Hegel’s Theses 1801

Source: Miscellaneous Writings of G. W. F. Hegel, edited by Jon Stewart, Northwest University Press, Evanston, Illinois, 2002.
Written: 1801;

Theses Presented in Advance of the Philosophical Dissertation on the Orbits of the Planets Which, the Rector of the Academy Being the Very Magnificent and Most Noble Prince and Master, Charles Augustus, Duke of Saxony, of Jülich, of Cleves, of the Mountains of Hungary and Westphalia, etc.,

With the Consent of the Great Order of Philosophers, with a View to Obtain, in Keeping with Custom, the License to Teach, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Doctor of Philosophy, Will Defend Publicly On the Twenty-Seventh of August, 1801, Karl Schelling Being the Partner.


1. Contradiction is the rule of the true; non-contradiction is the rule of the false.

2. The syllogism is the principle of idealism.

3. The square is the law of nature; the triangle is the law of mind.

4. In true Arithmetic, there is no room for addition other than unity’s being added to the dyad, nor for subtraction other than the dyad’s being removed from the triad, nor for the triad that is a sum, nor for unity that is a difference.

5. Just as the magnet is a natural lever, so too the gravitation of the planets toward the sun is a pendulum of nature.

6. The idea is synthesis of the infinite and the finite, and the whole of philosophy consists in ideas.

7. Critical [Kantian] philosophy lacks ideas; it is an imperfect form of Skepticism.

8. The matter of the postulate of reason, which critical philosophy exhibits, destroys that very philosophy and is the principle of Spinozism.

9. The state of nature is not unjust; for that reason one must leave it.

10. The principle of moral science is the reverence that is to be given to fate.

11. Virtue excludes innocence of deed and suffering.

12. Morality that is absolute in respect of every one of its parts is incompatible with virtue.