1 Doctor Nedir Mohamed is killed by the explosion of a mine planted beside the highway near Harba Des Ouacifs. May 4 A dozen soldiers are killed when FLN guerillas attack a French military convoy near Tlemcen. May 4 Rebels kidnap three 15 year old boys who were riding their bicycles near Aïn Beïda. May 4 Mr. Tiberti, assistant to the Mayor of Rebeval, is seriously wounded. May 4 Mr. Escoubert, a prison guard at Tizi Ouzou, is killed. May 4 A bus is burned in broad daylight while parked on the Avenue Malakoff, Algiers. May 4 Two aviators are kidnapped after making a forced landing at Guercif. May 4 Three people are murdered at Michelet and Tizi Ouzou. May 4 A strike organized by the FLN and MNA is observed by most Moslems in France along with the CGT and the Communists. May 5 The Keddara barite mine is ransacked. Two farms in the nearby Boudouaou Valley are burnt. May 7 Rebels attack in Orania. Twenty French farmers are murdered. 40 homes are looted or burnt. In all over 60 people, mostly Moslems, are killed. May 7 A shipment of smuggled munitions is discovered on board the British freighter Merchant Prince. May 7 Sixteen tirailleurs are massacred north of Taza after exhausting their last ammunition. May 7 Eight SAS paratroopers and a Sergeant are killed near Mekla after falling into an ambush at Saint Pierre - Saint Paul. Their bodies are recovered with the throats cut. May 7 A policeman is murdered in Boufarik. May 7 Two soldiers are murdered in Maison Carrée. May 7 MNA leader, Ouhad Larid, is murdered by FLN terrorists on the Rue Porte Neuve, Algiers. May 8 Resident Minister Rober Lacoste tells the National Assembly that a major military, economic and social commitment will be required to check the rebellion and notes that only 8 of 846 major administrative positions are held by Moslems. May 8 Louis Boyer Banse, age 77, President of the Union Française Nord Africaine and Georges-Henri Bousquet, Professor of North African Sociology at the University of Algiers are expelled from Algeria following student demonstrations hostile to the Resident Minister Rober Lacoste. May 8 Mr. Georges Charniere, adjudant of the Terny SAS, is murdered. May 9 Three reporters from the Journal d'Alger are attacked in the Boudouaou Valley while under escort from the gendarmes of Saint Pierre - Saint Paul. The brigadier of the gendarmerie is killed.May 9 Rebels attack 46 villages in the North Constantine including Rouached and Didjelli. Street fighting leaves Rouached in flames. May 9 Three French soldiers are ambushed in Kedara. May 9 Four farms near Lourmel are attacked. The president of the local djemaa is cut down in a mosque. May 10 Antoine Mari, an employee at the Antoine Sintes Farm in Fondouk, is murdered. May 10 Claude Azoun is killed by two gunshots near Reghaïa. May 11 Farmers begin to flee the Tlemcen and Ain Temouchent regions. May 11 A Moslem family of five is savagely murdered by the rebels at Ain Yagout near Batna. May 12 The Taous Farm house is burnt and the livestock stolen. May 12 A fellagha attempt to infiltrate Philippeville draws rifle fire. May 12 A battle in the streets of Constantine leaves 13 people dead and 37 wounded. Order is restored after an hour of fighting. May 13 Arms, sold to the rebels by La Manufacture de Bayonne, are discovered in France. May 14 General Raoul Salan arrives in Algiers. May 14 Journalist Robert Lambotte, correspondent for the French Communist Party journal, L'Humanité, is expelled from Algeria. May 14 Two rebel bands from Morocco infiltrate the mountains in the Tlemcen region. May 16 An operation in the Sidi Ali Bou Nab region ends with the annihilation of 89 rebels. May 17 Les Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurite i.e riot police clash with recalcitrant conscripts at Le Mans. May 17 Thirteen French Moslems are murdered in the Palestro area. May 18 Twenty one conscripts of the 9th Régiment d'Infantrie Coloniale under the command of Lieutenant Hervé Artur are ambushed near the Palestro Gorge. Fifteen mutilated bodies are later recovered at the scene. Six soldiers, four of them wounded, are taken captive by the rebels. A rescue party eventually recovers four more mutilated corpses near the village of Douar Amal. May 18 Twelve French workers are massacred by the FLN in a Biskra workshop. May 18 Ten troopers are kidnapped by the FLN south of Lamoricière. Their bodies are recovered with the throats slit. May 18 Ninety people are injured in clashes between police and demonstrators attempting to block the departure of conscripts from Grenoble, France. May 19 The Army kills 53 Algerian and Tunisian rebels during an operation south of Gafsa, Tunisia. May 19 The FLN kills 17 Moslems in the suburbs of Philippeville. May 19 Rebels attack the town of Nemours and are repulsed with serious losses. May 19 A French farmer, his sister, and a hunter are murdered in an ambush near Djidjelli. May 20 The mutilated bodies of 15 colonial soldiers are discovered in the mountains near Beni Amrane. May 21 Nineteen French Moslems, including 7 children and 6 women, are massacred in a mechta, at Vallée. May 22 Four soldiers are taken hostage near Palestro following the massacre of their comrades. May 23 The troops sent to search for the 2 men still missing in action from the Palestro Gorge ambush discover the entrance to the cave where they are being held. A short skirmish ensues. Sixteen rebels are killed and three taken prisoner. Both captive soldiers are wounded. One of them later succumbs to his injuries. May 23 Sergeant Combaretti of the Rural Guards is killed at Michelet. May 23 Henri Guenou, an agricultural engineer at Montagnac, is cut down by the rebels. May 25 Professor André Mandouze of the University of Algiers is charged with distribution of tracts and his sympathies for the rebels. May 25 Moslem students at the University of Algiers strike. May 26 A midnight operation involving 6,000 men is launched in the Algiers Casbah. Arms, money and documents are seized. 4,480 suspected FLN sympathizers are arrested. 472 are released after their identities are verified. A fugitive is killed while trying to escape across the rooftops. May 26 Thirteen French civilians including a woman are massacred by the FLN in a workshop at Oumache near Biskra. May 26 Professor de Maisonseul, director of Urban Studies at the University of Algiers, is arrested for threatening the internal security of the state and supporting the fellagha. May 26 Mr. Depreviel, businessman from Birmandreis near Algiers, is murdered in the Batna region. May 28 Serious clashes between Communist demonstrators and police mark the departure of conscripts from St. Nazaire. May 28 Roger Aurel, Assistant Prefect of Djidjelli and his wife are shot and seriously wounded by their cook of 12 years, Maadi Lakdar. May 29 Communist deserter Henri Maillot, who delivered his regiment's arms to the fellagha, and a teacher named Laban are sentenced to death in absentia by the Military Tribunal of Algiers.May 30 Two Moslem girls are killed and four are wound when a bomb explodes in Bougie. May 31 A barbed wire fence is installed along the Moroccan border and is later reinforced with an electrified fence and minefields. June 1 Twenty Communists including a woman are expelled from Algeria for aiding the FLN. June 2 The synagogue at Orléansville is burnt. June 2 Fourteen members of a rural police squad are killed and 2 are wounded in an ambush 6 kilometers south of the Nemours. June 2 Four passengers are held captive by the rebels following an attack on their bus at Tounane in Orania. June 2 Michel Vicens and a young stonemason, André Massuli, are killed near Mirabeau. June 2 Claude Geraud, directrice of the African Information Agency in Paris, is held on bail for threatening the security of the state. June 4 A 20 year old soldier, Pierre Vignes, is stabbed in the back at Algiers. June 4 The municipal secretaries of Taguemount, Azouz and Beni Hilil are hung by the rebels. June 5 Lieutenant Henri Maillot, a deserter, and Maurice Laban are killed in the Ouarsenis during an operation against the Red Maquis. The authorities are believed to have acted on information supplied by the FLN. The later apparently acted in concert with the French to eliminate the Communists as a potential political rival. June 7 2,000 demonstrators attempt to block the departure of conscripts from the railway station at Le Havre. Graffiti covers the walls of the town, "Pas de contingent pour l'Algérie", "Paix en Algérie" and "Vive le FLN". June 7 Demands for the protection of French soldiers are received from 200 villages in the Petit Kabylia. June 7 Three gendarmes are ambushed 6 kilometers from Médéa. June 8 Detective Lopez is seriously wounded by a terrorist in the Algiers Casbah. June 8 Two people are killed and 16 injured in grenade attacks on cafés in Bône. June 10 Constable André Rubio is killed when a terrorist fires 2 shots from a revolver into his head. June 10 Thirty seven men, women and children are wounded by a bomb thrown in the Rue Caraman, Constantine. June 10 Ben Yaya Mohamed Said, Mufti of the Grand Mosque, is cut down by a terrorist in Bougie. June 11 Lieutenant Petit, administrative officer at the military hospital of Sétif, is killed by revolver shots. June 11 Henri Francois, Sub-brigadier of police, is killed at Nemours. June 12 A band of rebels attacks the Mosque at Bouandas where they cut the throats of 22 men from the villages of Tiguentine and Melizou. June 12 Eighteen people are wounded by two grenades thrown during the funeral of a murdered policeman at Tlemcen. June 12 A medical officer, Captain Fauvy, is killed during an attack at Djidjelli. June 12 Three soldiers are murdered and two are missing near Collo. June 12 One person is killed at Marnia and two more at Eugene - Etienne. June 13 Twenty two French Moslems are massacred in a mechta at Djebel Bou Andas. June 13 Michelet is the scene of a double murder. June 15 Fourteen people are injured in grenades attacks in Bône and Duvivier. A Moslem baker named Blalali is murdered by the terrorists. June 15 Rebels slit the throat of farm manager François Cala near St. Charles. June 16 Lieutenant Colonel Bigeard sustains a chest wound while leading his troops in an operation against rebels in the Némenchas. June 17 Eighteen people are injured in a terrorist attack on downtown Constantine. June 17 A Moslem family is massacred at Maginot. June 18 The Sometal and Krauth Farms are burnt. June 18 The Goyard Farm is harassed. Several mills and shed burned, vines uprooted. June 18 Teamster Joseph Torres, a father of six children, is killed in Algiers by a terrorist who is cut down. June 19 Two FLN terrorists, Ahmed Zabane and Abdelkader Ferradj are guillotined at Barberousse prison in Algiers. June 19 A retired battalion chief