Minutes of the Second Congress of the Communist International
The official German minutes of the Congress contain a list of delegates, totalling 218. The list is incomplete and contains some inaccuracies, including some misspelt names. Biographies are given here wherever known of the delegates listed in these Minutes, together with others who are known to have taken part in the Congress.
The following abbreviations have been used:
CI Communist International
2CCI Second World Congress
SPD Social Democratic Party
USPD Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany
RSDLP Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (or its predecessors)
(C) Consultative Delegate.
SUSENKO (C) – Communist League.
FREEMAN (C) – Communist League.
TOMAN, Karl (1887-1945) – Communist Party. A trade unionist before the war, he was a prisoner-of-war in Russia and fir 1917 became a Communist. He was chairman of the committee of Communist prisoners-of-war and in 1918 helped form the CP, heading its trade union section. In 1924-29 he was involved in sharp factional struggles. He then went to live in Russia until he broke with communism in 1931 and joined the Austrian Socialist Party. After the fascist take-over in 1934 he resigned from the Socialist Party and under the Nazis became mayor of a small town. He was shot by Russian troops in 1945.
STEINHARDT, Karl (1875-1963) – Communist Party. A militant trade unionist and member of the Socialist Youth movement, he was arrested during the war and sentenced for high treason, but later released. He helped found the CP in 1918 and
attended the First CI Congress. Although he remained in the CP, he was not a leader until 1945, when he became Deputy Mayor of Vienna.
REISLER – Communist Party.
STROMER – Communist Party.
COHN-EBER (C) – Poale Zion.
SAPUNOV-Communist Party (Trade Unions).
VAN OVERSTRAETEN, Eduard (1890-?) – Became a Communist in 1917, when a member of the Young Socialist Guard (JGS). A ‘left’ Communist in 1920, he became the leader of the Belgian CP when it was formed in 192 1. He was imprisoned in 1923. In 1927, he led the majority of the Party in opposing Stalin’s expulsion of the Left Opposition and he was expelled the following year. He later abandoned politics.
BEACH, Dick – Industrial Workers of the World.
McLAINE, William (1891-1960) – British Socialist Party. A leading engineering trade unionist from 1916, he joined the BSP during the war and the CP when it was formed in 1920-21. In 1929, he broke with communism and later became a fervent anti-communist.
QUELCH, Tom (1886-1954) – British Socialist Party. A member of the Social Democratic Federation, he joined the BSP when it broke away and fought for its affiliation to the CI in 1919.
GALLACHER, William (1881-1965) – Shop Stewards. President of the Clyde Workers Committee during the great struggles of 1916, imprisoned twice during the war for strike activities, he was one of the ‘left’ Communists whose ‘infantile disorder’ was analysed in Lenin’s pamphlet. On his return from the 2CCI, he helped form the CP. Before the General Strike, he was one of the CP leaders held in prison. In the 1920s, he developed into one of Stalin’s main supporters in the CI. In 1935 he was elected MP for West Fife and retained the scat until 1950. He died a devout Stalinist.
MURPHY, John T. (1888 – Shop Stewards. joined the syndicalist Socialist Labour Party in 1917. Led an important movement of engineering workers during the war. Supported the formation of the CP and became one of Stalin’s supporters in it. In 1929 he fought for the imposition of the ‘Third Period’ ultra-left policy against the majority of the CP leadership. But in 1932 he was expelled from the CP, while remaining an admirer of Stalin.
RAMSAY, David (1883-1948) – Shop Stewards. Member of the Social Democratic Federation and of the British Socialist Party when it split away. After the 2CCI, he helped to form the CP.
TANNER, Jack (1889-? ) – Shop Stewards. Engineering worker and shop stewards’ leader during the war. He presided at the founding conference of the CP in January 192 1. From then on, moved steadily to the right, playing an important role in class collaboration during the Second World War. He was a member of the TUC General Council 1943-53 as a determined anti-communist.
NEWBOLD, J.T Walton (1888-? ) (C) – National League of Labour Youth. A journalist, he joined the Fabian Society and the Independent Labour Party in 1910. After the 2CCI, he took part in the formation of the CP and became a Labour MP while a CP member in 1922. In December 1923, he lost his seat and was then removed from the leadership and left the Party.
PANKHURST, Sylvia (1882-? ) (C) – Younger daughter of Emmeline Pankhurst, the suffragist leader, she joined the ILP in 1898 and opposed the other suffragists, tying to turn the movement towards the working class. In 1914 she published her paper, Workers’ Dreadnought and opposed the war as an internationalist. She welcomed the October Revolution, but opposed all parliamentary work or affiliation to the Labour Party, and this ‘left'-ism was a target of Lenin’s attack in 1920. In 1920-21 she was imprisoned. She refused to give the newly-formed CP control of her paper and was expelled from the Party.
MACHAMADYER Q) (C) – Communist Party.
KABAKCHIEV, Khristo (1878-1940) – Communist Party. joined the Bulgarian SDP while a student and supported the left Tesniak (Narrow) faction in the 1903 split. He became the CP secretary in 1923 and was imprisoned after the uprising of that year. Released in 1926, he went to Moscow, where he taught at the Lenin School. Arrested in the purge of 1937, he was let out the following year, but died as a result of his treatment.
SHABLIN, N. (Ivan Nedelkov) – Communist Party. A member of the left ‘Narrow’ faction of the Bulgarian SDP, he was a Central Committee member of the CP on its formation in 1919. He was murdered by the Bulgarian police in 1925, perhaps by being burned alive.
MAXIMOV – Communist Party.
LAO HSIU-CHAO (1892-? ) (C) – Chinese Socialist Workers Party. Born in
China, he lived in Russia from 1897. A supporter of Bolshevism from 1917, he returned to China after 1949 and held a post in the foreign service.
AN EN-HAK – (C)
HULA, Betislav (1888-1937) – National Confederation of Labour. Lived in Russia and in 1917 joined the Bolshevik Party. In 1918 he organized the Czech section of the Party. In 1925 he was expelled from the Czech CP as a ‘rightist’.
OLBRACHT, Ivan (1882-1952) – Czech CP. A journalist. After the 2CCI he edited the CP paper, Rude Pravo. In 1929 he supported the right-wing faction against Gottwald and left the Party. He was later re-admitted.
VANEK, Milos (1897-1967) – Left wing of the SDP. Joined the SDP Left during the war. He supported the CI and joined the CP in 1921. From 1922 until 1926 he worked for the CP in Moscow. Then he left the CP and the CI and rejoined the SDP. In 1947 he opposed the merger of the SDP with the CP and fled to West Germany. From 1949 he was a ‘specialist’ on Radio Free Europe in Munich.
ZAPOTOCKY, Antonin (1884-1957) – Left wing of the SDP. Joined the SDP in 19(2 and supported the left wing after he left the army in 1919. Joined the CP in 1921 and became secretary in 1922. He led the Party as a Stalinist until he was sent to Sachsenhausen concentration camp in 1940, from which he was released in 1945. In 1948 he was Deputy Prime Minister and in 1953 Prime Minister.
