The PAIGC Programme

First Published:1969
Source: Amilcar Cabral, Revolution in Guinea, stage 1, London, 1974, pp136-140
Translated: Richard Handyside
Transcription/Markup: Steve Palmer
Copyleft: Copyright stage 1.

I. Immediate and total independence

1 .Immediate winning, by all necessary means, of the total and unconditional national independence of the people of Guinea and the Cabo Verde Islands.

2. Taking over of power, in Guinea by the Guinean people, and in the Cabo Verde Islands by the people of Cabo Verde.

3. Elimination of all relationships of a colonialist and imperialist nature; ending all Portuguese and foreign prerogatives over the popular masses; revision or revocation of all agreements, treaties, alliances, concessions made by the Portuguese colonialists affecting Guinea and the Cabo Verde Islands.

4. National and international sovereignty of Guinea and the Cabo Verde Islands. Economic, political, diplomatic, military and cultural independence.

5. Permanent vigilance, based on the will of the people, to avoid or destroy all attempts of imperialism and colonialism to re-establish themselves in new forms in Guinea and the Cabo Verde Islands.

II. Unity of the nation in Guinea and the Cabo Verde Islands

1 Equal rights and duties, firm unity and fraternal collaboration between citizens, whether considered as individuals, as social groups or as ethnic groups. Prohibition and elimination of all attempts to divide the people.

2. Economic, political, social and cultural unity. In Guinea this unity will take into consideration the characteristics of the various ethnic groups at the social and cultural levels, regardless of the population in these groups. In the Cabo Verde Islands, each island or group of identical and close islands will be able to have certain autonomy at the administrative level, while remaining within the framework of national unity and solidarity.

3. The return to Guinea of all émigrés who wish to return to their country. The return to the Cabo Verde Islands of all émigrés or transported workers who wish to return to their country. Free circulation for citizens throughout the national territory.

III. Unity of the peoples of Guinea and the Cabo Verde Islands

1. After the winning of national independence in Guinea and the Cabo Verde Islands, unity of the peoples of these countries for the construction of a strong and progressive African nation, on the basis of suitably consulted popular will.

2. The form of unity between these two peoples to be established by their legitimate and freely elected representatives. 3.Equal rights and duties, solid unity and fraternal collaboration between Guineans and Cabo Verdians. Prohibition of all attempts to divide these two peoples.

IV. African unity

l.. After the winning of national independence and on the basis of freely manifested popular will, to struggle for the unity of the African peoples, as a whole or by regions of the continent, always respecting the freedom, dignity and right to political, economic, social and cultural progress of these peoples.

2. To struggle against any attempts at annexation or pressure on the peoples of Guinea and the Cabo Verde Islands, on the part of any country.

3. Defence of the political, economic, social and cultural rights and gains of the popular masses of Guinea and the Cabo Verde Islands is the fundamental condition for the realisation of unity with other African peoples.

V. Democratic, anti-colonialist and anti-imperialist government

1 .Republican, democratic, lay, anti-colonialist and anti-imperialist government.

2. Establishment of fundamental freedoms, respect for the rights of man and guarantees for the exercise of these freedoms and rights.

3. Equality of citizens before the law, without distinction of nationality or ethnic group, sex, social origin, cultural level, profession, position, wealth, religious belief or philosophical conviction. Men and women will have the same status with regard to family, work and public activities.

4. Al1 individuals or groups of individuals who by their action or behaviour favour imperialism, colonialism or the destruction of the unity of the people will be deprived by every available means of fundamental freedoms.

5. General and free elections of the organisations in power, based on direct, secret and universal voting.

6. Total elimination of the colonial administrative structure and establishment of a national and democratic structure for the internal administration of the country.

7. Personal protection of all foreigners living and working in Guinea and the Cabo Verde Islands who respect the prevailing laws.

VI. Economic independence, structuring the economy and developing production

1 Elimination of all relationships of a colonialist and imperialist nature. Winning of economic independence in Guinea and the Cabo Verde Islands.

2. Planning and harmonious development of the economy. Economic activity will be governed by the principles of democratic socialism.

3. Four types of property: state, co-operative, private and personal. Natural resources, the principal means of production, of communication and social security, radio and other means of dissemination of information and culture will be considered as national property in Guinea and the Cabo Verde Islands, and will be exploited according to the needs of rapid economic development. Co-operative exploitation on the basis of free consent will cover the land and agricultural production, the production of consumer goods and artisan articles. Private exploitation will be allowed to develop according to the needs of progress, on the condition that it is useful in the rapid development of the economy of Guinea and the Cabo Verde Islands. Personal property-in particular individual consumption goods, family houses and savings resulting from work done-will be inviolable.