and secretary of the regional veterans society is murdered in broad daylight at Village Alma. June 20 - 23 The FLN kills 49 Europeans in reprisal for the June 19th executions. June 20 Four people including Gaston Tolila, photographer for the Journal d'Alger and Léon Legras, a veteran bicycle racer, are killed in the Bab El Oued district of Algiers. Sixteen others, all Europeans, are wounded.June 21 Stambouli Hadj Mahfoud, age 70, Iman of the Hanéfite Mosque, is cut down by an FLN killer in Blida. June 23 Eight people including 4 Europeans are killed during six terrorist attacks in Algiers. Seventeen others are wounded. June 24 The bodies of three teenagers kidnapped while riding their bicycles are discovered in a pit near the village of Ain Beida. June 24 Marcel Meniaux, a water and forestry agent is killed. June 25 An FLN tract authored by Ben M'Hidi and Abane Rhamdane declares that, “All executions of combatants will be followed by reprisals. For each FLN soldier guillotined, a hundred Frenchmen will be cut down.”June 25Jean Claude Rovida is killed in Algiers by a terrorist. June 26 Three people are killed and 4 are wounded in Ain Temouchent. June 26 Farmer Lucien Poggy is murdered near Sedrata. Poggy's throat is slit. A Moslem worker standing nearby is killed by a rifle shot.June 27 André Stil, Editor in Chief of L'Humanité, is charged with threatening the security of the state for publishing a communiqué from the Algerian Communist Party glorifying the actions Henri Maillot who delivered a truckload of arms to the rebels. June 30 Ten French soldiers are killed when rebels ambush their bus and an escort vehicle on the road between Géryville and El Abiad. Twenty seven others are listed as missing. July 1 The French Army in Algeria numbers 381,000 men. July 2 Three people are killed and 45 wounded when a grenade explodes on the terrace of the Casino Municipal de Constantine. July 4 Raymond Hannou, a member of a Communist cell headed by Henri Maillot that gave military information to the rebels, is arrested in Algiers. July 4 Five Communist militants; Albert Carasco, former assistant to the mayor, Gaston Poveda, Honoré Carrillo, former municipal councilor, Marcel Garcia, employee of the mayor, B. Cabrera and Séraphin Munez are banished from Orania. July 4 Twenty seven French Moslems and a European Sergeant are captured by rebels in the Monts du Ksours, near Aïn Sefra. July 4 The bodies of the Buhagier brothers, farmers near Medjana, are found with their throats cut. July 4 The rural guard of Tadjemount and his wife are murdered. July 8 Nine people are killed in rebel attacks on Boufarik. July 9 Thirty Communist militants including Doctor Martini, a surgeon at the Orléansville Hospital, are put under house arrest in the Chélif region. July 9 Terrorists cut the throats of Mr. Puget, a 90 year old retired farmer, and his caretaker during a late afternoon attack on the Puget Farm in the Corso Valley. July 9 A native member of the rural guard is murdered in the oft harassed village of Saint Pierre - Saint Paul. July 10 Communist Raymond Hannon and two Moslems are charged with threatening the security of the state. July 11 Terrorists on scooters or in cars toss grenades and Molotov cocktails at several locations in the Algiers region including Belcourt, El Biar, and Ruisseau and behind the Opéra. July 11 A bomb explodes in a Turkish bath in the Algiers Casbah. July 11 A Michelet gendarme is murdered in broad daylight. July 11 An SAS officer is murdered near Palestro. July 11 Several Algerian student associations break their ties to the French National Students Union. July 13 Seven Moslems are killed when rebels attack two buses, one in the Affreville region and the other in the Sidi Aissa sector. July 13 The decapitated body of a Frenchman named Antonin is found in the Sahara. July 15 Nineteen people are killed and 27 wounded when a bomb explodes at El Arrouka in the Constantine. July 15 Postal Inspector Louis Raynal and Editor Faure Brac are kidnapped near Laghouat and murdered by the rebels. July 17 The offices of the Marti stone quarry at Keddara are burnt. Elsewhere in the region; the Serra farm whose owners were murdered on March 31st, is burnt and 4,300 feet of vines are uprooted at the Ughetto Farm near Maréchal Foch. July 18 Djilelli lighthouse keeper, Louis Rosa, is murdered by rebels who cut his throat. July 18 Nineteen soldiers are ambushed and savagely mutilated at the douar of Sidi Galem near Terafoui. July 19 FLN gunmen, acting on orders from Boudhries, machine gun civilians in Bab el Oued. One person is killed. Three are wounded. The gang is tracked down by the residents and two of its members are eventually arrested. July 19 Gilbert Perello is murdered on his farm near Arba. July 20 The first oil and gas gushes from an exploratory well drilled at Hassi Messaoud. July 20 Joseph Interaglia is murdered and his wife is gravely wound in an attack on their home near Dellys. July 21 French diplomats meet secretly with representatives of the FLN in Belgrade. July 21 Rebels attack farms in the Corso Valley. Seven tobacco sheds are burnt, 2 hectares of vines uprooted, 130 orange trees cut down and 10 hectares of tobacco destroyed at the Lamy Farm. Haystacks and sheds are burnt and several hectares of vines uprooted at the Ettighofier Farm. July 21 Alexandre “Silassen” Boualam, brother of the Bachagha, is murdered by the rebels in the Ouarsenis.July 23 Terrorist attacks claim 17 victims including: Mr. Record, station chief of Palestro, who is seriously injured when a bomb explodes; Agha Dahmoune of Dra El Mizan murdered in Algiers; Jean Patrocinto, owner of the Michelet -- Algiers bus line killed in Michelet; Stonemason Roman Esteban killed at Fort National; a workman named Lopez mortally wounded at Guettar El Aich and a Djemaa president whose throat is slit.July 23 The Grosrenaud and Femenia farms in the Boudouaou Valley near Maréchal Foch are burnt. July 26 Three people are killed and six including four children are wounded in an ambush near Philippeville. July 27 A natural gas explosion in Well No.1 at Hassi Messaoud leaves several workers severely burned. One of the injured dies several days later. July 30 Rebels attack a farm near Orléansville. One Frenchman is killed; two others are wounded along with a French Moslem. July 31 139,000 reinforcements arrive in Algeria. French military forces in the country now number 399,000, August 1 Jean Ribas, a retiree, is killed by a revolver shot at Bougie. August 5 Rebels attack the Algiers -- Miliana bus on the road between Bourkika and Boumedfa. Two European civilians and a military doctor are killed.August 5 Rebels slit the throat of Joseph Sanchez, a 55 year old father of 4, near Ain El Arba. August 6 Eight farmers including two Europeans, the Di Costa brothers, are arrested at Philippeville while transporting livestock and clothing to the rebels. August 6 Barkeeper Henri Touitou is killed at Biskra. August 8 Caid Saidni, a well known Francophile, is killed at Batna. August 8 Gendarme Soler and a soldier are killed in an ambush near Batna. August 10 The ORAF, a European counter-terrorist organization, plants a bomb outside the entrance to the Turkish bath at 9 Rue de Thèbes in the Algiers Casbah. The ensuing explosion brings down the building and 5 adjacent dwellings killing 15 people and wounding 32 others. August 16 A bus is burnt at El Benia near Algiers. Twelve Moslem passengers are kidnapped. August 16 Tobacconist Fernand Aiche is killed by a terrorist. August 17 President René Coty speaking at Verdun declares, “France will not abandon the loyal population of Algeria to a minority of cutthroats.”August 19Terrorists kill a 60 year old Frenchman and wound three Moslems in Bône. August 20 The leaders of the FLN in Algeria gather at Ighbal near Akbou for the Congress of Soummam which will set the agenda for the future organization and course of action to be under taken by the FLN. August 20 Algiers salesmen José and Lucien Mendez are killed by the rebels at the village of Takrietz near Bougie. August 20 Rebels slit the throat of Sheik Ounissi of the Zaouia Ben Tibar at douar Gassem in Ain M'lila. August 23 Robert Lacoste increases the royalty on alfalfa from 15 centimes to 1 000 francs per ton. August 24 Antoine Di Rosa is killed while delivering ice in the lower Casbah of Algiers. August 24 Gendarme Georges Koeger is murdered with a revolver in Oran. August 26 Sergeant Favrelière of the 8th Régiment Parachutiste Coloniale helps an FLN prisoner to escape and then deserts his post. The Sergeant will be sentenced to death in absentia in March 1958. August 27 Two employees of Electricité et Gaz d'Algérie are killed by outlaws while working in the Ziama - Mansouriah district near Djidjelli. August 28 Four French motorists are kidnapped while driving near Tlemcen. August 28 The body of R. P. Tabart, a priest in the White Fathers of Africa order, is found with by a patrol near Géryville. Father Tabart's throat was cut.August 30 Six members of an Algerian terrorist network; Jean Rousset, Raymond Masure and 4 Moslems are arrested in Paris. September 4 Communist deserter, Lieutenant Lucien Guerrab, leader of a rebel maquis, is arrested in Orania. September 5 Colonel Bigeard is wounded in an attack at Bône. He manages to drive off his three assailants despite the 2 bullets they have put in him. September 5 Youssef Zighout, the commander of Wilaya 2 is killed in combat while returning from the Congress of Soummam. September 6 Marcel Nocella, proprietor of the Café de la Méditerranée in Algiers, is wound by two shots from a revolver. September 7 Three of the four soldiers riding in a truck are missing after their vehicle hits a mine near Sakamody. September 8 Mr. Oultras, assistant to the Mayor of Novi, is killed. September 10 The Congress of Soummam adjourns after three weeks. The primacy of the interior under Ramdane Abane over the exterior directors of FLN is established. An all powerful Committee of Coordination and Execution is established in Algiers to replace the CRUA. The CCE is composed of Abane, Belkacem Krim, Larbi Ben M'hidi, Youssef Ben Kheddan and Saad Dahlab. The National Council of the Algerian Revolution (CNRA) is established. It is to be composed of 34 members elected from all regions of the country and meet at regular intervals. The six wilayas (military districts) are subdivided into zones, regions and sectors and brought under tight control of the CCE. The ranks and organizational structure of the Army of National Liberation are formalized. Colonel is the established as the highest rank in the ALN in a deliberate move to thwart the development of personality cults by generals. The Congress decrees that no ceasefire shall be accepted until there is recognition of Algerian