SONNENSTEIN (C) – Communist Group.
MALINOW (C) – Communist Group.
NIELSON, Marie-Sophie (1875-1951) – Communist Party. During the war, she was a leading member of the Danish SDP and helped to form the Socialist Workers’ Party in 1918. A founder of the CP in 1919, she was expelled in 1928, for opposing the struggle against the Opposition. Re-admitted in 1932, she was expelled again in 1936.
JORGENSEN-Left Socialist Party.
BARAL-Communist Party of Galicia and Bukovina
LEVITSKY-Communist Party of Galicia and Bukovina
MITRA-Communist Party of Galicia and Bukovina
POGELMANN, Hans (1975-1938) – Communist Party. Active in the socialist movement from its foundation, he founded the CP in 1918. He was a member of the Estonian Soviet government, living in Russia after its defeat. In 1937 he was charged with ‘Nationalism’, arrested and shot.
JONAS (C) – Independent Socialist Party.
KUUSINEN, Otto (1881-1964) – Communist Party. He joined the Finnish SPI) in 1905 and was elected to Parliament three years later. In the Soviet government in Finland in 1918, he was People’s Commissar for Education. When the government fell, he fled to Russia and formed the Finnish CP in Moscow. In 192 1, he was one of the three secretaries of the CI. From 1923, he supported Stalin against Trotsky and Zinoviev. He survived the purges to sign the dissolution of the CI for his master in 1943. From 1940 until 1956 he was head of the Finnish-Karelian Republic. He remained on the leadership of the CPSU until his death.
MANNER, Kullervo (1880-?) – Communist Party. joined the Finnish SPD after the 1905 Revolution. From 1910 to 1918 he was a member of parliament, being the President of the House in 1916-18. In 1917 he called the meeting of Parliament against the decision of the Kerensky government. In January 1918, he was Prime Minister of the F~ Soviet government, taking refuge in Moscow and forming the CP there after the defeat of the Soviet. In the ‘20s, he was a leading fi in the CP and CI. In 1935 he was expelled from the CP and he and his wife condemned to ten years hard labour. They both disappeared in the camps.
RAHJA, Jukka A (1887-1920) – Communist Party. Born in Kronstadt, he joined the Bolsheviks in 1905. After the Revolution, he fled to Finland and joined the SDP there in 1907. In 1913, he returned to Russia and after the October Revolution the Party sent him back to Finland. He came back to Moscow after the collapse of the Soviet government in Finland and helped form the Finnish CP. After the 2CCI, he was killed in Petrograd by a rival group of Finnish communists.
ROVIO, Gustaa (1887-1938) (C) – Communist Party. An engineering worker, he became a Bolshevik in MS. It was in his flat that Lenin bid during August and September 1917. Prominent in the Finnish Revolution he fled to Russia after its defeat and helped form the Finnish CP in Moscow. In 1929 he became Secretary of the Karelia CP but in 1935 was dismissed for ‘nationalism’. In 1937 he was arrested and, in 1938, shot. After 1956 he was ‘rehabilitated’.
GYLLING, Edward (1881-1944) (C) – Communist Party. Left-wing member of the Finnish SDP from 1905. In 1918 he was Finance Minister in the Finnish Soviet government and fled to Russia after its collapse, taking part in forming the Finnish CP. In 1920 he was the first chairman of the Karelian Workers’ Commune. In 1935 he was accused of ‘nationalism’ and dismissed. In 1937 he was arrested and he died in exile. After 1956 he was ‘rehabilitated’.
TAMMENOKSA (C) – Communist Party.
MINEFF, S. (Vanini) (1893-?) – Committee for the Third International. Born in Bulgaria, he was a member of the ‘Narrow’ faction of the Bulgarian SDP. During the war, he studied in Switzerland and attended the Zimmerwald Conference, supporting Lenin’s group. He worked for the CI from its foundation. In 1920 he went to France. Under Stalin, he remained an agent of the CI, and worked in Spain in 1936 under the name Moreno.
GUILBEAUX, Henri (1984-1938) – Socialist Party. A journalist who tended towards anarchism, he supported the Zimmerwald Left during the war. In 1919, he was condemned to death in absentia for treason by a Paris military tribunal. He became the Berlin correspondent of L'HumanitÚ until returning to France in 1932, when he was tried and acquitted. He broke with communism and became sympathetic to Nazism.
LEFEBVRE, Raymond (1895-1920) – Committee for the Third International. A poet and novelist. Returning home after the 2CCI, together with the anarcho-syndicalists Lepetit and Vergeat, he was drowned when their boat sank in the Arctic Sea.
ROSMER, Alfred (1887-1964) – Committee for the Third International. Born to French parents in New York, he became a revolutionary syndicalist. A friend of Trotsky in Paris during the war, he rallied to Zimmerwald and the Russian Revolution. In 1922, the CI appointed him to the leadership of the French CP. In 1924, he openly disagreed with Moscow’s line and supported the Opposition. Expelled from the Party, he fought actively for the Left Opposition until 1930, still maintaining support for Trotsky’s position after this. In 1939-40, he lived in Trotsky’s house in Mexico.
SADOUL, Jacques-Socialist Party. A lawyer who accompanied the right-wing social-patriot Albert Thomas to Russia in 1917, to persuade the Provisional Government to stay in the war, and stayed to support the Bolsheviks. For this he was condemned to death in abstentia. Always a careerist, he later acted as an agent of Stalinism, especially in whitewashing the Moscow Trials.
ABRAMOVICH, A.E. (1888-196?) (C) – Born in Russia, he was a Bolshevik from 1908. From 1911 to 1917, he worked with Lenin in Switzerland and returned to Russia with him. He worked for the CI in Western Europe and was arrested in France in 1921.
CACHIN, Marcel (1869-1958) (C) – Socialist Party. A member of Jules Guesde’s Workers’ Party and founder-member of the Socialist Party in 1905, he was elected Deputy in 1914. During the war he was a social-patriot. After the February Revolution in 1917, he was one of the socialists on the side of the Allied imperialism At the end of the war, he began to move leftwards, emerging as a centrist at the 1920 Party Congress. At the Tours Congress in December 1920 he fought for affiliation to the CI. On the formation of the CP he became its leader. A centrist in the CP in 1921-22, from then on he followed the line of the Stalinized CI. A Stalinist until his death.
FROSSARD, Louis-Oscar (1989-1964) (C) – Socialist Party. He joined the Socialist Party on its formation in 1905. During the war he was a centrist. In 1918 he became secretary of the Socialist Party. After the 2CCI he supported affiliation to the CI and became secretary of the CP when it was formed. During 1922 and 1923, he came increasingly into conflict with the CI and resigned from the CP. Rejoining the Socialist Party, he became a right-wing politician. In 1944 he was charged with collaboration with the Nazis, but acquitted.
GOLDENBERG, M. (1897-) – Revolutionary Student Group. Born in Rumania, he studied in Paris and joined the ‘Socialist Youth Federation. After the October Revolution, he supported Bolshevism, tending to ‘leftism’. After the 2CCI, he worked in Moscow under Riazanov. In 1928 he left Russia and abandoned communism.
