Encyclopedia of Anti-Revisionism On-Line

Demarcation, Kansas City Revolutionary Workers Collective-Wichita Communist Cell, Marxist-Leninist Collective, Workers Revolutionary Organizing Committee, Comrades in the Bay Area

Joint Statement in Opposition to the Cutting Off of Aid to Socialist Albania by the Government of China


Published: 1979.
Transcription, Editing and Markup: Paul Saba
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The following statement is being issued by a number of Marxist-Leninist circles in the U.S.

Although we have differences on various important questions, we are united on the contents of this statement, which expresses our firm opposition to the outrageous great-power chauvinist act of the government of the People’s Republic of China in cutting off aid to the People’s Socialist Republic of Albania. The statement also outlines our rejection of the revisionist “theory of the three worlds.”

Our circles are not the only ones in the U.S. who have voiced opposition to Chinese revisionism and the “theory of the three worlds.” Many of the forces who have voiced opposition, along with some of the comrades who are vacillating but will be won over, are struggling to uphold proletarian internationalism and build a new vanguard party based on Marxism-Leninism that can lead the revolutionary overthrow of the U.S. bourgeoisie and establish the dictatorship of the proletariat. Some forces who have voiced opposition to the “theory of the three worlds” are only doing this in form.

Three circles, led by the MLOC, have also issued a statement opposing the recent Chinese actions. Given the absence of a single vanguard U.S. proletariat, it would have been desirable for all Marxist-Leninists (or would-be Marxist-Leninists) in the U.S. to unite in one statement. However, we have not been able to come to agreement with other circles because of errors in their draft, the way their final draft was arrived at, and its obvious use to promote MLOC’s opportunist party-building plan.

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On July 7, 1977, the Party of Labor of Albania issued an historic document, “The Theory and Practice of the Revolution.” This document openly and clearly exposed the revisionist nature of the “theory of the three worlds.” One year to the day after the issuance of this Marxist-Leninist statement, the government of the People’s Republic of China withdrew all aid and ceased all aid projects in the People’s Socialist Republic of Albania. As Marxist-Leninists in the U.S., we condemn the treacherous actions of the government of the People’s Republic of China in withdrawing aid from socialist Albania, and we support the Party of Labor of Albania in condemning the so-called “theory of the three worlds” as revisionist, class collaborationist, and a betrayal of Marxism-Leninism and the interests of the international proletariat.


The People’s Republic of China has been aiding Albania’s development for two decades. While this aid has been a benefit to the economic advancement of Albania along the socialist path and a support for international revolution, it was not, nor could it have been, the decisive factor. Chinese aid to Albania was based on fraternal state to state relations and a desire on the Chinese side to strengthen the socialist world. These fraternal state to state relations were formed, strengthened and solidified by the two states’ and two parties’ common struggle against Titoite revisionism and Khrushchevite revisionism as an international trend.

On July 7, 1978, the Chinese government withdrew its aid to Albania arbitrarily and unilaterally. The basis of the withdrawal of aid is not a breakdown of state to state relations, but arose as a result of the differences in party to party relations. The action taken by the Chinese government is identical with Khrushchev’s withdrawal of aid in 1960 from Albania and China, when the parties of these two countries persisted in attacking the revisionist line that the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was attempting to impose on the international communist movement.

We see the spectacle of China increasing aid and even sending military advisors to prop up the reactionary regime of Mobutu in Zaire, while cutting off aid to socialist Albania. First the Soviet revisionists and now those who have usurped power in China share the illusion that small country like Albania will quickly knuckle under their great power bullying. Like all revisionists, they under-estimate the strength of socialism. Under the leadership of its Party of Labor, Albania was able to drive out the fascist Italian and German armies that occupied it during World War II. Later it was able to resist Tito’s efforts to annex it to Yugoslavia. Relying primarily on their, own efforts, the Albanian people have built up a balanced socialist economy. The dictatorship of the proletariat is a reality in Albania. The initiative of the masses is given full play in all areas of political, economic, and social life, in line with Enver Hoxha’s slogan, “socialism is built by the masses, the Party makes them conscious.”