independence. Furthermore negotiation shall only be concluded with the acceptance of Algeria's existing territorial boundaries including the Sahara and there shall be no acceptance of dual citizenship privileges for the Europeans. September 12 Hervé Rubio and two Moslems are murdered at Arba. September 14 Thirty members of a clandestine paramilitary including 15 Frenchmen, among them the head doctor of the Orléansville Hospital , are arrested. September 15 The Service de Documentation Extérieure et de Contre-Espionage (SDECE), contacts the counter-terrorists of Algiers in an effort to co-opt them and steer them towards specific objectives. September 15 Seven people are wounded when a bomb explodes in an Algiers cinéma. September 15 Five passengers are kidnapped from a bus by outlaws in the Southern Oranais. September 15 A Frenchman is killed and another one is wounded in the Colomb Bechar region. September 15 Rebels slit the throat of Mr. Huguey, assistant to the Mayor of Perrégaux. September 15 Café proprietor Mr. Dirosa is murdered in Algiers. September 15 Two Europeans including a municipal guard are killed and two others are wounded in Algiers. September 17 Three people including two Frenchmen are killed at Tizi Ouzou. September 17 One soldier is killed and 8 are wounded when a bomb explodes on a military truck. September 17 Eighteen people are injured by grenades thrown into cafés at Colomb Bechar. September 17 An explosion on the Oujda -- Oran train kills one passenger and injures another.September 17 Partisans of the FLN trade shots with MNA supporters in a Paris café. Two people are killed and five are wounded. September 18 Two new arrests follow the denunciation of a Communist plot in Orléansville by captured deserter Lucien Guerrab. Postal Inspector Antoine Raynaud is one of those arrested. September 18 Foreman Albert Rozet is killed by a terrorist at Arba. September 22 Talks between representatives of France and the FLN end in Rome. September 22 An arms cache is found in the home of Communist Antoine Raynaud. September 22 Three Communist militants are arrested in Sidi Bel Abbes. September 22 Postal Inspector Ruiz is implicated in the Communist plot and flees. September 22 Two people are killed and 7 wounded during an exchange of shots by rival Moslem groups in a Paris café. September 22 Ten people are killed and 14 farms burnt in Orania. September 22 Four soldiers are killed and one is wounded in a grenade attack at Mascara. September 22 Police detective Rineau is killed at Blida. September 22 A territorial guard, Mr. Grozart, is cut down in Kouba. September 24 Twenty spectators are injured when a grenade is tossed into a cinéma at Saint Arnaud in the Constantine Department. September 24 Three people are killed and 5 wounded in terrorist attacks in Algiers. September 26 Three more people arrested in the Orléansville Communist Plot. September 26 Stonemason Emile Segond, age 61, is killed in Blida. September 28 Two Communists including the son of a General Councilor are arrested in Oran for collusion with the rebels. September 29 A European is killed by a shot to the head at Miliana. September 30 Zohra Drif, Samia Lakdahri and Djamila Bouhired, plant FLN bombs at La Cafétéria, the Milk Bar and the Air France terminal in Algiers. The bombs at La Cafétéria and the Milk Bar explode killing 11 people and seriously injuring 105 others, 12 of whom require amputations. The Air France bomb fails to detonate. September 30 Eight people are injured when a bomb explodes in Tlemcen. September 30 Jean Claude Anglade is killed by a terrorist at Fort De L'Eau. September 30 Etienne Munoz is killed at Miliana by FLN terrorists. October 1 Andrés Azoulay, a grain trader, is killed in Orléansville. October 1 Joseph Hiennebisque is killed in Algiers. October 1 Moslem students obey the FLN strike call. October 2 Three Frenchmen; Jean Roig and the Di Cantanzo brothers, are convicted of aiding the rebels by a court in Philippeville. October 2 Two Algiers police officers are gravely wounded by terrorists. October 2 Nine Moslems are killed when a bomb explodes on the Algiers -- Arba -- Tablat bus.October 2 A soldier is killed and five are missing in Orania. October 5 An FLN commando unit hijacks a taxi in the center of Bône and fires a machinegun at passers by killing 4 and wounding 24. October 5 Thirty eight soldiers of the 1st and 110th Infantry Regiments are killed in an ambush near Aflou. October 6 A car carrying General Massu along the highway between Beau Fraisier and El Biar is fired on by members of Les Combattants de la Libération, a Communist terror cell composed of both Europeans and Moslems. The shots fall wide of their mark. October 8 Nine Moslem workers are cut down by terrorists in the Constantine Department. October 9 The French Secret Service establishes Force “K”, a 400 man commando unit led by Belhadj Djillali aka Kobus, an ex-soldier trained at the Cherchel School. Kobus is a pro-independence Marxist opposed to the FLN.October 9 Mr. Vinette, a water and forestry agent is kidnapped at Tagat El Nador. October 10 An FLN safe house in the Algiers suburb of El Biar is destroyed in an explosion set off by bomb maker Kaouche Rachid's mishandling of explosives.October 10 Three Moslems are killed and one is wounded during a rebel attack on the village of Lavoisier. October 11 Twenty two people are injured by a grenade explosion in Oran. October 13 A young woman is killed and six other people are wounded when terrorists machinegun an Algiers café from a passing car. October 13 Six people are injured when the Bougie -- Algiers train hits a mine.October 14 One person is killed and 21 others are wounded in grenade attacks at Mostaganem and Colomb Bechar. October 15 An explosives laboratory is discovered in Birkadem. Seven people including an Italian, Georgio Arbib and two Frenchmen, Daniel Timsit, an intern at the civilian hospital in Mustapha, and Georges Smadja, a medical student, are arrested. October 15 The Algiers -- Bougie train is machine-gunned. Three soldiers are wounded.October 17 The Athos, a Sudanese flagged, Greek captained, freighter, is seized by the French Navy while transporting a cargo of arms and ammunition for the FLN from Egypt to Morocco. October 17 Farmworker Diego Flores and his three sons are killed at Eugene-Etienne in Orania. October 19 Three students, Jean-Claude Reynaud, son of the Inspector of Posts and Telephones, Nicola Isnard and Paulette Bacri, implicated in the Algerian Communist plot, are arrested in Algiers. October 19 Mme. Annie Foriot, wife of an architect, and Mr. Neplez, a schoolteacher, implicated in the terrorist plot organized by Dr. Daniel Timsit, are arrested in Algiers. October 19 A retired postal worker, Charles Choukroune, is killed and two others are wounded in terrorist attacks in Algiers. October 19 An SAS officer is killed in a workshop near Tigzirt. Three other Frenchmen are wounded. October 19 Roger Ode, Vice President of the Morris Wine Cooperative, is killed by shots from a terrorist's revolver.October 19 A bomb explodes in a café at Blida wounding 7 patrons. October 19 Caid Bendjamed Abdelkader is kidnapped by the terrorists. October 19 One of two nuns kidnapped in the Ighilali region, Sister Marie, is murdered. Sister Dorthee is found dead. October 19 Henri Cazeaux, municipal councilor for Tizi Ouzou, is murdered. October 19 Le Gaumont Palace in Paris and La Salle Pierre Bordes in Algiers organize a gala soirée to benefit the troops called up for service in Algeria. October 22 The French pilot of an Air Maroc DC-3 carrying the FLN Cairo Chiefs of Staff on a flight from Rabat to Tunis lands at Algiers where Ahmed Ben Bella, Mohamed Boudiaf, Mohamed Khider, Lachref and Hocine Aït Ahmed are arrested. October 22 Father Hubert Buchez, a Swiss member of the White Fathers of Africa order, is killed at Azazga. October 24 Ernest Soler is killed by a terrorist in Oran. October 24 Ange Quiri is murdered by an outlaw in Algiers. October 27 Fifteen farms are attack or burnt in the Southern Oranais region. October 27 Music professor, Pierre-André Poncelet, is gravely wounded in Algiers. October 29 Premier Guy Mollet calls for a ceasefire in Algeria and proposes introduction of a single electoral college, free elections and recognition of Algeria's, "individual character". October 29 Two French children ages 11 years and 7 months, are killed in an attack in Orania October 31 Roger Serano is killed at Perrégaux. October 31 Benieto Faes, a baker, is cut down in Orléansville. November 5 Twenty two people are wounded when a grenade is thrown into a crowd in Constantine. November 5 Albert Tessier, the manager of a grain growers' cooperative, is killed at Oued Fodda.November 5 Manuel Quidi, a retired road worker, is killed at Chebli. November 6 Georges Galindri, comptroller for the postal administration, is place under surveillance for his clandestine Communist activities. November 6 Mr. Vargag, a Perrégaux farmer, is killed; his wife wounded and his son kidnapped by the terrorists. November 6 Terrorists slit the throats of Mr. Garila and his son at Saint Denis DuSig. November 6 Shopkeeper Lazaro Ferrandis is killed in Algiers. November 10 Nine people including 7 soldiers are wounded in a grenade attack at Batna. November 10 Lucien Tur, age 13, is killed by the rebels at Saint Pierre - Saint Paul. November 12 Three bombs planted by the FLN and the Communists explode in the railway station at Hussein Dey, a Monoprix store in Maison Carrée and in an Algiers trolley car. Thirty six people are wounded including 11 women and ten children. November 12 Twelve soldiers and two civilians including Father Joseph Pfister, Curé of Rabelais and Saint Pierre - Saint Paul, are killed in an ambush between El Marsa and Le Guelt in the Ténes region. November 12 A bomb explodes in the Oujda -- Oran train injuring 8 people.November 12 A woman is killed and 10 other people are wounded in grenade attacks on cafés in Mascara and Bougie. November 12 Seven bus passengers, six soldiers and one civilian, are killed between Dublineau and Perrégaux. November 12 Nine Moslems are killed by the FLN at Laperrine and El Marsa. November 12 Seven Europeans are wound by a grenade at Zemour. November 12 Tobacco sheds are burnt at Almeur El Aïn and two farms are attacked at Saint Pierre - Saint Paul. November 13 FLN grenade attacks on buses and department stores in Algiers injure 58 people. November 14 Fernand Yveton, a militant Communist and friend of deserter Henri Maillot, is arrested while planting a bomb in his workplace, the Ruisseau gasworks in Algiers. The bomb is disarmed before it explodes. His daughter Acera is arrested as an accomplice. November 14 A bus and a truck are attack near Mascara. Three people are killed; the bus