(THAL is also listed as a youth delegate. Since this was a pseudonym used by Goldenberg, this is probably an error.)
MAKHARADZE, Fillip (1868-1941) – Communist Party. joined the RSDLP in 1891. In the 1905 Revolution, he was active in Baku. In 1919-20, he worked underground in Georgia.
TODRIYA, Silvestr (1880-1936) – Communist Party. A printer, he joined the RSDLP in 1901, specializing in the organisation of illegal printing presses. In 1905 he was imprisoned. Later he was leader of the Printers’ Union and from 1917 CP leader in the Caucasus.
MIKHA-TSCHAKRAYA (Barsov) (1865-1950) – Communist Party. An old leader of Bolshevism in Georgia, he had been active as a revolutionary from 1880, and joined the RSDLP from its inception. In 1907, after many arrests and deportations, he emigrated to Switzerland. In 1917, he returned to Russia with Lenin. After 1917, was a leading figure in the Georgian CP, and remained so under Stalin until his death.
BUDICH, Willi (1890-1942) – Communist Party. A trade union organiser from the age of 20, he joined the Spartacus League during the war. Faced with arrest in Germany, he escaped to Russia where he worked for the International Red Aid. In 1932 he returned to Germany and was elected to the Reichstag. In 1933 he was arrested and tortured by the Gestapo, but again escaped and went to Russia. In 1937 he was arrested there and died in a Stalinist prison.
WALCHER, Jakob (1887-?) – Communist Party. joined the SPD as a trade unionist. Before the war he supported Luxemburg and during the war joined the Spartacus League and the CP on its formation. Later, he was a leader of the right-wing faction of Brandler, and was expelled in 1929. After 1933, he was a leader of the centrist SAP (Socialist Workers Party). He returned to the Stalinist movement and went to live in East Germany in 1946. Expelled from the Stalinist SED in 1952, he was re-admitted in 1956.
WOLFSTEIN, Rosi (1888-?) – Communist Party. She joined the SPD in 1908, while working as a shop assistant. A friend and supporter of Rosa Luxemburg, she was a founder of the USPD in 1917 and of the CP in 1919. In 1928 she and her husband, Paul Frolich, were expelled. From 1935 to 1937, she led the centrist SAP (Socialist Workers Party). After 1945, she returned to West Germany.
LEVI, Paul (1883-1930) – Communist Party. A lawyer, he was a left-wing member of the SDP before the war and the Spartacus League in 1917. He had met Lenin in Switzerland in 1916, and supported his position. A founder of the CP, he led the Party after the murder of Luxemburg, Liebknecht and Jogiches. He headed the delegation at the Second Congress. Early in 192 1, he disagreed with the Party and with the CI, and in February resigned from the leadership. After the March Action, he publicly criticised the Party, and was expelled with the approval of the CI. In 1922 he joined the USPD and returned with it to the SPD. He committed suicide in 1930.
MEYER, Ernst (1887-1930) – Communist Party. joined the SDP in 1908, and was political editor of its paper Vorwarts in 1913. Belonged to the Spartacus League during the war and was a leading member of the CP. In the late 1920s, he opposed some of the policies of the Stalinist leader Thalmann, from the right-wing standpoint of Brandler, but was still a party member when he died.
CRISPIEN, Arthur (1875-1946) (C) – Independent Social Democratic Party. joined the SPD as a trade unionist in 1894. In 1917, he joined the USPD when it split from the SPD, and in 1919 was one of its two Presidents. After the Second Congress, he opposed affiliation to the CI and remained with the USPD rump when its majority fused with the CP. In 192 1, he took part in the formation of the ‘2 1/2 International’ and helped to re-unify it with the Second International, after the USPD had returned to the SPD. In 1933, he went to Switzerland, where he died.
D─UMIG, Ernst (1866-1922) (C) – Independent Social Democratic Party. A left-wing member of the SPD, he was a leader of the USPD from its formation in 1917. After the 2CCI, he fought for affiliation to the CI and was elected one of the two presidents of the unified CP in December 1920. In April 1921, he resigned in support of Paul Levi and left the Party later that year.
DITTMANN, Wilhelm (1874-1954) (C) – Independent Social Democratic Party. A carpenter by trade, he was a left-wing member of the SPD and a founder of the USPD. In January 1918, he was convicted of high treason. He represented the USPD in the Provisional Government after the November 1918 Revolution, but resigned in December. After the 2CCI, he opposed affiliation to the CI.
WIJNKOOP, David (1876-1941) – Communist Party. Leading figure in the Dutch Social Democratic Workers Party, he founded the SDP after a split in 1909. During the war he supported the Zimmerwald Left, and in 1918 formed the CP. A ‘left’ Communist, he attempted to set up a centre for ‘leftism’ in the Amsterdam Bureau before the 2CCI. In 1926, he was expelled from the CP, unsuccessfully appealing to the CI in 1928. In 1930, however, he was re-instated, and thereafter followed the Stalinist line.
JANSEN, Jan Proost (1890-Communist Party. Painter and engraver, and a supporter of Wijnkoop, he was expelled with him in 1926.
RAKOSI, Matyas (1892-1971) – Communist Party. joined the SPD in 1910. While serving in the Hungarian Army he was taken prisoner by the Russians in 1915. While a prisoner-of-war, he became a Bolshevik. joined the CP on its foundation in 1918 and was a member of the Hungarian Soviet government in 1919. After its defeat, he fled to Vienna and then to Moscow. In 1925, he was arrested in Hungary and was imprisoned until 1940, when he was exchanged by the Soviet government. From 1945 he was the leader of the Hungarian CP and the most hated of the Stalinist leaders. In 1956 he was dismissed and fled to Russia during the Revolution. In 1962 he was expelled from the CP. He died in Russia.
RUDNYANSKY, Endre (1885-?) – A lawyer by profession, he became a Bolshevik while a prisoner-of-war in Russia. In 1919 he represented the Hungarian CP at the First CI Congress. In 1921 he disappeared together with a large amount of CI money.
VARGA, Eugen (1879-1964) – Communist Party. He joined the SDP while a student in 1906. Later a professor of economics, he joined the CP in 1919 and was Commissar for Finance in the Soviet government of 1919. After its defeat, he fled to Vienna and then settled in Moscow, joining the Bolshevik Party. From then on he worked for the CI, following the Stalinist line after 1923. In 1947, he was criticized for saying that capitalism had changed during the Second World War, and was removed from some positions. After ‘self-criticism’ in 1949 he was restored to favour and in 1954 received the Stalin Prize.