4. Development and modernisation of agriculture. Transformation of the system of cultivating the soil to put an end to monocultivation and the obligatory nature of the cultivation of groundnuts in Guinea, and of maize in the Cabo Verde Islands. Struggle against agricultural crises, drought, glut and famine.

5. Agrarian reform in the Cabo Verde Islands. Limitation of the extension of private rural property in order that all peasants may have enough land to cultivate. In Guinea, taking advantage of the traditional agrarian structures and creating new structures so that the exploitation of the land may benefit the maximum number of people.

6. Both in Guinea and in the Cabo Verde Islands, confiscation of the land and other goods belonging to proven enemies of the freedom of the people and of national independence.

7. Development of industry and commerce along modern lines. Progressive establishment of state commercial and industrial enterprises. Development of African crafts. State control of foreign commerce and co-ordination of internal trade. Adjustment and stabilisation of prices. Elimination of speculation and unfair profits. Harmony between the economic activities of town and countryside.

8. Budgetary balance. Creation of a new fiscal system. Creation of a national currency, stabilised and free from inflation.

VII. Justice and progress for all

a. On the social level

1 .Progressive elimination of exploitation of man by man, of all forms of subordination of the human individual to degrading interests, to the profit of individuals, groups or classes. Elimination of poverty, ignorance, fear, prostitution and alcoholism.

2. Protection of the rights of workers and guaranteed employment for all those capable of work. Abolition of forced labour in Guinea and of the exporting of forced or 'contract' labour from the Cabo Verde Islands.

3. Fair salaries and appointments on the basis of equal pay for equal work. Positive emulation in work. Limitation of daily working hours according to the needs of progress and the interests of the workers. Progressive elimination of the differences existing between workers in the towns and those in the countryside.

4. Trade union freedoms and guarantees for their effective exercise. Effective participation and creative initiative of the popular masses at every level of the nation's leadership. Encouragement and support for mass organisations in the countryside and in the towns, mainly those for women, young people and students.

5. Social assistance for all citizens who need it for reasons beyond their control, because of unemployment, disability or sickness. All public health and hygiene organisations will be run or controlled by the state.

6. Creation of welfare organisations connected with productive activity. Protection of pregnant women and children. Protection of old people. Rest, recreation and culture for all workers, manual, intellectual and agricultural. 7.Assistance for victims of the national liberation struggle and their families.

b. On the level of education and culture

1. Teaching centres and technical institutes will be considered as national property and as such run or controlled by the state. Reform of teaching, development of secondary and technical education, creation of university education and scientific and technical institutes.

2. Rapid elimination of illiteracy. Obligatory and free primary education. Urgent training and perfection of technical and professional cadres.

3. Total elimination of the complexes created by colonialism, and of the consequences of colonialist culture and exploitation.

4. In Guinea development of autochthonous languages and of the Creole dialect, creation of a written form for these languages. In Cabo Verde development of a written form for the Creole dialect. Development of the cultures of the' various ethnic groups and of the Cabo Verde people. Protection and development of national literature and arts.

5. Utilisation of all the values and advances of human and universal culture in the service of the progress of the peoples of Guinea and Cabo Verde. Contribution by the culture of these peoples to the progress of humanity in general.

6. Support and development of physical education and sport for all citizens of Guinea and the Cabo Verde Islands. Creation of institutions for physical education and sport.

7. Religious freedom: freedom to have or not to have a religion. Protection of churches and mosques, of holy places and objects, of legal religious institutions. National independence for religious professionals.

VIII. Effective national defence linked to the people

1. Creation of the necessary means of effective national defence: army, navy and air force, linked to the people and directed by national citizens. Those fighting for independence will form the nucleus of national defence.

2. Democratic government within the armed forces. Discipline. Close collaboration between the armed forces and the political leadership.

3. The whole people will have to participate in vigilance and defence against colonialism, imperialism and the enemies of its unity and progress.

4. Complete ban on foreign military bases on the national territory.

IX. Proper international policy in the interests of the nation, of Africa and of the peace and progress of humanity

1. Peaceful collaboration with all the peoples of the world, on the basis of principles of mutual respect, national sovereignty, territorial integrity, non-aggression and non-interference in internal affairs, equality and reciprocity of advantages, and peaceful co-existence. Development of economic and cultural relations with all peoples whose governments accept and respect these principles.

2. Respect of the principles of the United Nations Charter.

3. Non-adhesion to military blocs.

4. Protection for Guinean and Cabo Verdian nationals resident abroad.