driver, Mr. Mendez, the conductor, Mr. Karroubi and an unidentified Moslem traveler. November 14 Joseph Requera is shot in the back and killed by a terrorist in Sali. November 15 Doctor Nakache is murdered by a terrorist as he leaves his home in Vallee to treat a sick Moslem patient. November 16 Félix Collozi, a fireman, and Boualem Makloul, an employee of Electricité et Gaz d'Algérie are denounced by Yveton and arrested in Algiers.November 16 Bernard Mazella is killed by a revolver shot to the neck in Bône. November 16 Edouard Bottaro is killed behind the steeringwheel of his car in Algiers. November 16 Mr. Salvignol, a 61 year old farmworker and his 58 year old sister are murdered in Aumale. November 16 Norbert Signers, age 17, is kidnapped at Blida. His throat is slit and his body buried nearby. November 17 Three people are killed and six are wounded in a grenade attack on the Café du Progrés, Place du Gouvernement, Algiers. November 17 Five people are murdered in Algiers including, two 15 year old Moslems who are shot in the back, a 21 year old soldier, Robert Legart, and Police Brigade Chief Malessaque who was shot twice in the head. November 17 Ait Saada, an employee of the soil conservation service, is murdered in Tenes. November 18 A Communist terror network is broken up in Oran. Thirty seven people including several Frenchmen and five women are arrested. Another 120 Communists are arrested elsewhere in Algeria most notably several doctors including the head of Social Welfare Services for Electricité et Gaz d'Algérie, Doctor Liddi. Five Communists militants, all women, are expelled from Algeria.November 18 Two people are wounded when a bomb explodes in the Café de la Poste at Maison Carrée. November 18 Five French motorists are killed and several more are missing after attacks near Tiaret. November 18 Four soldiers of the 131st Infantry Regiment and two civilian officials are attacked and killed near Teniet El Haad. November 18 A tenant farmer named Chambord , his two children and their governess are reported missing in the Champlain region. November 18 Henri Branzuela is shot in the head and killed in Algiers. November 18 Anne-Marie Cholet, a student at the Algiers Normal School, who served as an intermediary to the FLN is arrested in Algiers. November 21 Communists Elie Angonin, Ali Khodja and Henriette Placelle are place under surveillance in Algiers. November 21 Gabriel Pelo, municipal councilor for Haussonvillers, is killed along the highway from Bordj Menaiel to Cape Djinet. November 22 Two Berber villages are attacked by the rebels. Eighteen French Moslems are kidnapped. November 22 Auxiliary police detective Ghezal Abdelkader is killed in Cherchel. November 23 Three motorists including the head of the district water and forestry service are murdered by the rebels in the Bordj Bou Arreridj region. November 23 Farmworker Armand Bloch is killed at Ain Boucif. November 23 Communist Dieudonné Iriu, an employee of the Hospital of Beni Messous, near Algiers, steals medicines for the rebels. November 24 Twelve people are killed including four civilians in an ambush at Berrouaghia. November 24 Police Brigadier Fernand Breton is killed. November 24 Farmworker Albert Blanc is murdered at Rouhach November 25 Communist Fernand Yveton, who planted a bomb at the Algiers gasworks, is sentenced to death. November 25 Four people are injured when a bomb explodes in Ain Temouchent near Oran. November 25 Rebels kidnap and slit the throats of a farmworker, a mechanic and the son of Adjutant of Fontaine near Trezel. November 25 André Maillette, age 72, is murdered in Cherchel. November 25 Edmond Dudouet, a town employee, is killed in Tizi Ouzou. November 28 René Justrabo, former Communist Deputy in the Algerian Assembly and the wife of fugitive UGTA trade union general secretary Ruiz are interned. November 28 Seven members of the Algerian Communist Party and 3 Moslems are arrested in Oran. November 28 Three people are killed and 24 wounded in an attack of the Oran -- Colomb Bechar at Bou Aich.November 28 Ten people are wounded when four bombs explode in Algiers. Roland Seror, a city employee, is killed. November 29 Three people, a lawyer and two policemen, are killed when terrorists machine-gun a crowd in Affreville. November 29 An arms shipment originating in Tunisia and destined for the rebels is intercepted near Tebessa. November 30 Twenty three people are killed and 15 are wounded when two bombs explode at Nedromah near Nemours. November 30 Terrorist slit the throat of a youth, Paul Bonthoux, before the eyes of his father who is grievously wounded in Bayard. December 1 The French Army in Algeria numbers 325,000 men. December 1 Alain Mimoun wins the Marathon at the Melbourne Olympics. It is the first time the 35 year old has run the marathon. December 1 Three people are killed when a bomb explodes in Bou Hanifa. December 1 Raymond Gonalous and Salomon Gorian are killed in Algiers. December 4 Industrialist Guy Ricci, cousin of General Councilor Paul Ricci, is killed by three shots from a terrorist's revolver in Blida. Two mourners are killed in an attack on Ricci's funeral service. The attacker, a Moslem, is cut down.December 5 The French Government dissolves the departmental General Councils and municipalities in Algeria. December 7 Algiers police brigadier, Jean Massou, is killed. His wife and two children are wounded. December 7 Joseph Palsona, inspector of bridges and dams is wounded in an attack at Novi. His attacker is cut down. December 7 Farmer Marc Bertrand is murdered in Reghaia by his longtime Moslem butler. December 7 Businessman Raymond Bordona is killed by a revolver shot in Sidi Bel Abbes. December 7 Taxi driver Antoine Gomez is killed by terrorists in Molière. December 7 Caid Lamouri is killed in Ain Bessem. December 7 Forest Ranger James is killed at Tenes. December 7 Captain Lapergue is killed in Sidi Okba. December 11 Serge Barret takes office as Prefect of Algiers. December 12 Highway worker Charles Thomas is killed in his shop at Azazga. December 13 Four members of a Communist terror cell are arrested in Oran. December 13 Judge Paul Morlier, a city employee and one other man are killed by the fellagha in Bône. December 13 Albert Prosse, chauffeur to the Director of Posts, Telephone and Telegraph, is killed in Oran. December 13 Rural Guard Hassini is killed at Darguinah in the Constantine. December 14 General Raoul Salan replaces General Lorillot as commander of the 10th Military Region sparking anger in certain quarters of the European community. Salan calls for intensified night sorties executed with speed and mobility and for all units to take the offensive. December 14 National Assembly Deputy Demarquet, serving as a Lieutenant in Algeria, is wounded in a battle in the southern Constantine. December 14 Terrorist attacks in Algiers leave one person dead and three wounded. December 15 Terrorists open fire on the patrons of a café near the Algiers Normal School. A graduate student, Yves Guido, is killed and two others are seriously wounded. December 15 The body of Jean Antoine Peresi, brother of the Curé of Lambeze is found in the nearby mountains. His throat was cut. December 15 Normal school student Jacques Added is killed in Constantine. December 15 Surveyor Edmond Trumeaux is killed in Tizirenif. December 16 Terrorists attack three Algiers cafés, the Lion d'Or, the Rendezvous des Amis and the Cité des Eucalyptus. One person is killed and another is wounded.December 16 Terrorists attack the police station in the Saint Eugene district of Algiers. Three people including a brigadier and a detective are killed and four are wounded. December 16 One person is killed and 2 are wounded when three students from the normal school open fire with a machinegun in a Bouzaréah bar. December 16 Two gendarmes are killed and three are wounded in an attack outside Notre Dame d'Afrique Church in the Bal El Oued district of Algiers.December 16 A young woman and a 6 year old child are killed and 30 people are wounded by a grenade thrown into the hall of a Boufarik cinéma. The terrorist is lynched by the crowd. December 16 Eight Moslem women and several children are burned to death by the rebels in the douar of Medrina south of Tiaret. December 16 The Keddara barite mine in the Boudouaou Valley is abandoned after numerous attacks. December 16 Pascal Santacreu is murdered and André Delacruz is wounded in a terrorist attack in the Clos Salembier, Algiers. December 16 Two people are killed and 2 are wounded in terrorist attacks at Blida. December 16 Gendarme Arpia is killed in Tizi Ouzou. December 17 Madame Hernandez, the wife of a railway worker, and her 19 year old daughter are murdered with an ax at Sidi Bel Abbes. December 17 A Berber and his wife are hung by the rebels near Bouira. December 18 The Mayor of Algiers, Jacques Louis Chevalier, is wounded by a terrorist. December 18 Five soldiers and 3 civilians are wounded when two bombs explode in a Saint Lucien café. December 18 Retired Colonel Raymond Roy is wounded in a terrorist attack at Boufarik but manages to cut down one of his attackers. December 18 Fisherman Jean Rubio is killed behind the wheel of his car in Oran. December 18 Cap Martin, a 70 year old retiree, is killed at Damiette. December 19 Professor Mandouze, a self-described “progressive”, is released from Santé Prison in Paris.December 19 Maurice Bensaid, manager of the BATA shoe company and his saleswoman, Suzanne Pezet, are wounded by the same bullet fired by a terrorist in Algiers. December 19 One person is killed and 3 wounded when terrorist open fire on a bus in Algiers. December 21 Farmer Joseph Pique and his manager François Sultana are kidnapped by the fellagha at Millesimo in the Constantine. December 22 Nicolas Mortier, age 39, a water meter reader, is killed by two bullets fired into his back in the Clos Salembier, Algiers. December 22 Jean Canavera, age 22, is mortally wounded in Batna. December 22 Mr. Benadira is killed at Belcourt. December 23 A forest ranger and his wife are attacked near Keddara. December 24 Nine people are killed in four grenade attacks in Constantine. Mr. Conrad the chief of staff at the Préfecture is gravely wounded. December 24 Ten people, 4 railway workers and 6 soldiers, are killed when the train from Colomb Bechar derails during a terrorist attack in Oran. December 24 Robert Blanche, a 40 year old surveyor, is killed at Batna by two bullets to the head. December 24 Two men are killed and a third is seriously wounded in terrorist attacks at Blida. December 24 An FLN bomb planted on a school bus claims several victims among the students. December 25 Bachagha Ait Ali, President of the Algiers Departmental General Council, is seriously injured. His attacker is cut down. December 25 