TWO DELEGATES are listed, one as ‘Acharia’, the other as ‘Abani Mukerji’, while the Manifesto is signed by these, together with a third, M.N. Roy. In addition, ‘Allen’ is listed as an Indian representative on the National and Colonial Commission. Further, the Mexican delegation contains an ‘Allan-Roy’, and the Mexican signatory of the Manifesto is ‘R. Allen’. As stated in the entry for Mexico, M.N. Roy, whose real name was Battacharia, was a delegate from Mexico, served in the Colonial Commission, and used the name ‘Allan’. So it appears that Allen, Roy and Acharia are all the same person. Abani Mukerji was a somewhat mysterious associate of Roy.
MARING, Hendricus Sneevliet (1883-1942) – Communist Party. A railwayman, he joined the Dutch SDP in 1902. In 1913, he went to live in Java and founded the first socialist organisations in the East Indies. Supporting Bolshevism during the war, he was expelled from Java by the Dutch in 1918. In 192 1, he was CI representative in China, and helped to form the Chinese CP. In 1924, he returned to Holland and supported the Left Opposition. In 1929 he founded the Revolutionary Socialist Party, but broke with Trotsky on the question of the formation of the Fourth International in 1937-8. Under the Nazi occupation he produced an underground paper, Spartakus. In 1942, he was caught by the Gestapo and shot.
Delegates are listed as ‘Y’ (Labour Party), ‘N’ (IWW), ‘Z’ and ‘NN’ (Communist Party) and ‘X’. A delegate called Connolly spoke and ‘X’ served on the Agrarian Commission.
BOMBACCI, Nicola (1875-1945) – Socialist Party. A schoolteacher, he was a leftwing member of the Socialist Party. In 1919 he became a Party Secretary. After the 2CCI he helped form the CP and was leader of the Party group in Parliament. During the 1920s he favoured agreement between the CP and the fascists. When he was expelled from the CP in 1928 he became an open supporter of Mussolini, He was shot at Donge when Mussolini was hanged.
GRAZIADEI, Antonio (1873-1953) – Socialist Party. A professor of political economy, he was on the right of the Socialist Party when he joined in 1893. At the end of the war, he moved leftwards and supported the formation of the CP at the time of the split of 192 1. In 192 8 he was expelled from the CP as a revisionist. In 1944, he rejoined.
SERRATI, Giacinto Menotti (1874-1926) – Socialist Party. As a left-wing member of the Socialist Party, he edited its journal before the war. During the war he was a centrist, but argued for affiliation of the Party to the CI in 1920. However, when the CP was formed in January 192 1, he remained with the Socialist Party, finally joining the CP in 1924.
POLANO, Luigi (1897-? ) – Socialist Party. At the end of the war he was leader of the Socialist Youth movement and helped found the Communist Youth International in 1919. After the split of 192 1, he joined the CP. He lived in Russia from 1925, spending two years in Siberia during the purges. In 1945 he returned to Italy and became a Stalinist leader.
BORDIGA, Amadeo (1889-1970) (C) – Socialist Party. An anarcho-syndicalist member of the Socialist Party, opposed to working in Parliament. In 1921, he helped to found the CP. Although disagreeing with the CI on the United Front, he remained leader both in the CP and the CI until his arrest by the fascists in 1926. When he was freed in 1930, he was expelled from the Party. From then until the 1960s, he led an ultra-left sect.
VACIRCA, Vincenzo (C) – Socialist Party.
COLUMBINO, Emileo (C) – Socialist Party. Leader of the metal-workers union FIOM.
D'ARAGONA (C) – Socialist Party. Right-wing leader of the trade union federation CGL.
PAVERINI (C) – Socialist Party.
PAK CHIN-SUN-Communist Party. Born in Korea, he lived in Russia and helped form the Korean Socialist Party in Kharabovsk in 1919. In the bitter factional struggles in the Korean CP, he fought as a member of the ‘Irkutsk’ faction against the ‘Vladivostok’ group. In 1922 he was thrown out of all positions in the CP and the CI.
KRASTINS, K. (1892-1932) – Communist Party. From 1917, he was a Central Committee member of the Party. In 1918 he was a member of the Latvian Soviet government and fled to Moscow after its collapse.
STUCHKA, Peter (1865-1932) – Communist Party. Arrested for socialist activities in 1897 and sentenced to five years exile. He supported Bolshevism in 1903. From 1904 he was the leader of the Latvian SDP. After February 1917 he was a member of the Petrograd Committee of the Bolshevik Party. In 1918 he headed the Latvian Soviet government and lived in Russia after its collapse. In 1923 he became president of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federal Republic, and was a leading member of the CI until his death.
BEIKA, Davids (1885-1937) – Communist Party. Before returning to Latvia in 1917, he was leader of the Latvian Bolshevik group in Boston. He died in prison in Moscow.
BERZIN, Jan (1881-194 1) (C) – Communist Party. In 1902 he joined the Latvian SDP and organised the Bolshevik faction. He lived in exile until 1917, and became Soviet Ambassador in Switzerland until being expelled in 1918. He was Commissar for Education in the La tvian Soviet government, and later was ambassador to Finland. Living in Moscow from 1929, he died in a Stalinist prison.
MITSKEVICH-KAPUSKAS, Vikenti (1880-1935) – Communist Party. joined the Lithuanian SDP in 1903 and the Bolshevik Party in 1915. In 1918 he helped form the Lithuanian CP and headed the Lithuanian Soviet government in 1918-19. Returning to Moscow after the defeat of the Soviet, he was a leading member of the CI until his death.
RASIKAS – Communist Party.
ROY, Manabendra Nath (Battacharia) (?-1954) – Communist Party. Born in Bengal, he was active in a nationalist terrorist group. In 1915 he went to Germany to get help in fighting British imperialism. In 1917 he settled in Mexico and there met the CI agent Borodin in 1919. Converted to communism, he helped found the Mexican CP. After the 2CCI, he headed the far Eastern bureau of the CI and replaced Borodin as head of the CI in China in 1927. He was expelled as a supporter of Bukharin and Brandler in 1929. In 1930 he returned to India secretly but was arrested by the British and jailed for six years. He then joined the Congress and in 1940 founded a Radical Democratic Party, which functioned With the approval of the imperial power. (See also under India above.)
ALLAN, Helen (C) – Communist Party.
OLSEN, Jeanette (1873-1959) – She joined the Labour Party in 1900 and was secretary of the fishermen’s trade union. Along with the majority of the Labour Party, she opposed the war. After the split of 1923, she was in the minority that formed the CP. In 1928 she left the Party and in 1936 became a Trotskyist and edited the paper October.
SCHEFLO, Olav (1873-1959) – Labour Party. An active socialist before the war, he led the fight for the Party to affiliate to the CI in 1919. In 1923 he led the minority which refused to break with the CI and formed the CP, and was editor of the Party paper Norges Kommunistblad. Criticised as a right-opportunist, he left the CP in 1928 and joined the Social Democratic Workers Party.
FRIIS, Jakob (1883-1956) – Labour Party. Before the war he was a left-wing member of the Labour Party. In 1919 he worked for the CI in Moscow, but in 1923 he sided with the right-wing majority of the Party which broke with the CI. However, in 1928, he joined the CP and later returned to work in Moscow in the CI. In 1936 he opposed the Stalin purges and rejoined the Norwegian Workers Party as a left-winger, being active after the war in opposing Norway’s entry into NATO.
