All progressive people throughout the world welcomed the victory of the Chinese Revolution which established the People’s Republic of China in 1949. Today another great revolutionary struggle is being waged in China. It is a struggle between those who wish China to take the road of Socialism, and those who wish China to take the road of Capitalism. It is therefore a struggle between those who represent the interests of the Chinese working people, and those who represent the interests of the Chinese capitalist class.
Each side in this struggle is waging it under the slogans of Marxism-Leninism, so that the struggle is one between Marxism-Leninism and revisionism.
Each side in this struggle is associated with the name of a Communist leader: one side is associated with the name of the Chairman of the Communist Party of China, Mao Tse-tung; the other side is associated with the name of the President of the People’s Republic of China, Liu Shao-chi.
The leaders of each side in this struggle claim that they wish China to take the road of socialism, while their opponents wish China to take the road of capitalism. The leaders of each side in this struggle claim that they are Marxist-Leninists, while the leaders of the opposing side are revisionists.
Clearly, therefore, the leaders of one side are speaking the truth, while those of the other side are lying.
Equally clearly, it is impossible for Marxist-Leninists outside China to determine which side is in fact Marxist-Leninist, which side is in fact fighting that China should take the socialist road, merely on the basis of the claims of either side.
At the foundation Conference of the Marxist-Leninist Organization of Britain in September, a resolution expressing support for the side associated with the name of Mao Tse-tung was carried unanimously and with emotion.
Emotion can play a valuable role in politics. Cherishing its friends and hating its enemies helps the working class forward in its struggle. But such emotion can play a valuable role only when one is quite sure who are one’s friends and who are one’s enemies. And the determination of this requires rational objective Marxist-Leninist analysis.
It must be said that most Marxist-Leninists have taken up their position with regard to the struggle in China on the basis of the information received through documents, journals and radio broadcasts emanating from Peking – emanating from sources under the control of one faction in this struggle, that associated with the name of Mao Tse-tung. Most Marxist-Leninists have not taken up their position with regard to the struggle in China on the basis of an objective Marxist-Leninist analysis of the situation in China, for such an analysis has not been available outside China.
The Report which follows is an attempt to make such a Marxist-Leninist analysis.