Mr. Descamps, secretary to the Mayor of Texenna near Djidjelli, is wounded by a terrorist. December 25 Norbert Hadj Adj and two sisters Raymonde and Sylvie Poncet, ages 22 and 6, are killed by terrorists in Bougie. December 25 Brahim Touati, a prison guard, is seriously wounded. Adrien Burzo and Manuel Frere are killed in Oran. December 25 Farmworker René Comard is murdered with an ax at Mascara. December 25 Two people are killed and four are wounded by terrorists in Bône. December 25 Police officer Lucien Lung is killed at Blida. December 26 President René Coty pardons five terrorists facing death sentences. December 26 Bachaga Aït Ali, who publicly declared his loyalty to France, is killed in an FLN attack. December 27 Two water conservation and forestry agents are killed near Saida. December 27 Blida jeweler Pascal Arvadian is grievously wounded in his store. December 28 Amédée Froger, Mayor of Boufarik and President of the Association of Algerian Mayors, is killed as he leaves his home on the Rue Michelet. His assassin, FLN gunman Ali la Pointe, fires three shots at point blank range and escapes. Authorities blame the murder on members of a Communist terror cell Les Combattants de la Liberation. December 28 Paul Teitgen, Secretary General of the Algiers prefecture and head of the police denounces a plot by General Faure to seize power from the civil authorities in Algeria. The General is placed under fortress arrest for 30 days. December 28 Bombs planted by the Communists explode in four churches including the Cathedral of Algiers, Saint Vincent de Paul at Bab el Oued, Ste Marie de Mustapha and the Sacré Coeur. December 28 Seven bombs explode in Bab El Oued and the Michelet quarter of Algiers injuring three passersby. December 28 Three residents of Camp des Chênes near Blida are kidnapped and murdered. December 28 A grenade explosion wounds several bowlers at Arba. December 29 The Funeral of Amédée Froger becomes an occasion for violence. Four Moslems are killed and fifty are wounded along the route of the cortège which takes over 2 hours to cross Algiers. Two bombs planted by the FLN near the gravesite in Saint Eugène Cemetery explode before the long delayed procession reaches the burial ground. No one is injured. December 30 Captain Mortague, Tocqueville Commandant of Arms, and Rene Riesen are killed in an ambulance at Sétif. December 30 François Segura, father of eight children, is killed by the outlaws at Sidi Bel Abbes. December 30 Mme. Rose Canglano, age 56, is wounded when a bomb explodes in her beauty salon in Algiers. December 30 A trucker and two automobile drivers are abducted by terrorists on the highway from Médéa to Blida. December 30 The manager of the Station Thermale and his wife are killed at Bou Hanifa. December 30 Mr. Vies, a 35 year old Health Service employee, is killed at Tizi Ouzou. December 30 Farmworker Albert Fernandez is killed at douar Amora near Mostaganem. December 30 François Bulette dies from his wounds in Sidi Bel Abbes. December 30 Mr. Guillot, a school teacher at Médéa, is grievously wounded. 1957 January 1 French forces in Algeria number 308,000 men. January 1 Six grenades explode in Algiers. Elsewhere in the capital; Mr. Ferrier, age 46, is killed by a bullet to the neck and 30 year old Si Saber is wounded in the Casbah. January 1 Grenades explode in 2 cafés at Mécheria Raymond Gonzalez, father of 5 children, is killed and 6 people including 4 soldiers, a civilian and 12 year old Ben Marould Ahmed are wounded. January 1 A grenade explosion wounds 4 people in Sétif. January 1 Three people are wounded in a grenade attack on the Café France in Blida. January 1 François Costa is killed in Diar El Mahcoul. January 1 Pierre Rodriguez and Michel Martinez are killed with an ax in Perrégaux. January 1 Two members of the Unités Territorial are killed and 3 are wounded in Oran. January 3 Fourteen people are wounded in grenade attacks at Saint Eugene and Maison Carrée. January 3 Rebels attack the Oran -- Relizane train and kill 6 travelers. Eleven Moslems and 2 Frenchwomen on board are kidnapped.January 3 An FLN bomb explodes on an Algiers trolley car killing a passenger and injuring 13 others. January 4 The FLN launches a new slogan, “Who is not with us is against us.”January 6Abdelkader Guerroudj, head of the Algerian Communist Party in the Algiers region, is arrested. January 6 Mohamed Bouchicha is killed when an Algiers barbershop is machine-gunned. January 6 Captain Moreau, SAS commandant at Pirette near Dra El Mizan, is kidnapped and murdered. January 6 Farmer Charles Delbos is killed along with employee Gaston Meunier on his property at Beni Saf. January 7 The Prefect of Algiers confers police powers on General Massu, who calls on Captain Aussaresses to eradicate terrorism in Algiers. January 7 Medical Aid Jacques Vannier is murdered while tending to patients in a village clinic at Arris. January 8 Paratroopers raid homes in the Algiers Casbah at 3 a.m. and arrest 1,500 suspected terrorists. January 8 Seven people are wounded in a grenade attack on a Boufarik café. January 8 José-Marie Vaquero, head miner at the Mines du Zaccar in Miliana is killed. January 8 Doctor Ettichoffer, Vice President of the Algerian Wine Growers Confederation and his manager are seriously wounded in an attack at Alma. January 9 General Massu is appointed director of security services for metropolitan Algiers. January 9 Two hundred ninety people are detained during a control operation in the Algiers Casbah. January 9 A rebel band is attacked near Tizi Ouzou. Eighteen rebels are kill and 5 captured. January 11 Franz Fanon, head doctor of the Blida psychiatric hospital at Joinville is deported from Algeria for his pro FLN sympathies. January 11 Madame Naouri, a Communist militant, is expelled from Algiers. January 11 Julien Rakouski and his 70 year old mother are murdered in Algiers. January 13 Rural Guard Louis Allaoua is stabbed to death at Djidjelli. January 13 Mr. Juan, a postal worker and father of 6, is killed in Ameur El Ain. January 14 A bomb explodes in an office of Radio Algiers. January 14 Seven people are wounded in a grenade attack at Constantine. January 14 Gendarmry Adjutant Raymond Fucher is killed by 2 bullets in the back at Boghari. January 15 Jacques Chevalier, Mayor of Algiers and former Secretary of State for Defense, intervenes and gains the release of several FLN members who were arrested in possession of arms. He also obtains the recall to metropolitan France of 13 commissioners who he considers too pro French Algeria. January 15 Grand Rabbi Daniel Halimi is grievously wounded by Moslem terrorists in Guelma. January 16 Philippe Castille, a member of ORAF, the European anti-terrorist organization, attempts to assassinate General Salan. The bazooka shell he fires strikes a room in Algiers staff headquarters moments after the General leaves killing Salan's aide de camp, Commandant Rodier. Castille is arrested a few days later and sentenced to 12 years in prison but escapes. January 16 The fellaghas burn a church in Vauban. January 17 The FLN calls for a general strike beginning January 28 and declares, “Moslem brothers, the partisans of the FLN will destroy and exterminate the Europeans including the children.” January 17 Bridge and road agent René Ostesseque is killed and pharmacy assistant Louis Chatraque is wounded at Birkadem. January 18 A bomb explodes aboard the steamer Ville d'Oran off Algiers. January 19 Five members of a Moslem family are killed in Kolea. Their throats are cut. January 20 Monsieur Faussemaque, Prefect of Tiaret, escapes an ambush. January 20 Jean-Pierre Galea, Corporal in Chief of the 2nd Bataillon de Chasseurs Alpins, is killed by several gunshots in front of his mother in Algiers. January 20 Sixty three members of the FLN and MNA are arrested in metropolitan France. January 21 Police Detective Chaieb Mohamed is killed in Orléansville. January 22 Seven people are killed and 3 seriously injured when rebels attack the Algiers -- Kolea bus 25 kilometers from Algiers.January 24 Seventeen year old G. Pommier is murdered with a pick ax by an outlaw in Chekfa. January 25 Two farm managers are kidnapped by the rebels on the Perrégaux -- Mostaganem Road.January 26 Danielle Minne, Fadilla and Djamila Bouazza of the FLN plant bombs at L'Otomatic, La Cafétéria and the Coq Hardi cafés in the center of Algiers. The devices explode at 5:30 p.m. killing five customers and wounding 39. January 26 Two policemen are wounded in separate bombings in Bab el Oued. January 26 Nine grenades are thrown in Algiers but only one person is wounded. January 27 Daniel Timsit and Giorgio Arbib are arrested for making explosive devices for the Communist Party of Algeria. January 28 The FLN launches an unlimited general strike. The Army raids the homes of striking public services workers and takes them to their jobs. They force merchants to open their businesses and open some stores by force. The Army arrests picketers at striking factories and puts them to work as street sweepers or dockers in the port. January 28 Communists Danielle Minne, her mother and Madame Netter who planted a bomb at in a gasworks are arrested. January 29 One hundred seventy fellaghas are killed on the borders. February 1 The French Army in Algeria numbers 396,000 men. February 3 The Nedroma village church is destroyed by a terrorist bomb. Ten people are killed and 4 wounded in the explosion. February 5 Henri Alleg, publisher of the Republicain d'Alger, the Communist Party of Algeria's newspaper, is arrested for conspiring with the FLN. February 5 The Moslem murderer of Mlle. Amou Olcina is arrested in Algiers. February 10 Eight people are killed and hundreds wounded when a bomb planted by 16 year old FLN member Baya Hocine explodes beneath the stands at the El Biar stadium. February 10 Two people are killed and 15 injured when a bomb planted by 17 year old high school student Djouher Akhor explodes in the Algiers municipal stadium during a football match. February 11 Three people are killed in a grenade attack on the Bar Joinville in Algiers. February 12 A member of the Algerian Communist Party, who planted a bomb at the Algiers gasworks, is guillotined at Barberousse Prison, Algiers. February 15 Colonel Bigeard's men seize 25 FLN bombs and arrest several, “chemists”.February 15 Icham Kouider, holder of the Médaille Militaire and Croix de Guerre with six citations is murdered by the fellaghas in Mostaganem. February 15 A grenade explodes inside the Bar Jean in Algiers killing the 7 year old son of the proprietor. February 16 French troops seize twenty six 1 kilogram bombs in the Algiers Casbah. February 16 Tagdempt farmer M. L. Boyer is arrested for sabotaging a train. February 16 Thirteen year old Claudette Ruiz dies of wounds