SULTAN-ZADEH, A. (1889-1938) – Communist Party. He settled in Russia and joined the RSDLP in 1907 and the Bolshevik Party in 1912. In 1920 he organised the founding conference of the Persian CP. From 1923 until 1927 he worked for the Soviet government. In 1928, he was criticised as a ‘leftist’ and in 1932 was removed from the leadership of the Persian CP. Returning to work for the Soviet Government, he was arrested during the Stalin purges and died in prison.
ORUDSHEV (C) – Communist Party.
HASSANOV (C) – Communist Party.
MARCHLEWSKI, Julian (Karski) (1866-1925) – Communist Party. He joined a Marxist group in 1885. In 1891 he was arrested for forming the first Polish workers’ union and lived in exile until the 1905 revolution, when he was again arrested in Poland. In 1905 he went to Germany, where he worked with the left wing of the SDP and helped to found the Spartacus group during the war.
Imprisoned in 1916-18, he went to Moscow after the Soviet government had secured his release. In 1919 he went back to Germany. He only attended the first session of the 2CCI, since he was engaged in the fighting on the Polish front.
ANDREVEV. Andrie (1895-1970) – An old Bolshevik, he was chairman of the Railway Workers’ Union from 1920 until 1928. In 1930, as a loyal Stalinist, he was made chairman of the Central Control Commission and in 1932 a member of the Politburo.
ARMAND, Inessa (1874-1920) – Born in Paris, she married a Russian in Moscow in 1891. In 1904, she left her family and joined the Bolsheviks. During the 1905 Revolution she was arrested and escaped. In 1910 she met Lenin and in 1912 she was sent as a Bolshevik delegate to Petrograd, where she was arrested. Buying her way out, she fled abroad. Returning to Russia in 1917 in the ‘sealed train’, she headed the women’s section of the Bolshevik Party. She died of cholera.
ARTEM (F.E.Sergeyev) (1883-1921) – He joined the RSDLP in 1901 and was a Bolshevik from 1903. He was imprisoned and escaped many times, on the last occasion, in 1910, making his way via Korea and Japan to Australia. In February 1917 he returned to Russia and led the struggle for the Party in Kharkhov. He played an important part in the Civil War. He died in an accident.
BLAKITNY, Vasily (1894-1925) – A poet and journalist, he was a member of the Ukrainian Left Social Revolutionaries in 1917. In May 1920, he joined the Bolshevik Party and became a Central Committee member of the Ukrainian CP. He was imprisoned by the Whites and released by the Red Army.
BUKHARIN, Nikolai (1888-1838) – He joined the Bolshevik faction of the RSDLP when a schoolboy in 1906. In 1910 he was arrested and deported, but escaped and fled abroad. In 1912 he met Lenin. He was imprisoned in Austria in 1914 and in Sweden in 1915. In 1917 he returned to Russia, was elected to the Central Committee and led the Party in Moscow. After the Revolution, he was editor of Pravda. In 1918, he led the ‘left’ faction against the signing of the Brest Treaty. In 1919, he became a member of the Politbureau and was a leading figure of the CI from its foundation. From 1923 until 1928, he backed Stalin against the Opposition, replacing Zinoviev as CI president in 1926. At the end of 1928, Stalin attacked him, and then removed him from all offices. In 1933, he was made editor of Izvestia. In 1937, he was arrested, and in 1938, was the main defendant appearing at the third of the show trials and shot.
DJERZHINSKY, Felix (1877-1926) – Born in Lithuania, he joined the socialist movement while at school in 1894 and was first arrested in 1897. He fought for the Lithuanian SDP to join with the RSDLP. Many times, he was imprisoned and escaped. In 1917, he was freed from prison by the February Revolution. He helped organise the October insurrection as a member of the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party. After October, he was given the task of organising the Cheka (Extraordinary Commission for the Struggle Against Sabotage and Counter-Revolution). In 1918, he supported the ‘left’ faction against Lenin on the signing of the Brest Treaty. In 1922, he supported Stalin on the Georgian question, and was attacked by Lenin for it.
GOPNER, Serafima (1880-1966) – Born in the Ukraine, she joined the RSDLP in 1901 and was a Bolshevik from 1903. A leading member of the Party in the Ukraine, she was a Stalinist from the 1920s.
IBRAHIMOV, Galimdzhan (1887-1938) – He was a leading Tatar writer, who in 1917 was a I-eft Social Revolutionary. In 1920, he joined the CP. He died in a Stalinist prison, and was ‘rehabilitated’ after 1957.
IGNATOV, Y.N. (1890-1918) – joined the Bolshevik Party in 1912. In 1917, he was a member of the Moscow Military Revolutionary Committee. Later, he was a trade union leader, and in 1920-21 sympathized with the Workers’ Opposition. He died in a Stalinist prison.
JOFFE, Adolf (1883-1927) – Joined the RSDLP in 1900. After 1903, he supported Trotsky against both Bolshevik and Menshevik factions. In 1912, he was arrested and sent to Siberia. He joined the Bolsheviks with Trotsky in August 1917. After 1917, he was engaged in diplomatic work, being ambassador in Germany in 1918, and in China from 1922 to 1923. He supported the Opposition from the beginning. In 1927, when he was very ill, Stalin prevented him from going abroad for medical treatment, and in protest he committed suicide. His funeral was the last demonstration of the Opposition.
KALININ, Mikhail (1875-1946) – Joined the RSDLP while a worker in the Putilov factory in Petersburg in 1898. He was a Bolshevik from 1906. From 1919, until his death, he was President of the Soviet Republic.
KHODJAEV, Faisullah (1894-1938) – Born in Turkestan, he founded the Young Bukhara movement and joined the Bolshevik Party in 1920. President of the Bukhara government 1922-24, and from 192 5 President of the Uzbekistan Republic. Shot in 1938.
KOHN, Feliz (1864-1941) – Born in Warsaw, he was active in the socialist movement from 1882, having been sentenced to hard labour in 1884. In 19(9, he was leader of the Left of the Polish Socialist Party. In 1917, he went to Petrograd and joined the Bolshevik Party. Played a leading role in the Party during the 1920s.
KOLLONTAI, Alexandra (1872-1952) – Daughter of a Tsarist General, she joined the RSDLP in 1900. Although she was a Bolshevik in 1903, she broke with them m 1906 and worked with the Mensheviks until 1915. In that time, she worked in the socialist movement in many countries.. She was arrested in Germany in 1916. After her return to Russia in 1917, now once more a Bolshevik, she was arrested by the Kerensky government. She was elected to the Bolshevik Central Committee and was Commissar for Social Security in the Soviet government. In 1919-22, she was a leader of the ultra-left Workers’ Opposition. Then, in 1923, she made her peace with Stalin, and from then on worked as a Soviet diplomat. In 1930, she was the ambassador to Sweden who delivered Stalin’s note threatening to break off trade between Russia and Sweden, if Trotsky was given a visa. She was the only member of Lenin’s 1917 Central Committee to remain alive in 1952, apart from Stalin.
