Erich Wollenberg’s

The Red Army

Appendix II

Chronicle Of The Civil War

First Period

November 1917—April 1918

Don Area

Nov. 25—Ataman Kaledin’s forces take the offensive, capture Rostov and shoot the captured Bolshevist members of the Rostov Soviet of Workers’ Delegates. Dec. (early)—Generals Kornilov, Alexiev, Denikin, and Markov escape from captivity in the Bychov prison and reach the Don area, where they begin to organize the White Volunteer Army.

Dec. 11-12—First engagements at Yusovka between Kaledin’s forces and Red Guard formations.


Jan. 28—Red Army under Sivers captures Taganrog. Red Army under Sablin and Petrov captures the Kamenka railway—station.

Feb. 24—The Reds take Rostov. The White Volunteers retreat on Kuban.

The Ukraine

Jan. 16—The Revolutionary Committee gain possession of Kiev after victorious street fighting.

Jan. 16—Red troops enter Kiev and effect a junction with the rebel garrison.

Feb.—German advance into the Ukraine.

Mar.—Capture of Kiev by the Germans and allied Ukrainians.

April 7—Evacuation of Kharkov. The entire Ukraine remains occupied by German and Austrian troops until the end of May. The Rada Government rules under their protection, but is driven out later by Hetman Skoropadsky.

Second Period

May 1918—beginning of 1920


May—The Czechoslovak Legion revolts and occupies the middle Volga area.

Sept. 8—Red forces take the offensive against the Czechoslovaks and White irregulars.

Sept. 10—The Reds capture Kazan.

Sept. 12—The 1st Red Army, commanded by Tuchachevsky, captures Simbirsk.

Oct. 7—Red forces enter Samara and receive a ceremonial welcome from revolting workers.

Dec. 12—Fall of Ufa.


Jan. 22—Red forces break the enemy’s obstinate resistance when fighting in 30 degrees of frost and take Orenburg.

Feb. 27—Fall of Orsk and complete annihilation of White regulars. Koichak raises an army in Siberia to take their place.

Mar.—Admiral Koichak takes the offensive.

Apr. 12—Kolchak advances to within 30 versts east of the Volga.

May 4—Battle of Busuluk. The Red Army commanded by Tuchachevsky takes Bugursian.

May 27—The Reds take Orenburg.

June 10—The Reds take Ufa.

Aug. 3—The Reds take Chelyabinsk, with 15,000 prisoners, and annihilate three divisions of Koichak’s army.

Sept.—Under pressure of the enemy who has taken the offensive, Red forces retreat to the River Tobol.

Nov. 14—Fall of Omsk.

Dec. 15—Fall of Novo—Nikolayevsk, now known as Novo—Sibirsk.

Dec. 29—Capture of Tomsk, along with many prisoners, including the general staff and all other staffs.


Jan.—Fall of Krasnoyarsk. The enemy’s last remaining forces capitulate.


After the annihilation of Kolchak’s army the Turkestan front came into existence in August 1919.


Jan. 5—Capture of the town of Gurev, the base of the Ural Cossacks.

Feb. 18—Red forces take Khiva.

The Ukraine

From April to November 1918, Red forces occupied the line of demarcation. In December Red troops began a general attack on the Ukraine front.


Jan. 3—The Reds take Kharkov.

Jan. 20—Poltava captured after fighting of sixteen hours’ duration.

Feb. 5—Ukraine Soviet forces capture Kiev. Petliura’s Directory in flight.

Mar. 11—Soviet troops take Kherson.

May—Red troops, advancing all along the line from Odessa to the Crimea, reach the Black Sea.

The Struggle Against Denikin


Spring—General Denikin takes the offensive with volunteer armies of Don and Caucasian troops.

May 26—White Volunteers take Kharkov.

Middle of August—Red forces taken the offensive on the southern front. Their initial success is soon offset by a White counter—offensive.

Sept. 18—White Volunteers take Kursk.

Oct. 13—White volunteers take Orel.

Oct. 15—Red Army takes Kiev.

Second half of October—Red Armies of the southern front start an offensive in the direction of Orlov.

Nov. 17—The Red Army takes Kursk.

Dec. 12—The Red Army takes Kharkov and Poltava, Denikin’s forces in hasty retreat on Rostov.

The Western Front

December—The Lettish and Estonian Revolutionary Armies take the offensive, with the assistance of Russian western front formations, utilizing the withdrawal of German forces, now commencing, as an opportunity to advance.