sustained in an attack on the Jules Ferry School in Tlemcen. February 17 Larbi Ben M'Hidi, head of the Algiers Autonomous Zone, is arrested by the paratroopers.February 17 Nine more bombs and bomb making laboratory are uncovered by the French military. February 18 Twenty bombs including a 25 kilogram device are discovered by the French authorities. February 18 Mr. and Mrs. Gautheron are arrested in Algiers for aiding the rebels. February 19 Two truck drivers, Maurice Mirailles and Jean Montessino, are killed by the rebels at Djelfa on the road to Laghouat. Their throats are cut. February 19 Seven more bombs are discovered in Algiers. The number of bombs seized since January 28th tops 90. February 19 Farmer Jean Pavet, father of 5 children, is murdered in Bône. February 22 Yussef Ben Khedda, Belkacem Krim, Ramdane Abane and Saad Dahlab, the 4 directors of the FLN's Committee for Coordination and Execution leave Algiers for Blida in a car driven by a European, the wife of an Algiers doctor, who is arrested several days later. Abane and Dahlab eventually reach Morocco. Krim and Ben Khedda flee to Tunisia.February 23 Policeman Jacques Farou is killed by a terrorist in Sétif. February 23 Farmer Georges Grengt is killed at Teniet El Haad. February 28 Twenty three soldiers of the 22nd Infantry Regiment are 23 killed and 14 wounded in an ambush near Dupleix. Most of the arms used by the FLN were stolen by Communist Henri Maillot. March 3 Fifty rebels are killed during a fierce battle in the djebel Amour near Aflou. March 4 Larbi Ben M'Hidi, leader of the FLN's Algiers Autonomous Zone, is found hanged in his prison cell.March 4 Seven rebels are killed near Fort National in the Grande Kabylie. March 8 Agricultural Engineer Paul Lefevre, son of the President of the Algiers Bar Association, and his wife are murdered on the Solier Farm near Tenes. March 10 General de Gaulle arrives in Colomb Bechar for a private tour of the Sahara. He tells Robert Lacoste and Raoul Salan that, “The Algerian problem will not be resolved without de Gaulle.”March 11Henri Lis, General Secretary of the Loverdo town hall, is killed. March 12 General de Gaulle visits the Kenadsa coal mine where bachaga Sheik Ben Abdallah tells him, “You represent our hope as in 1940.”March 12General de Gaulle visits the monument erected at the site of General Leclerc's fatal 1947 airplane crash near Colomb Bechar.March 13 Rebels attack the Grive Farm at Pointe Rouge. They cut the throats and mutilate the bodies of Madame Grive, age 76, and her two sons. March 14 General de Gaulle visits the Fort Gouraud iron ore mines where he declares, “The Sahara is the luck of France and perhaps of the world.”March 15Supporters of Pierre Mendes France introduce legislation in the Chamber of Deputies calling for the partition of Algeria. March 17 General de Gaulle visits Hassi Messaoud where he tells oilmen, “petroleum wealth will change the material and moral state of France.”March 18The MNA maquis commanded by Bellounis, under attack from both the FLN and the French Army, is forced to conclude an agreement with the French. March 18 The Curé of Saint Aime near Ammi Moussa is mortally wounded by bullets and buckshot. March 19 The barbed wire fence along the Moroccan border is mined and electrified. March 20 General Salan established the EMSI, Équipes Médico-Sociales Itinérantes, who travel the countryside providing assistance to disadvantaged women and children. March 21 In Cannes, four recently discharged draftees form l'Amicale des Anciens Combattants d'AFN (Association of French North African War Veterans). The prefecture objects to the use of the word, “Combattants” in as much as the Government does not consider the situation in Algeria a war. The organization is refused registration under its proposed name. It becomes l'Amicale des Anciens Militaires en AFN (Association of Former Soldiers in French North Africa.March 22 Justice Minister François Mitterrand writes Premier Mollet to inform him on the summary arrests, tortures and executions which are occurring in Algeria. March 25 Madame Massu, wife of General Massu, presides at the opening of a youth center in the former offices of the Communist Party newspaper Alger Républicain on Rue Koechlin in Bab el Oued. The center is intended to provide shelter and vocational training for disadvantaged Moslems. March 25 Roger Guyonnet, a student at the Moissons Nouvelles School is cut down by a patrol. March 25 Bicycle racer Belaouari is killed by the terrorists. March 26 Anna Vacheron and Monique Hanoun, instructor at the Lycée Lazerges, are taken into custody for harboring the recently arrested Communist militant Doctor Janine Balkodja in Algiers. March 26 Mr. Jullie, President of the Délégation Spéciale of Benian, is murdered in Mascara. March 28 Grand Rabbi Jacob Choukroun dies of wounds sustained in an attack at Médéa. March 29 Paul Teitgen, Secretary General of the Algiers prefecture, submits his resignation as a protest against the methods employed by the Army. Robert Lacoste refuses to accept it. March 29 Algiers baker Jean Baptiste Roma, age 59, is murdered by the terrorists. March 31 The 10th Military Region announces that since January 20th a total of 1,827 members of the Algiers terrorist network and confiscated 812 weapons, 88 bombs, 200 kg of explosive and 166 hand grenades. Two soldiers have been killed and 5 wounded. April 2 Five French farmers are killed in attacks on 20 farms in Orania. April 4 A shipment of arms and munitions are seized from the German freighter Lindenfeld in the port of Mostaganem. April 6 Three people are killed, 3 wounded and 1 disappears in an ambush near Mascara. April 7 Fifteen people are wounded in a grenade attack at the ASB Trésor Stadium in Oran. April 8 Sheik Larbi Tebessi, leader of the Oulemas, is kidnapped by the rebels. April 9 Djamila Bouhired, who has just been stopped by a patrol, is wounded by Yacef Saadi who opens fire on the soldiers and their prisoner. Bouhired who planted the Brasserie l'Automatic bomb is carrying numerous documents and her interrogation permits the recovery of a cache of bombs and weapons. April 9 Rebels slit the throats of 4 French Moslems and 3 women in Tlemcen. April 12 Thirty Communists are arrested in Algiers for colluding with the rebels. April 12 Antoine Giogetti, proprietor of l'Auberge du Ruisseau des Singes is arrested for trafficking in arms and charged with treason. April 12 Three people are killed and 25 wounded by a grenade explosion in an Ain Temouchent cinéma. The victims are all Moslems. April 13 Twenty two Communists including the daughters of a Bône school superintendent and postal inspector are arrested. April 14 Doctor Brechet, a Bougie surgeon renowned as a devoted friend of the local Moslems, is murdered by an FLN assassin who fires two shots into his head. April 14 The Faviers, an elderly couple in their 70s, are murdered by the rebels during an attack on the Saint Jacques Farm near Sidi Mimoun. April 14 Sixty seven year old Jean Baptiste Mas is killed in a grenade attack at Arba. April 15 Six soldiers and 4 Moslem firemen are kidnapped during an attack on a firehouse at Sétif. April 17 Two paratroopers are killed near their quarters on the Rue Polignac, Algiers. Forty of their comrades raid a Turkish bath where the authors of the attack are believed to have taken refuge. The paras open fire on the bathers killing 20 Moslems and wound several more. April 17 Master Corporal Christian Lataste is shot in the back and killed in an attack at Bône. April 17 Farm workers Guillaume Mercadal and Jean Segura are killed in Miliana. April 17 Farm worker Albert Roumad is murdered in Tlemcen. April 18 Several people are injured when the Oujda -- Oran train hits a mine.April 18 A passenger is killed in an attack on a bus in Algiers. April 19 Auguste Pascaud and his wife Gabrielle are arrested in Algiers for harboring a fugitive Moslem Communist leader. April 19 Driver Jean Dona is killed and 4 other people are wounded when a bomb explodes on an Oran trolley car. April 23 Nine Moslem members of the Délégation Spéciale are kidnapped and murdered by the rebels at Bordj Sabath near Bône. April 23 Zarah Bouharoua and her 18 month old baby are burned alive by the terrorists at Heliopolis near Guelma. April 23 Farm workers Benoit Lalande and Emile Prost are arrested in Oran for providing assistance to the fellaghas. April 23 Farmer Henri Aubertier, age 80, is murdered at Cape Aokas. April 28 Perrégaux cabdriver, Mr. Ginez, is killed in his garden. April 28 Oran salesman Gaston Gouini is killed. April 29 Rebels attack the police station in Kroubs. Constable Aimé Warisse is killed and four others are wounded. April 30 The Public Prosecutor of Algiers writes the Office of Public Justice complaining that he has not received the complete reports of interrogations of arrestees, that they have been held for too long a time and that the questioning has been illegally conducted in places controlled by the military. The Prosecutor concludes his protest by declaring, "These mistakes are incompatible with the principles which direct the action of the Criminal Investigation Department." April 31 Robert Cassais, a workman for the Department of Bridges and Roads, is killed in Bône in front of his 6 year old daughter. May 2 A woman is killed and 60 people are wounded in an FLN grenade attack on the Négrier Market in Constantine. May 2 Forty two rebels are killed in a military operation near Gallieni. May 3 Lyon firemen extinguish an arson fire at hostel for North African workers after an hour long battle. May 4 Secretary of State, Eugène Thomas, declares, “In France, there are too many sensitive hearts that cry out in horror when blood is shed ...as long as it is not French blood.”May 5The French Army agrees to furnish Bellounis, the leader of a 1,000 man MNA maquis with a stronghold in the Aumale region, with food and material in exchange for information on the FLN and an agreement to refrain from attacks on French forces. Bellounis' force will be renamed ANPA and reach an effective strength of 1,500 men but his exactions, levies on the Europeans, murder and conscription of Moslems etc. will eventually force the French to eliminate it.May 6 The French Army's 5th Bureau, psychological warfare, develops a strategy to destabilize the FLN. Low ranking FLN militants are arrest and shown forged documents purporting to list FLN guerillas working for the French. Once released the prisoners hasten to denounce the traitors. Thousands of rebels are purged in the aftermath.May 7 Doctor Jouane, a highly respected figure in the community of Guelma, is murdered by an FLN terrorist. May 7 Farm worker Pierre Orosco is murdered in Perrégaux. May 8 A French air attack destroys the FLN radio transmitter at