KRASNOSCHOKOV, A.M. (1880-1937) – He joined the Bolshevik Party in 1917 and became a government official, working in foreign affairs and finance. He was arrested in 1937 and died in prison.
KRESTINSKY, Nicolai (1883-1938) – A lawyer by profession, he joined the RSDLP in 1903 and the Bolshevik faction in 1905. He was arrested many times. The revolution of February 1917 released him from administrative exile in the Urals, and he organised the Bolshevik Party there. At the July Conference, he was elected to the Central Committee. From 1918 until 1921 he was Commissar for Finance. Then he was ambassador in Berlin. He sympathized with the Left Opposition, but did not openly associate with it. In 1938, he was tried with Bukharin in the third of the show trials. He ‘confessed’, but withdrew his ‘confession’ in open court. He was then shot.
KRUPSKAYA, Nadezhda (1868-1939) – A Marxist from 1894, she helped found the RSDLP. In 18%, she married Lenin in exile. She was a leading organiser of Iskra and then of the Bolshevik faction. After October, she worked in the Commisariat for Education. In 1925-6, she supported the Opposition, but then capitulated to Stalin.
LENIN, Vladimir (1870-1924) – Lenin took a major part in all the work of the 2CCI. He spoke six times, participating in the Commissions on the Agrarian question, on the Conditions for Affiliation and on the National and Colonial Question. He also spent a great deal of time in discussions with the delegations.
LOZOVSKY, Aleksandr (1878-1952) – A Bolshevik from 1903, he was arrested many times. In 1905 he was active in Kazan. In Paris in 1910-17, he was a prominent trade unionist. He was an opponent of Lenin in the Bolshevik faction and left it in 1910, but rejoined when returning to Russia in 1917 and played an important part in the Soviet trade unions. In 1918 he was expelled from the Party and formed a small Internationalist RSDLP. In 1919, this merged with the Bolshevik Party again. He was Secretary of Profintern, the international trade union organisation, until removed by Stalin in 1937. Up to then, he had supported Stalin against the Opposition. In 1949, he was arrested and died in a prison camp. In 1956 he was ‘rehabilitated’.
LUNACHARSKY, Anatoli (1875-1933) – A Marxist from 1890, he joined the Bolshevik faction from 1903. In 1908, he was one of the ‘god-seekers’, attacked on philosophical issues both by Lenin and Plekhanov. During the war, he worked with Trotsky in Pub on Nashe Slovo. He rejoined the Bolshevik Party with Trotsky in August 1917. From 1917 until 1929, he was Commissar for Education.
MANUILSKI, Dmitri (1883-1933) – joined the RSDLP in 1903. In 1905, he was arrested for organising a naval mutiny, and escaped. He was a member of Trotsky’s Mezhrayontsy and joined the Bolshevik Party with them in August 1917. A Party leader m the Ukraine, he was a Stalinist from the 1920s.
OLMINSKY, Mikhail (1863-1933) – A historian and literary critic, he was a Narodnya Volyist in 1884. From 1894 until 1898 he was held in solitary confinement, and became a social democrat while m prison. joined the Bolshevik faction in 1904. In 1917, he was a leader both in Moscow and Petrograd. He was a Stalinist in the 1920s.
OSSINSKY, Valerian (1887-1938) – He was a Bolshevik from 1907. In October 1917, he became manager of the State Bank. In 1918 he was a ‘leftist’ and in 1920-21 led the ‘Democratic Centralism’ group. In 1923 he supported Trotsky. The following year he was appointed ambassador to Sweden. In 1937 he was arrested and appeared with Bukharin as a defendant in the 1938 show trial, dying in prison soon afterwards. He was ‘rehabilitated’ after 1956.
PESTKOVSKY, Stanislav (1882-?) – Born in Poland and became a left-wing member of the SDP of Poland and Lithuania, a follower of Rosa Luxemburg. In 1917 he went to Russia and was Commissar for Telegraphs in the Bolshevik government. From 1918 until 1924 he was engaged in diplomatic work. He disappeared in the purges in 1937.
POKROVSKY, Michael (1868-1932) – Historian. joined the Bolshevik Party in 1905, but broke with Lenin as part of the Vperyod group. He rejoined the Party on his return to Russia in August 1917, and became President of the Moscow Soviet. In 1918, he was a ‘left communist’. From 1918 until his death, he was Deputy Commissar for Education. In 1936, his views were condemned as ‘anti-Leninist’ and his followers arrested. He was ‘rehabilitated’ in 1954.
PREOBRAZHENSKY, Evgeny (1886-1937) – He joined the RSDLP in 1904. In 1917-8 he worked for the Party in the Urals and fought in the Civil War. From 1923-29 he was the economist of the Opposition, engaging in a debate on economic development with Bukharin. In 1927, he was expelled from the Party, but capitulated to Stalin in 1929 and was re-admitted. Again expelled in 193 1, he was arrested in 1935 and appeared as a prosecution witness against Zinoviev and Kamenev at the first show. trial in 1936. He was himself a defendant in the second trial, that of Radek and Piatakov in 1937, but did not appear. He was probably killed in 1937.
RADEK, Karl (1885-1939) – He joined the Polish SDP in 1899. In 1908 he joined Rosa Luxemburg in Germany in the left-wing of the SDP. In 1915 he was on the Bureau elected at the Zimmerwald Conference, supporting Lenin’s position. In Petrograd in 1917, he worked in the Foreign Commissariat and was sent to Germany in 1918. Arrested in Berlin, he continued to help the formation of the CP. He was a leading figure in the CI from the start. From 1924 until 1929, he supported the Opposition, and then capitulated to Stalin and served him as editor of Izvestia. In 1936, Stalin had him arrested and he was chief defendant at the second show trial in 1937, acting as a provocateur. Sentenced to ten years, he probably died two years later.
RAKOVSKY, Christian (1873-1941) – He was a leading socialist before the war in Bulgaria, Switzerland, Germany, France and Rumania. A close friend of Trotsky, he was imprisoned during the war, in Rumania, for his support for the Zimmerwald Left, and was freed by Russian troops in 1917. A leader of the Revolution in the Ukraine, he became ambassador to Britain in 1923 and to France in 1925. He was a supporter of the Opposition and was expelled from the Party in 1927 and deported. He tried to escape and was re-captured. In 1934 he was reported to have capitulated to Stalin. In 1938 he appeared as a defendant in the Bukharin trial and condemned to 20 years hard labour.
RIAZANOV, David (1870-1938) – A trade union organiser and socialist in the 1890s, arrested many times, he lived in exile for many years. During the war he collaborated with Trotsky in Paris on Nashe Slovo. He returned to Russia and joined the Bolshevik Party with Trotsky and the Mezhrayontsi. In 1918 he was a ‘leftist’ In 1921 he became head of the Marx-Engels Institute and did important work as a Marxist scholar. In 1929 he was sacked by Stalin and in 1931 expelled from the Party. He was arrested and died in prison.
