Encyclopedia of Anti-Revisionism On-Line

Anti-Revisionism in Belgium

Communist Party (Marxist-Leninist) of Belgium

Belgium was the first Western European country to develop a significant anti-revisionist communist party, and to closely align itself with China and its polemics against “modern revisionism”.


In 1963, Jacques Grippa, a prominent leader in the pro-Soviet Communist Party of Belgium, was expelled from the Party for his anti-revisionism. Grippa had been active in the Party since the 1930’s, was a hero of the World War II Belgian resistence movement, and had headed its Brussels Federal Committee. In 1964, Grippa and a significant number of his supporters founded an alternative Communist Party of Belgium (PCB) and began publishing a weekly magazine, La Voix du Peuple (The Voice of the People).

With Chinese support, both ideological and financial, Grippa helped organize pro-Chinese anti-revisionist groups in other European countries. With the outbreak of the Chinese Cultural Revolution, however, the PCB underwent a split as supporters of the Cultural revolution clashed with Grippa and his supporters. Many left the PCB to form several new Maoist parties – the Walloon Communist Party (Marxist-Leninist) and the Communist Party Marxist-Leninist of Belgium. In 1968, Grippa came out openly in support of Liu Shao-chi, the former Chairman of the People’s Republic of China, deposed during the Cultural Revolution. Thereafter, Grippa’s PCB ceased to play a significant role in the Belgian anti-revisionist movement.

Historical Materials

Sketch of organisational developments of anti-revisionism in Belgium

Le P.C.B. et la Scission “Grippiste” de 1963 par Milou (Émile) Rikir

Background Materials

Belgian Pro-Chinese Split

China’s Great Cultural Revolution Has Opened a Channel to Communism by Sidney Rittenberg [Peking Review, April 14, 1967]

A new split in the Maoist party in Belgium by Pascal Lubra

End of the Road for Grippa?

“On a Speech by Sidney Rittenberg” by Hammer & Steel [U.S.A.]

On the Question of Liu Shao-chi by the Progressive Worker [Canada]

Jacques Grippa against the Cultural Revolution by Ylber Marku

Belgian Revisionism [from the Report of the Central Committee of the Marxist-Leninist Organization of Britain on the Role of “Centrist” Revisionism]

The (Reorganized) Communist Party of Belgium Enters the “Centrist” Revisionist Camp [from the Report of the Central Committee of the Marxist-Leninist Organization of Britain on the Role of “Centrist” Revisionism]

Primary Documents


Resolutions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Belgium

Marxist-Leninists, Unite! Resolution of the Brussels Federal Committee of the Belgian Communist Party

“Theory” and Practice of the Modern Revisionists by Jacques Grippa

Belgian Marxist-Leninists Decide to Rebuild Party [Peking Review, #3, January 17, 1964]

The Revisionists Have Sabotaged the Struggle in Greece [from Vanguard, published by the U.K. Committee to Defeat Revisionism For Communist Unity, Vol. 1, No. 11, December 1964]

What are the Revisionist Leaders of the French Communist Party Getting Mixed Up With? by Rena Raindorf

Apropos the 21st Congress of the CP Netherlands

France – Before the 17th Congress of the CP

Jacques Grippa on Marxist-Leninist Unity

The Extraordinary National Conference of the Belgian Communist Students

Belgian Marxist-Leninists Urged to Unite and Rebuild Communist Party [Peking Review, #15, April 10, 1964]

Jacques Grippa Condemns C.P.S.U. Leadership’s New Splitting Activities [Peking Review, #19, May 8, 1964]

Jacques Grippa’s Speech: International Communist Movement Strengthened in Current Great Debate [Peking Review, #35, August 28, 1964]


Excellent News on the Youth Front by Albert Faust

A controversy over principles against an unfair controversy by Jacques Grippa

Jacques Grippa and Maurice Massoz – the TV broadcast [complete text]

Trotskyists of the “Left” discover Santa Claus by Fernand Lefebvre

The Communists and the trade unions – an open letter to the Members of the Khrushchevist Party by Maurice Delonge

American Imperialism Has Taken Over from Hitler by Jacques Grippa

Second Anniversary – the Communist Party of Belgium Reconstituted itself on the basis of Marxism-Leninism

Castro Speaks of Unity, But Has Chosen a Split [Peking Review, #9, 1966]

Facing the government: worker-student unity

What Does Khrushchov Revisionists’ “United Action” Boil Down to? [Peking Review, #7, 1966]

Your Leaders Are Actively Helping the Fascistization of the Regime by Jacques Grippa

Moscow Meeting Has Nothing in Common With A Congress of the Party of Lenin – Says Jacques Grippa, Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Belgium [Peking Review, #15, 1966]

Forging, steeping, strengthening the Marxist-Leninist Party by Jacques Grippa

Comrade Grippa Arrives For Visit [Peking Review, #35, 1966]

China’s Great Cultural Revolution Is Chairman Mao’s Magnificent and Great Achievement [Peking Review, #39, 1966]

Jacques Grippa’s Message [on China’s nuclear test] [Peking Review, #45, 1966]

Central Committee of C.P.C. Sends Greetings to Comrade Grippa [Peking Review, April 21, 1967]

Michel Graindorge’s Dazibao

Denunciation of Michel Graindorge by the Communist Party of Belgium

Letter by Party Critics of the anti-Maoist line of Grippa

Fire on the General District of False Revolutionaries Within the Central Committee of Our Party! by the Communist Youth Movement

About the “Independent Party” by Mr. Tondeur

Counter-revolutionary plot in the People’s Republic of China by Jacques Grippa

The Communist Party of Belgium on The ’Left’ Neo-Revisionist Clique in China

Alle Macht aan de Arbeiders (AMADA) “All Power to the Workers”

Primary Documents

AMADA – All Power to the Workers – Statutes

Program for Peace, National Independence, People’s Democracy, and Socialism

About the break-up of the Clarté group

Letter to the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party

Workers’ Party of Belgium (Parti du Travail/Partij van de Arbeit)

Background Materials


Obituary: Ludo Martens (1946-2011) by Harpal Brar

Primary Documents

Belgium’s Party of Labor Founded

The Liquidationist Tendency within the Marxist-Leninist Movement

Concerning Marxist-Leninist Unity by the Central Committee of the Workers’ Party of Belgium

To Be a Marxist and a Revolutionary in the World of 1988

On certain aspects of the struggle against revisionism: For the unity of all communists, in defence of proletarian internationalism by Ludo Martens

Communist Party of Belgium (Marxist-Leninist)

Primary Documents

Greetings From Communist Party of Belgium (Marxist-Leninisl) [Peking Review, #22, 1970]

Soviet-U.S. “Disarmament” Hoax [Peking Review, #25, 1973]

Social-lmperialism Is the Enemy of the People [Peking Review, #12, 1974]

Belgium Communist Party (M-L) National Congress [Peking Review, December 19, 1975]

Message from First Secretary Lefebvre of Marxist-Leninist Communist Party of Belgium [on the death of Mao] [Peking Review, #40, 1976]

Belgian Party on war and revolution by The Call

Belgium Marxist-Leninist Communist Party: Second Congress [Peking Review, #7, February 11, 1977]

Belgium Communists Send Message of Greetings from The Call

Comrade Li Hsein-nein Meets Delegation of Marxist-Leninist Communist Party of Belgium [Peking Review, April 15, 1977]

Lessons in the Struggle for Communist Unity [Concerning Lines of Demarcation]

Belgium communists celebrate by The Call

May Day in Europe: two special reports by The Call