Saida, Morocco. May 9 Two French schoolteachers, Iman Henni Si Med and his brother the Mufti are among the five victims of killings in Mazouna near Orléansville. May 9 Public works contractor Armand Lecourege is murdered in Oued Fodda. May 10 Territorial Militiaman Christian Delore is cut down by three bullets in the back at Oran. May 10 Post Office comptroller Alexis Skinadje is killed in Mascara. May 11 The FLN formally prohibits Moslems from smoking; going to cinémas, cafes and schools, from celebrating Moslem religious holidays; paying taxes to the administration; keeping dogs; wearing European clothing and from accepting handouts. May 11 Five members of the Barral family are savagely murdered at their farm 16 kilometers from Sétif. May 13 Seventeen Moslem families are kidnapped from Gambetta. May 13 François Gabet, Mayor of Kolea for 30 years, is murdered while paying his workers. May 13 Farm manager André Mougeot is killed in Mouzaiaville. May 16 Constable Lucien Morell is killed in Blida. May 17 The wife of the Prefect of Strasbourg is killed while opening a package sent to the Prefect by the “North African Club”, a German organization that supports the FLN.May 20 A decree creates 8 new departments in northern Algeria. The departments of Médéa, Orléansville, Tizi Ouzou are separated from Algiers. The departments of Batna and Sétif are separated from Constantine. The departments of Mostaganem, Tiaret and Tlemcen are separated from Oran. May 20 The bodies of two constables, André Saston and Julien Grognier, are discovered near M'Sila. Their throats were cut.May 20 Police detective Sahnouni is killed in Batna. May 20 Seventy year old Jean Riquelme is murdered in Saida. May 21 The Government of French Premier Guy Mollet is defeated. May 21 A detachment of 5th BTA is ambushed near Médéa. A Captain and 10 infantrymen are killed. The rebels suffer 1 dead and 2 wounded. May 22 Two men are murdered in Tlemcen. Corporal Roger Labade is killed by 3 bullets to the head. Retired postal worker Emile Monnier is shot once in the neck. May 22 Twenty year old Pierre Chambon is stabbed to death in Franchetti. May 22 Farmer Louis Magnin is murdered in Dombasle. May 23 Colonel Bigeard's 3rd RPC hunts down the rebels responsible for the May 21st ambush of the 5th BTA. A two day battle at Agounennda ends with 96 rebels killed and 12 captured. The French lose 8 dead and 29 wounded.May 25 Bakery owner Jean Soldevilla is mortally wounded in Algiers. May 26 Ali Chekkal, former Vice President of the Algerian Assembly, is killed while seated beside President René Coty during the final match of the French Football Cup at the Stade de Colombes in Paris. His assassin, Mohamed Ben Sadok, is arrested and sentenced to life at hard labor. May 26 Mr. Ligols, the caretaker of a radio transmitter in Maison Blanche, is murdered. May 28 FNL rebels, acting on orders from Wilaya 3 commander Mohamedi Saïd, massacre the inhabitants of Mechta-Kasbah, a Moslem hamlet near Melouza in Kabylia. 300 people are killed and 150 wounded in the attack which former Abwehr agent Saïd hopes to blame on the French military. May 29 The FLN attacks the city of Melouza, a stronghold of the rival Mouvement Nationaliste Algérienne. The raiders kill, cut the throats of and emasculate 338 Moslems. May 29 Mohamed Mahiddine, leader of the FLN in the south of France, is murdered in Marseilles. May 29 Veteran soccer players Emmanuel Vera and Jean Sanchez are killed in Oran. May 30 Eighty men from the Ouled Zerrouki and Ouled Ben Benkhoua factions are assembled at the Sahli Kadda farm 18 kilometers from Saida by rival terrorists who gun them down. The wounded are finished off with axes and knives. Thirteen men escape the massacre. May 30 Twenty men gathered at the residence of Belkacem Mostefa are machine-gunned. Eight are killed and 4 wounded. May 30 Jean-Baptiste Chadry, 57 year old, father of 5 children, is killed at Bouguirat. Chadry's throat is slit by two of his oldest Moslems farmworkers.May 30 Farm manager Simon Pons is killed with an ax at Mascara. May 31 Mascara Mayor Adda Chentouf is murdered at the Zaouia of Sid Abdallah. June 1 Thirty five Moslems are killed by the FLN at Wagram near Saïda. June 2 American Senator John F. Kennedy, a supporter of Algerian independence, declares, “Algeria will cease to be an exclusively French problem.” June 2 Mr. Lucas, a pharmacist, is stabbed to death by a terrorist in El Mila. June 3 Eight people are killed and 90 wounded when three bombs planted lampposts explode in three quarters of Algiers. June 3 Gardener Raymond Sanchez, a 54 year old gardener and father of 7 children, is kidnapped and murdered at El Mila. June 4 Edouard Samson, President of the Délégation Spéciale, is arrested at Rovigo by the DST for collusion with the FLN. June 6 The new Caid of La Sénia, Mohamed Smahi, is murdered by the terrorists. June 9 Eleven people are killed and 85 wounded when an FLN bomb explodes beneath the orchestra pit of the Casino de la Corniche near Algiers. The bomber, Yacef Saadi, declares that he planted the device to avenge the massacre at Melouza. June 9 Farmer Roger Bromeng is killed on his property at Sétif. June 10 The Clos de L'Oasis farm is ransack and burned.June 11 Violent demonstrations erupt in Algiers during the funeral service for the victims of the Casino de la Corniche bombing. Six people, five of them Moslems, are killed. Forty nine people, including two paratroopers, are injured. June 11 Police Brigadier Caid Omar Bena Ouda is cut down by revolver fire in Mostaganem. June 12 The Government of French Premier Bourges Maunoury takes office. June 12 Henri Alleg, publisher of Alger Républicain, the Communist newspaper, is arrested. June 13 Yves-René Sintes is stabbed to death at Fort De L'Eau.June 18 Landowner Georges Villemin and his manager Mr. Sultana are killed at Jemmapes. June 21 Caid Mediba and a rural guard are shot and killed in an ambush at Noisy Les Bains. June 21 A terrorist band kills 2 Frenchmen and 2 Moslems in Frenda. June 23 Sixteen year old Marie-France Perea is killed in a grenade explosion at Sidi Bel Abbes. June 23 Driver Pierre Carvajal is killed behind the wheel of his car at Hammam Bou Adjar. June 25 The French Army seizes bomb building materials and 33 nearly completed bombs. June 25 Farmers Joseph Haentzel and René Roger Epplim are murdered at Franchetti near Saida. June 26 At the request of General Salan, Defense Minister Andre Morice grants priority to the construction of an electrified and mined fence along the Tunisian border (the Morice Line). It will be reinforced north of Souk Ahras by the Challe Line in June 1958. June 28 Farmer Marius Collet is killed while tending his field at Combas. July 2 Senator John F. Kennedy responds to President Eisenhower's recognition of Algeria as an integral French territory with a renewed call for Algerian independence.July 4 Laborers Auguste Lauro and Georges Mintub and foreman Napoleone, are murdered in workshop at Saint Antoine. July 4 The body of Jean Ruiz, age 70, kidnapped by the rebels, is found near Bouhanifa. July 4 Henry Bendayan and Jean Denot are shot to death at Perrégaux. July 4 Farmer Joseph Ganci is killed in Bône. July 5 A sixty man delegation representing the French veterans of the World Wars, the Resistance and the Indochina War arrives in Algiers. July 7 At 11 o'clock in ceremonies before Algiers' Monument to the Dead and the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, the representatives of Metropolitan French veterans swear the following oath; “United by their faith in the grandeur and future of France, upholders of the National honor, loyal to the memory of Frenchmen of all origins who fell in the defense of and for the liberation of their common Fatherland, two million veterans of the metropolis by our voice in Algeria, French land, swear to oppose by all means all measures which threaten the territorial integrity and unity of the nation.”July 11Abdelmadjid Chaker, Ahmed Ben Bella's lawyer and liaison between his client and the FLN, is arrested on arrival from Tunisia at Orly Airport, Paris.July 12 Businessman Guillaume Galvani is killed in Constantine. July 14 Algerian troops lead the Bastille Day parade down the Champs Élysée in Paris. July 14 The Laghouat electric generating station is knocked out by FLN saboteurs. July 15 FLN bomber, Djamila Bouhired, is sentenced to death. July 17 Colonel Si Chérif of Willaya 6 along with his 330 man rebel force rallies to the French cause at Aïn Boucif in the southern Algiers region. July 17 Brigadier Deble of the Water and Forestry Service is murdered in Molière. July 17 Jean Rambaud is mortally wounded and farmers Joseph Gah and Antoine Ahard are kidnapped from Sétif and taken to Tunisia by force. July 17 Rebels slit the throat of Mr. Porff, an 85 year old, at his farm in Martinprey. July 17 The owner of la Brasserie Centrale is killed in Perrégaux. July 17 Mr. L'Hermite is killed in front of his home in Mascara.July 18 Five people are killed and 3 wounded when five bombs explode in the center of Algiers. July 19 José Hernandez is killed and two people are wounded when a bomb explodes in Oran. July 19 Water and Forestry Agents Labarde and Marchal are killed in an attack at Tigzirt. July 19 Gabriel Munier is murdered on his farm at Cavaignac. July 19 Railway worker Gaston Moretti is killed at Blida. July 25 Three FLN terrorists are executed at the Algiers prison. July 27 The FLN plants 8 bombs in Algiers in reprisal for the executions of July 25th. Three are disarmed before they explode. Two of them prematurely exploded killing the bombers. Berazaouane Saïd is killed when the bomb he is carrying explodes on the Boulevard de la Victoire on the heights of the Casbah. July 28 Second Lieutenant Ben Chérif deserts with several of his men after cutting the throats of 14 conscripts including 8 Moslems. July 28 Cemetery caretaker Louis Bernand is killed in Aumale. July 30 Jeweler Gabriel Seymann is mortally wounded in Bône. August 2 Six people are killed and 4 wounded in an FLN attack targeting Moslems in Paris. August 7 The Saharan territories are organized into the departments of Oasis and Saoura. August 7 The Tin Essamei D oil well catches fire. It burns for several weeks before being extinguished by Texas oil fire specialist Red Adair. August 11 A grenade explodes in a market at Aumale killing 2 people and wounding 20. The victims are all Moslems. August 11 A bomb explodes in Bône store killing the owner, Raymond Zitoun. August 13 Farmer Antoine Fuster is killed and 3 members of his family are wounded in an ambush at Mascara. August 14 Police Brigadier Joseph Paccioni goes missing from Aumale. August 23 Ali Thela is attacked by terrorists a 2 in the afternoon in front of his home on the Avenue Maréchal