RUDZUTAK, Yan (1887-1938) – Born in Latvia, he joined the RSDLP in 1905. He was imprisoned from 1907 until released by the February Revolution in 1917. A prominent trade union leader from 1917. In 1937, he was arrested and died in prison. After 1956, he was ‘rehabilitated’.
PAVLOVICH-WELTMANN, Mikhail (1871-1929) – A militant socialist while at school, he was first arrested in 1892 and deported to Siberia. In 1903 he was a Menshevik. During the war, he wrote for Trotsky’s Nashe SIovo in Paris. He returned to Petrograd in 1917 and joined the Bolshevik Party.
RYKOV, Alexei (1881-1938) – He joined the RSDLP as a student in 1900 and was arrested in 1901. From his release in 1902 onwards he was engaged in illegal Party work. From 1903 he was a leader of the Bolshevik Faction, and was arrested many times. From 1917 he was a close collaborator of Lenin and was on the Politbureau from 1919. In the 1920s, he was a leader of the right-wing faction of Bukharin and was removed from leading positions in 1929. In 1936 he was expelled from the Party and then arrested. In 1938 he was a defendant in the third show trial and was executed.
RYVKIN, Oscar (1889-1937) – Joined the Bolshevik Party in 1917 and became a leader of the Young Communist League. He died in a Stalinist prison and was ‘rehabilitated’ after 1956.
SAFAROV, G. I. (1891-1942) – A Bolshevik from 1908, he attended the Zimmerwald Conference in 1915. From 1921 he headed the Eastern Department of the CI. A supporter of the Left Opposition, he was expelled from the Party in 1927, then capitulated to Stalin and was re-admitted. Expelled again in 1934, he died in prison.
SAID-GALIYEV, Sekhibgarey (1894-1939) – He joined the Bolshevik Party in 1917 and was a leader in the Soldiers’ Soviet. He died in a Stalinist prison, and was ‘rehabilitated’ in 1957.
SEREBRIAKOV, Leonid (1890-1937) – A Bolshevik from 1905. In 1917 he was a leader in Moscow. From 1923 he supported the Opposition and was expelled in 1927, then capitulated to Stalin and was re-admitted in 1930. He was arrested in 1937 and sentenced to death at the Radek show trial.
SHLIAPNIKOV, Aleksandr (1884-1937) – A metalworker, he joined the RSDLP in 1901 and the Bolshevik faction in 1903. After the 1905 Revolution, he was sentenced to two years in prison, after which he went to France. In 1914 he was sent to organise the Bolshevik Party in Russia. In the government after October 1917 he was Commissar for Labour. In 1920-2 1, he led the ‘Workers Opposition’ group. In 1924 he was sent to work in the embassy in Paris. In 1927 he capitulated to Stalin. Expelled from the Party in 1933, he was arrested and died in prison.
SKRYPKIN, Nikolai (1872-1933) – Born in the Ukraine, he joined the RSDLP in 1897 and was a Bolshevik from 1903. He was imprisoned many times. In 1917 he was a member of the Military Revolutionary Committee and was a Commissar in the Ukrainian government from 1920. In 1933 he committed suicide.
SMIDOVICH, Pyotr (?-1935) – Joined the RSDLP from 1903 and a leader in Moscow in 1905 and 1917.
SORIN, Vladimir (1872-1944) – Joined the Bolshevik Party in 1917. In 1918 was a ‘leftist’. Arrested in 1939 and died in prison. ‘Rehabilitated’.
SOKOLNIKOV, Grigory YakovIevich (1888-1939) – Economist. He joined the RSDLP in 1905, working in Moscow until his arrest in 1907. After two years in prison and exile, he escaped and lived abroad. Returning to Russia in 1917, he was a leader in the Moscow Bolshevik Party and was elected to the Central Committee. After October 1917, he directed the nationalization of the banks, and then became a military leader in Turkestan. In the 1920s and early 1930s he held a number of important positions in economic planning. Arrested in 1936, he was a defendant in the 1937 frame-up trial. Sentenced to 10 years imprisonment, he died in prison two years later.
STEKLOV, Yuri (1873-1937) – He founded the Union for the Emancipation of the Working Class in Odessa in 1892 and joined the RSDLP in 1898. A Bolshevik in 1903, he later joined Riazanov’s group. Arrested many times. In February 1917, he became Editor of Izvestia, calling himself a ‘non-party revolutionary’. Rejoined the Bolshevik Party after October and edited Izvestia until 1925. Disappeared in the purge of 1936.
SULTAN-GALIYEV, M. (1892-1939) – He joined the Bolshevik Party in 1917. In 1919, he was made Commissar for Moslems in Central Russia. He was expelled from the Party in 1927 and died in prison.
TROTSKY, Lev (1879-1940) – Trotsky was present only at the opening and closing sessions of the Congress, being engaged in the Polish campaign.
TOMSKY, Mikhail (1880-1936) – Joined the RSDLP in 1904 and supported the Bolshevik faction. He spent ten years in prison and exile. From 1917, he was leader of the Soviet trade union movement, and in that capacity led the Russian side of the Anglo-Russian Trade Union Committee. From 1922, he was a member of the Politbureau. From that time, he supported Bukharin, until Stalin removed the Right faction in 1929. He then capitulated to Stalin and was made director of the State Publishing House. After being cited in the 1936 show trial, he committed suicide.
TARATUTA, Viktor (1881-1926) (C) – joined the RSDLP in 1898, and the Bolshevik faction in 1903. Helped to raise money for the Party. Arrested in 19(0, he went to live in France, returning to Russia in 1919.
VATIN, Vadim (1886-1940) – A Bolshevik from 1907.
YAROSLAVSKY, Emilien (1878-1943) – Joined the RSDLP in 1889 and the Bolshevik faction in 1903. Sent to Siberia in 1907, he returned to Moscow in 1917. In 1918 he was a ‘leftist’. As secretary of the Central Control Commission, he supported Stalin from 1923-34. He was also a leading Stalinist distorter of Party history.
YENUKIDZE, Avel (1877-1937) – Joined the RSDLP in 1898, in Baku. In 1917 he was a leader in the soldiers’ Soviets. He backed Stalin as a member of the Central Control Commission from 1924 until 1934. In 1935 he was expelled from the Party, arrested in 1937 and shot. In 1959 he was ‘rehabilitated’.
ZINOVIEV, Grigory (1883-1936) – Lenin’s closest collaborator from 1903 until 1917, he joined the RSDLP in 1901. During the war, he fought with Lenin in the International workers’ movement, participating in the Zimmerwald and Kienthal Conferences and was co-author with Lenin of the book Against the Stream. Returned to Russia with Lenin in April 1917, he opposed Lenin’s April Theses. In October, together with Kamenev, he opposed the decision for insurrection. Lenin moved their expulsion from the Party, but received no support. After October, he was chairman of the Petrograd Soviet and in 1919 became the president of the CI. In 1923, he joined with Stalin and Kamenev against Trotsky, but in 1925 broke with Stalin and formed the Joint Opposition with Trotsky. At the Fifteenth Congress in 1927, he and Kamenev capitulated to Stalin, but were still expelled from the Party. In 1928, the Zinovievites again capitulated. and were again expelled in 1932. After Yet another capitulation in 1933, he and Kamenev were arrested and were the main defendants appearing m the 1936 show trial, after which they were shot.
