The socialist revolution in China, as in all countries, will be aimed at the capitalist class.
The basic and leading force of the socialist revolution in China, as in all countries, will be the working class.
The main ally of the working class in China will be the poor peasantry.
The proletariat must accomplish the socialist revolution and in this unite to itself the mass of the semi-proletarian elements of the population in order to crush by force the resistance of the bourgeoisie.” (V.I. Lenin “The Two Tactics of Social-Democracy in the Democratic Revolution.” in “Selected Works” Vol.3; London; 1946; p.111).
Lenin repeatedly emphasised the profound difference between the first strategic slogan, the slogan of the period of preparation for the bourgeois-democratic revolution, and the second strategic slogan, the slogan of the period of preparation for the October Revolution. The first slogan was: together with the whole of the peasantry against the autocracy; the second slogan: together with the poor peasants against the bourgeoisie. (J.V. Stalin: “The Party’s Three Fundamental Slogans on the Peasant Problem”, in: “Leninism”, Vol.3; London; 1942; p.182).
The capitalist class will carry on a violent struggle against the loss of their political and economic power, using every weapon available to them. Therefore the socialist revolution cannot be a peaceful one.
The capitalist elements do not want to depart from the scene voluntarily; they are resisting and will continue to resist Socialism. ... There have been no cases in history where dying classes have voluntarily departed from the scene. There have been no cases in history where the dying bourgeoisie has not exerted all its remaining strength to preserve its existence. (J.V. Stalin: “The Right Deviation in the C.P.S.U.(B.)”, in: “Leninism”, London 1942; p. 259).
In order to build socialism against the violent resistance of the capitalist class the working people, led by the working class, need their own state machine – the dictatorship of the proletariat – to suppress the resistance of the capitalist class.
The proletariat needs state power, the centralised organisation of force, the organisation of violence, for the purpose of crushing the resistance of the exploiters and for the purpose of leading the great mass of the population – the peasantry, the petty-bourgeoisie, the semi-proletarians – in the work of organising socialist economy. (V.I. Lenin: “The State and Revolution”, in: “Selected Works”, Vol.7; London; 1946; p.26).
The dictatorship of the proletariat is ’a class alliance between the proletariat and the labouring masses of the peasantry for the purpose of over-throwing capital, for achieving the final victory of Socialism, on the condition that the guiding force of this alliance is the proletariat,’ (J.V. Stalin: “The October Revolution and the Tactics of the Russian Communists”, in: “Leninism”; London; 1942; p. 89-90).
Clearly, then, in order to build socialism in People’s China, it is necessary to transform the new-democratic state – in which the working people share power with the capitalist class – into a socialist state, the dictatorship of the proletariat in which the working people do not share power with the capitalist class.
Clearly, then in order to build socialism in People’s China, it is necessary for the working people, under the leadership of their Marxist-Leninist Party, forcibly to expel the representatives of the capitalist class from the new-democratic state.
This forcible expulsion of the representatives of the capitalist class will transform the new-democratic state into the dictatorship of the proletariat, the state vehicle for the building of socialism.