Foch, Ténés. August 24 Rebels stop a car driven by Henri Baussier on the Talafa Road in Cavaignac. Baussier and his 13 year old son Jean are killed. Robert Baniere, a passenger in the vehicle, goes missing. The 3 were returning from a visit to Ali Thela the day before. August 24 Sheik Ben Tekkouk and his son Zin are killed at Bouguirat. August 26 The Army traps Kamel and Mourad, the leaders of an FLN bombing network, at a house on the Impasse St Vincent de Paul in Algiers' Casbah. The rebels put up a stiff resistance for over two hours during which four of them are killed. Two soldiers die and seven are wounded in the operation which results in the recovery of 32 bombs.August 26 The synagogue in Orléansville is burned. August 26 Seven members of two farm families are massacred by the fellagha at the Mandourah Estate in Courbet. August 26 Three Moslems are burned to death in an attack and fire in a tavern at Lille, France. August 27 Seven people, 5 soldiers and 2 civilians, are killed in an attack on a convoy on the Dublineau Road, Mascara. August 27 José Rens is killed in front of a farm at La Chiffa. August 29 Farmer Claude Malrdeau is murdered on his parents' property in Miliana.August 31 A retired schoolteacher, Mr. Aoulmeur, and the Vice President of the City Administrative Commission die from wounds sustain in a terrorist attack at Orléansville. September 2 Gendarme Louis Chauvin is killed by a grenade explosion and three other people are injured in the attack at Sétif. September 2 Fellaghas kill Richard Swartz, the guard at the Serrah Mill, and bayonette Alexandre Grosso at Fermatou. September 2 Constable Pareder is killed by a shot through the heart in Relizane. September 3 A child is killed and 6 other people are killed in a grenade attack on a Constantine apartment building. September 3 Three people are wounded in a grenade attack on a Constantine café. September 15 An electrified fence along the Tunisian border is completed. September 22 Farida and Jeanne Marie Francés, directors of the committee of the FLN Algiers Autonomous Zone, are arrested. September 24 Yacef Saadi, leader of the FLN terrorist network in the Algiers Autonomous Zone, and Zohra Drif are arrested on the Rue Caton in the Casbah. September 24 Colonel Pierre Jeanpierre and an adjudant of the 1st Régiment Étranger Parachustiste are wounded when a terrorist they are attempting to arrest sets off a handgrenade. September 26 Rebels slit the throat of Ali Ben Manhar in front of his wife and children in Loverdo. September 27 M. E. Bekkat, Secretary General of the USTA, an MNA front group, is assassinated in Paris. September 29 Eighteen people are wounded in a grenade attack at Mostaganem. September 29 Nine people are injured in a grenade attack at Oran. September 29 A resettlement center in Lannoy is the target of an arsonist. September 29 Farmer Armand d'Ingrado is killed at Saint Arnaud. September 30 The Government of Premier Bourgès-Maunoury resigns following the National Assembly's defeat of a proposal to create a single electoral college in Algeria.September 30 Eleven people including two children are wounded in a grenade attack at Philippeville. October 1 The French Army in Algeria numbers 377,000 men. October 1 Two people are killed when rebels machinegun vehicles on the roadway near Ain El Turck. October 1 Farmer Gérard Rigaud is murdered at Tenira. October 2 Two detachments of the 110th Moroccan Infantry Regiment suffer heavy causalities in an ambush south of Aflou. October 2 Raymond Laquiere, age 31, is murdered near his farm at Felix Faure. October 2 Armand Soler, age 20, is killed in downtown Tizi Ouzou. October 3 Eighty Moslem families are kidnapped by the rebels on the Tunisian border. October 3 A French reconnaissance plane is shot down over Sakiet Sidi Youssef, Tunisia. October 3 François Iborra is murdered in one of his workshops at Perrégaux. October 3 Postmaster Georges Ferrer is kidnapped at Fondouk. October 3 Tenant farmer Baptiste Tur is kidnapped at Cherchell. October 4 The body of farm guard François Marco, who was kidnapped by the rebels, is discovered at Parmentier. October 5 In France, Francis Jeanson, founder of an FLN aid network goes underground. October 8 Troops surround the hideout of Ali la Pointe, Hassiba ben Bouali, Mahmoud Bou Hamidi and Petit Omar on Rue Abderamés in Algiers' Casbah. The rebels refuse to come out. The Paras plant a small plastic charge to bring down the wall separating them from the fugitives. The blast ignites explosives stored in hideout. An adjacent building collapses. Twenty four people are killed and several, including five French soldiers, are injured.October 8 Eleven people including a retired railway worker, a Moslem trader and Legionnaire are killed in terrorist attacks at Sidi Bel Abbes. October 11 Roland Schmitt is murdered on his farm at Picard. October 15 Benhamida Abderhamane, the last leader of FLN's Algiers Autonomous Zone still at large, is arrested.October 16 Colonel Yves Godard and Captain Christian Léger sow disorder in the Algiers wilaya. They leave a trail of forged letters leading the FLN to suspected traitors in it ranks. The accused traitors hasten to denounce still more suspects and thousands are victimized by the purge that follows. October 17 A 60 man Saharan unit kills the 8 European Méharistes and deserts to the FLN taking their arms and equipment with them. October 17 Nine Moslems are tortured and killed by FLN terrorist in front of the assembled villagers in the Douar of Smir in the Algiers Department. October 17 André Cathala, a 29 year old farmworker is killed by the rebels at Guelma. October 18 Rebels kill two soldiers and a civilian in Tlemcen. October 19 Seven soldiers of the 6th Battalion Coloniale d'Artillerie are killed in an ambush near Michelet.October 21 Three people are wounded in a grenade attack on a brasserie in Fort De L'Eau. October 24 Lieutenant Roger Guy, age 25, is murdered along the Robertville road at Sidi Mesrich. October 24 Two farmers, the Baldini brothers, are gravely wounded by rifle shots near Saint Antoine. October 24 Vincent Vanucci, age 78, succumbs to wounds inflicted by a killer in Constantine. October 25 Hocine Cherchali, former assistant to the Mayor of Algiers, is cut down by terrorists in the Sévres-Babylone station of the Paris metro along with Ahmed Bekhat, Secretary of the Algerian Workers Union. October 31 Henri Borgeaud, Senator from Algiers, escapes an attack in Paris. November 3 One person is killed and 21 are injured in grenade attacks on two Arab cafés in Algiers. November 5 The Government of Premier Félix Gaillard takes office in France. November 6 Haït Ahcène, representative of the FLN in West Germany is killed by agents of the Red Hand, counter terrorist organization in Bonn. November 7 Seven members of a French oil exploration team and 9 legionnaires are massacred by the FLN near Timmons in the Sahara . November 7 Retired Colonel Riez, head of North African Social Services, is killed by several shots from a revolver at Saint Etienne, France. November 7 Policeman Benoît Ceccaldi is shot to death during a security sweep in Oran. November 8 Salesman Marcel Kilo, the father of 4 children, is killed in a Bône fabric store. November 8 Herbillon municipal councilor Chemise is killed. November 9 An airborne operation is launched against rebels attacking oil workers in the Timimoun region of the Sahara . November 9 French troops raid and destroy six FLN training camps in Morocco. November 11 Robert Lacoste ends the draft deferments of most Algerian students. November 15 France protests British and American arms shipments to Tunisia claiming they are in fact destined for delivery to the FLN. November 15 The Lieutenant commanding the SAS detachment in the village of Chatoyant and a rural guard are murdered. The village mayor is missing. November 16 One person is killed and 3 others wounded in a grenade attack on a Bône café. November 19 FLN terrorists kill 6 North Africans and wound 2 others in suburban Paris hotel. November 21 The Battle of Timimoun, in the Sahara, ends with 45 rebels killed and 6 captured. French forces lose 12 soldiers. November 22 The sergeant of the local Unités Territorial, Raymond Verge, is killed in Mascara. November 26 Raymonde Peschard, a member of the Algerian Communist Party, is killed during a skirmish near Bordj Bou Arrerridj while serving as a nurse to the rebels. November 27 Abdelkader Bamako, Secretary of State for Algeria, is the target of an assassination attempt in Paris. November 29 The National Assembly approves an organic act and electoral law for Algeria. November 30 The Hassi Messaoud - Bougie petroleum pipeline is placed in service. December 2 Marcel Bigeard, age 42, becomes the youngest Colonel in the French Army. December 2 A grenade explosion wounds Mme. Marie-Jeanne Duran ton and her 21 month old child in Oran. December 4 Saboteurs derail the Constantine -- Philippeville train at Grasonville. Four soldiers are killed and 2 are injured.December 6 Pierre Lagaillarde, Reserve Second Lieutenant, is elected to head the General Association of Algerian Students (AGEA). December 10 Albert Camus is awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature, "for his important literary production, which with clear-sighted earnestness illuminates the problems of the human conscience in our times". He declares in regards to Algeria, “Between justice (for Moslems) and my mother (Algeria) I choose my mother.”December 10Nine people are wounded in a grenade attack on a Blida bar. December 12 Rival gangs of Algerian Moslems settle scores in Paris. Seven people are killed and 18 injured. December 13 Pharmacist Augusta Barbate is stabbed to death by a terrorist in Bone. December 13 Farmer Louis Cuomo is killed with an ax at Philippeville. December 19 An Air France flight lands safely at Lyon following the explosion of a bomb believed to have been planted by the FLN. Damage to the plane is minor and no one is injured. December 20 Michel Debré writing in Le Courrier de la Colère declares, "the abandonment of French sovereignty in Algeria is an illegitimate act, i.e. which it puts those which make it and those responsible for it outlaws". December 20 Two young women and grocer Larbi Mohamed are killed when fellaghas open fire with a machine-gun in an Oran street. December 26 Abbane Ramdane, exiled in Morocco, is executed by his comrades under orders from Colonel Abdelhafid Boussouf. An Algiers street is later named for him as a, “Martyr of the Revolution”.December 26 A grenade attack on an Oran bar kills one person and wounds 6 others. December 27 Farmworker Juan Martinez is killed by a revolver shot near the village of Corso. December 31 A 200 kilometer aqueduct supplying the city of Oran with drinking water opens.