LITVAKOV, Moisey (1880-1939) (C) – A Yiddish literary critic, he was a left Zionist from 1902. In 1920 he joined the Communist Bund and the CP in 1921. He was arrested in 1937 and died in prison.
WEINSTEIN, Aron (1877-?) (C) – joined the Jewish Bund in 1897 and was arrested many tunes. During the war took a centrist position. In 1917 he called for a coalition government to be formed, but supported the Bolsheviks from 1919, when the left wing of the Bund joined the CP. In 1938 he was arrested and died in prison.
PESTAĐA, Angel (1888-1937) – National Confederation of Labour (CNT). A watchmaker, and a leader of anarcho-syndicalism, he opposed the CI after the Second Congress.
LINDEROT, Sven (1889-1951) – Left Social Democratic Party. Joined SPD in 1908 and the Left SDP when it was formed in 1917. In 1921 helped to form the CP. In 1929 he became leader of the Party as a Stalinist and remained leader until 1951, when he died.
DALSTRÖM, Katarina (1858-1923) – Joined Social Democratic Party 1894, and joined the Left SDP in 1917 and joined the CP in 1921.
BACKER-Communist Party (Forderung)
BRINGHOLF, Walther (1895-) – Social Democratic Party Left. After the 2CCI, he joined the CP on its formation in 192 1. In 1929 he opposed the ‘social-fascist’ line and broke with the CI, later rejoining the Socialist Party.
HERZOG, Jakob (1892-193 1) – Communist Party (Forderung). Leading member of the Swiss Socialist Youth in 1914, he was expelled from the Socialist Party for his revolutionary politics, and formed the Forderung, a communist group. joined the CP on its formation.
HUMBERT-DROZ, Jules (1891-1971) – Social Democratic Left. A Protestant pastor, he was a pacifist in 1914 and was imprisoned for his opposition to the war, joined the Socialist Party and supported its left wing. In 1917 he became a communist. During the 1920s he was a leading member of the CI, but was removed after the fall of Bukharin. In 1929 he made a ‘self-criticism’ and was reinstated in the leadership as a loyal Stalinist. In 1939-41, he was involved in the ‘Rote Kapelle’ underground organisation in Germany. In 1941 he was expelled from the CP leadership and in 1943 from the Party. He joined the Swiss Socialist Party and became its secretary in 1947-48.
CHABROW-Independent Socialist Youth.
BILAN, Alexander-Communist Labour Party.
FLYNN (Edward I. Lindgren) – An old left-winger from New York who was on the
founding committee of the CLP. He arrived at the 2CCI to announce that, since the other delegates had left the USA, a United CP had been formed, and to demand (unsuccessfully) that Reed and Fraina be removed from the Congress, as representatives of non-existent parties.
FRAINA, Louis (1894-1953) – Communist Party. Member of De Leon’s Socialist Labour Party from 1909 to 1914. He was leader of the CP at its foundation in 1919. Before he left for the 2CCI, he was accused of being a police spy by an actual spy, and was defended by another spy, Nosovitsky, who accompanied him to Europe. At the 2CCI, he was ‘tried’ on the charge, brought once again by factional opponents, and cleared with Lenin’s support. Sent by the CI to Mexico in 192 1, he abandoned his work there, later returning to the US and becoming a professor of economics under the name Lewis Corey. He broke with Marxism during the 1930s.
JURGIS-Independent Socialist youth.
MACALPINE, Eadmonn-Communist Labour Party.
REED, John (1887-1920) – Communist Labour Party (CLP). A radical journalist who had reported the Mexican Revolution in 1913, Reed became a communist when in Petrograd in 1917. His book Ten Days that Shook the World was recommended by Lenin as the best account of the Russian Revolution. He helped to form the CLP in 1919. After the 2CCI, he attended the Baku Congress of the Oppressed Nationalities of the East, caught typhus and died in Moscow, being buried in the Kremlin walls.
STOCKLITSKI, Alexander-Communist Party. Leader of the Russian-speaking group in the Socialist Party. Helped form the CP in 1919, but played no part in it after the 2CCI.
MILKIC, Ilija (1882-1968) – Communist Party. Founder of a trade union for men in 1901, he helped form the SDP in 1903 in Serbia. He was a supporter of the October Revolution and became a leading member of the CP when it was formed. He lived in exile until 1926, when he returned to Belgrade, perhaps to work illegally for the Party.
BAMATTER, Sigi (1892-1966) – Born in Switzerland, he was a member of the Swiss SDP. In 1919 he helped form the CYI. From 1932, he lived in Moscow.
M▄NZENBERG, Willi (1889-194.0) – A leader of the German Socialist Youth movement, he was secretary of the Swiss Young Socialist League in 1914 and in 1915 called an international conference of socialist youth in Bern in opposition to the war. He was then elected secretary of an International Bureau of Socialist Youth. He supported Lenin’s stand at the Zimmerwald Conference. In 1918 he was expelled from Switzerland and returned to Germany, where he joined the CP on its formation. He was invited to the First Congress of the CI, but was in prison at the time. In 1919 he founded the CYI. In the 1920s and early 1930s, he organised many of the Stalinist front movements. In 1936-7 he moved away from the CP and was officially expelled in 1939. In 1940 he was interned in France and shortly afterwards found hanged.
SHATZKIN, Lazar (1902-1938) – Born in Russia, he joined the Bolshevik Party in May 1917. He supported Stalin during the 1920s, but in 1931 was removed from leading positions and in 1935 was expelled from the Party and arrested. He may have died by suicide. After 1956, he was ‘rehabilitated’.
BALABANOVA, Angelica (1878-1965) (C) – Born in Russia. She joined the Italian Socialist Party in 1900. In 1914 she was an internationalist and in 1917 she joined the Bolshevik Party. In 1922, she came into conflict with the CI and left Russia. In 1924 she was expelled from the CP and worked to organise a Centrist International, to the left of the ‘Two-and-a-half (’two-and-three-quarters'). In 1946 she returned to Italy and supported the right-wing Social Democratic Party of Saragat.
KARAKHAN, Lev (1889-1937) (C) – joined the RSDLP in 1904. In 1913 belonged to Trotsky’s Mezhrayontsy and joined the Bolshevik Party with them in August 1917. He was secretary of the delegation to the Brest-Litovsk negotiations and remained a leading figure in Soviet foreign affairs until his arrest in 1937, when he was shot. In 1956, he was ‘rehabilitated’.
KLINGER, Gustav (1876-?) (C) – Born of German parents in the Volga region, he joined the Bolshevik Party in 1917. Later he worked for the Soviet government.
|Total with full vote||167 persons|
|Total with consultative vote||51 persons|