Encyclopedia of Anti-Revisionism On-Line

Anti-Revisionism in Belgium

Communist Party (Marxist-Leninist) of Belgium

Belgium was the first Western European country to develop a significant anti-revisionist communist party, and to closely align itself with China and its polemics against “modern revisionism”.


In 1963, Jacques Grippa, a prominent leader in the pro-Soviet Communist Party of Belgium, was expelled from the Party for his anti-revisionism. Grippa had been active in the Party since the 1930’s, was a hero of the World War II Belgian resistence movement, and had headed its Brussels Federal Committee. In 1964, Grippa and a significant number of his supporters founded an alternative Communist Party of Belgium (PCB) and began publishing a weekly magazine, La Voix du Peuple (The Voice of the People).

With Chinese support, both ideological and financial, Grippa helped organize pro-Chinese anti-revisionist groups in other European countries. With the outbreak of the Chinese Cultural Revolution, however, the PCB underwent a split as supporters of the Cultural revolution clashed with Grippa and his supporters. Many left the PCB to form several new Maoist parties – the Walloon Communist Party (Marxist-Leninist) and the Communist Party Marxist-Leninist of Belgium. In 1968, Grippa came out openly in support of Liu Shao-chi, the former Chairman of the People’s Republic of China, deposed during the Cultural Revolution. Thereafter, Grippa’s PCB ceased to play a significant role in the Belgian anti-revisionist movement.

Historical Materials

Le P.C.B. et la Scission “Grippiste” de 1963 par Milou (Émile) Rikir

Background Materials

China’s Great Cultural Revolution Has Opened a Channel to Communism by Sidney Rittenberg [Peking Review, April 14, 1967]

“On a Speech by Sidney Rittenberg” by Hammer & Steel [U.S.A.]

On the Question of Liu Shao-chi by the Progressive Worker [Canada]

Belgian Revisionism [from the Report of the Central Committee of the Marxist-Leninist Organization of Britain on the Role of “Centrist” Revisionism]

The (Reorganized) Communist Party of Belgium Enters the “Centrist” Revisionist Camp [from the Report of the Central Committee of the Marxist-Leninist Organization of Britain on the Role of “Centrist” Revisionism]

Primary Documents


Marxist-Leninists, Unite! Resolution of the Brussels Federal Committee of the Belgian Communist Party

“Theory” and Practice of the Modern Revisionists by Jacques Grippa

Belgian Marxist-Leninists Decide to Rebuild Party [Peking Review, #3, January 17, 1964]

The Revisionists Have Sabotaged the Struggle in Greece [from Vanguard, published by the U.K. Committee to Defeat Revisionism For Communist Unity, Vol. 1, No. 11, December 1964]

Belgian Marxist-Leninists Urged to Unite and Rebuild Communist Party [Peking Review, #15, April 10, 1964]

Jacques Grippa Condemns C.P.S.U. Leadership’s New Splitting Activities [Peking Review, #19, May 8, 1964]

Jacques Grippa’s Speech: International Communist Movement Strengthened in Current Great Debate [Peking Review, #35, August 28, 1964]

American Imperialism Has Taken Over from Hitler by Jacques Grippa

What Does Khrushchov Revisionists’ “United Action” Boil Down to? [Peking Review, #7, 1966]

Castro Speaks of Unity, But Has Chosen a Split [Peking Review, #9, 1966]

Moscow Meeting Has Nothing in Common With A Congress of the Party of Lenin – Says Jacques Grippa, Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Belgium [Peking Review, #15, 1966]

Comrade Grippa Arrives For Visit [Peking Review, #35, 1966]

China’s Great Cultural Revolution Is Chairman Mao’s Magnificent and Great Achievement [Peking Review, #39, 1966]

Jacques Grippa’s Message [on China’s nuclear test] [Peking Review, #45, 1966]

Central Committee of C.P.C. Sends Greetings to Comrade Grippa [Peking Review, April 21, 1967]

The Communist Party of Belgium on The ’Left’ Neo-Revisionist Clique in China

Workers’ Party of Belgium (Parti du Travail/Partij van de Arbeit)

Background Materials


Obituary: Ludo Martens (1946-2011) by Harpal Brar

Primary Documents

Belgium’s Party of Labor Founded

The Liquidationist Tendency within the Marxist-Leninist Movement

Concerning Marxist-Leninist Unity by the Central Committee of the Workers’ Party of Belgium

To Be a Marxist and a Revolutionary in the World of 1988

On certain aspects of the struggle against revisionism: For the unity of all communists, in defence of proletarian internationalism by Ludo Martens

Communist Party of Belgium (Marxist-Leninist)

Primary Documents

Greetings From Communist Party of Belgium (Marxist-Leninisl) [Peking Review, #22, 1970]

Soviet-U.S. “Disarmament” Hoax [Peking Review, #25, 1973]

Social-lmperialism Is the Enemy of the People [Peking Review, #12, 1974]

Belgium Communist Party (M-L) National Congress [Peking Review, December 19, 1975]

Message from First Secretary Lefebvre of Marxist-Leninist Communist Party of Belgium [on the death of Mao] [Peking Review, #40, 1976]

Belgian Party on war and revolution by The Call

Belgium Marxist-Leninist Communist Party: Second Congress [Peking Review, #7, February 11, 1977]

Belgium Communists Send Message of Greetings from The Call

Comrade Li Hsein-nein Meets Delegation of Marxist-Leninist Communist Party of Belgium [Peking Review, April 15, 1977]

Lessons in the Struggle for Communist Unity [Concerning Lines of Demarcation]

Belgium communists celebrate by The Call

May Day in Europe: two special reports by The Call