Nov. 25—Pskov captured by Soviet forces.

Nov. 28—Narva captured.

Dec. 24—Yuryev and Vendek captured.


March—Red forces reach the Baltic Sea.

April—Beginning of attacks by the enemy, who advances on Riga and Vilna with troops equipped with material provided by the Entente. April to July—Fierce engagements of the scanty Red forces with better equipped and numerically superior opponents. The Reds evacuate Vilna and Latvia.

September—General Yudenich makes his first attack.

Oct. 11—Beginning of General Yudenich’s second series of operations.

Oct. 23—Beginning of the Red counter—attacks which end with Yudenich’s complete defeat.

Nov. 14—Yamburg taken.

January to December 1920
Northern Front

Feb. 2l—Archangelsk taken. General Miller’s White Government of the North flies to the Arctic Ocean.

Feb. 26——Onega taken.

Mar. 14—Murmansk taken. 6 tanks, 89 engines and more than 1,000 wagons captured.

Western Front

January to March—Peace negotiations and inactivity.

Mar. 6—Sudden outbreak of hostilities with Poland.

May 6—The Poles take Kiev.

May 14—The Red Army opens a general offensive in Polessiy—Lepel sector.

June 6—Budyonny’s cavalry take Zhitomir and Berdichev.

June 12—The Red Army takes Kiev.

June 25—The Red Cavalry takes Brody.

July 4—The Red Army commanded by Tuchachevsky takes the offensive between the Beresina and the northern Dvina.

July 14—The Red Army takes Vilna.

July 19—The Red Army takes Grodno.

Aug. l—Capture of Bialystok. Bielsk and Brest—Litovsk.

Aug. 13—The Red Cavalry takes Soldau.

Aug. 16—Fighting takes place 15 kilometres from Warsaw.

Aug. 15 and 16—Beginning of the Polish counter—offensive in the Warsaw, Ivangorod and Lublin sectors.

Aug.—Retreat of the Army of the Western Front. Its right wing is interned in East Prussia.

Aug. 15—20—Budyonny’s Cavalry Army in action at Lwow.

Oct. 5—Red forces retreat to the line Lake ParochSmorgon—.Minsk.

Oct. 5—12—Armistice.

Oct. 18—Retreat of our forces to the present frontier line and cessation of hostilities with Poland.

Petliura’s Ukrainian Army was finally liquidated in the course of September and interned in Galicia.

January to March


Jan.—A series of indecisive actions with Denikin’s troops on the Caucasus front. Beginning of March—Red forces take the offensive in the Caucasus.

Mar. 2—Red Army captures Azov.

Mar. 17—Capture of Tiflis, Pyatigorsk, Armavir and Ekaterinodar.

Mar. 27—Capture of Novorossiisk.

Mar. 28—Capture of Baku.

May 4—The remnants of the Denikin forces driven to the Black Sea coast.

The Campaign against Wrangel

Mar. 9—Red troops take the enemy’s fortified lines at Yushunie and the Sivashky bridge, but retreat northward under enemy pressure.

April 13—Latvian Red forces repulsed in their attack on Perekop, in the Crimea.

June 6—Wrangel advances from the Crimea.

Sept.—Wrangel attacks the Don Basin.

Sept. 6—Wrangel’s forces cross to the right bank of the Dnieper.

Oct. 14—Red Cavalry annihilate three enemy cavalry divisions and two infantry divisions at Pokrovsky. The enemy flee in panic. The beginning of the end for Wrangel.

Nov. 3—Red troops reach the Strait of Kerch.

Nov. 7—11—Red forces break through the enemy’s fortified positions at Perekop and Taganash.

Nov. 11—Capture of Simferopol and Feodosia.

Nov. 15—Capture of Sevastopol.

Eastern Front


January to March—Fall of Irkutsk. Koichak and his ministers taken prisoners.

Oct. 2l—Capture of Chita. The remnants of General Semyonov’s forces withdraw to Manchuria.


Sept. 1—All Turkestan occupied. Conclusion of operations against Old Bokhara. Capture of the town by Red Bokhara forces. The Emir placed on the throne by the English flees to the mountains.

Third Period


Feb. 26.—Red Georgian rebels, assisted by Red troops, from the Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan, capture Tiflis.

Mar. 3—Outbreak of the Kronstadt Mutiny.

Mar. 17—Liquidation of the Kronstadt Mutiny.

Oct. 25—Capture of Vladivostok.

(Approved by the 9th Congress of the Communist Party of Russia, March 29-April 4, 1920.)