The Party of Labor of Albania has always struggled to hold to a single Marxist-Leninist line. When opportunist elements have reared their heads, they have been beaten back and purged from the Party. This has prevented factionalism, bureaucratism, and revisionism from striking root or triumphing. The strict upholding of Leninist norms in the Party’s internal life is reflected in the determination with which it has fought for the purity of Marxism-Leninism in battle against all modern revisionist groupings in the international communist movement. This small Party was the first to openly condemn Khrushchevite revisionism, after patiently attempting to bring the CPSU back to Marxism-Leninism with fraternal criticism.

In the past, it was the position of the Communist Party of China that “it is impermissible for any Party ... to adopt patriarchal ways in relations ...” with fraternal parties. (A Proposal Concerning the General Line of the International Communist Movement, P. 47) But this is exactly what the Chinese revisionist leaders have tried to do to the Party of Labor of Albania. When this failed and the Party of Labor of Albania insisted on upholding Marxism-Leninism and acting according to long accepted principles of struggle in the international communist movement, the leaders of the People’s Republic of China unilaterally and arbitrarily cut off all aid to the People’s Socialist Republic of Albania. These actions are clearly not aimed at strengthening the victory and consolidation of socialism around the world, but at undercutting the struggle of the Albanian people, led by the Party of Labor of Albania, to build and strengthen a powerful, socialist state. This action is clearly aimed at undercutting and destroying socialism in Albania. Standing behind this act of outright great-power chauvinism and pressure are deep-seated ideological and political motives. Because Albania persisted in its exposure of the revisionist “theory of the three worlds,” and because it would not go along with and join in the Chinese government’s alliance with U.S. imperialism and its allies, the Chinese government set out to punish Albania by cutting off aid.

Marxist-Leninists in the United States and throughout the world condemn this treacherous act. Further, we are confident that the Albanian people, led by the Party of Labor of Albania, will continue on the road of socialist revolution, relying mainly on their own efforts and with the support of genuine Marxist-Leninists, the proletariat, and the genuine anti-imperialist and revolutionary forces throughout the world. In addition, the actions of the Chinese party and state in withdrawing aid from a socialist country, and by their elaboration of the “theory of the three worlds,” have helped show Marxist-Leninists in the U.S. and throughout the world that revisionism is in power in China and that the dictatorship of the proletariat has been usurped.


The “theory of the three worlds” is a revisionist theory that is aimed at undercutting the revolutionary struggles of the international proletariat and the liberation struggles of the oppressed nations and peoples. Since the victory of the proletarian revolution in Russia, Marxist-Leninists have recognized the existence of four basic contradictions that have marked this era of history, the era of imperialism and proletarian revolution: the contradiction between two opposing systems, capitalism and socialism; the contradiction between labor and capital in the capitalist countries; the contradiction between the oppressed peoples and nations and imperialism; and the contradiction between imperialist powers. The “theory of the three worlds” denies the existence of these contradictions. According to this theory, the undeveloped world or “third” world consists in the main of the countries of Latin America, Africa, and Asia, excluding Japan, without regard to the social system. Even Yugoslavia is now considered part of the “third world”. This lumps together socialist countries, Titoite revisionism, Iranian monarchism, and Chilean fascism. In addition, this “theory” calls on the oppressed masses in these countries to unite with their own rulers regardless of the oppression they suffer at the hands of those rulers. This theory enabled the Chairman of the Communist Party of China to embrace the Shah of Iran while the Iranian people were in the midst of a mass uprising against the Shah’s brutal dictatorship.

The “theory of the three worlds” advises the workers in the United States and its capitalist allies to cease preparing for revolution and instead unite with their class enemies to oppose the Soviet Union, which, according to them, is alone the main source of war. It is thus a classically revisionist line of class collaboration that prohibits proletarian revolution.

The essence of the “theory of the three worlds” is revisionism and class collaboration, especially with U.S. imperialism and its allies. But the reality today is that imperialism as a system is our enemy, and that both superpowers are together the main enemy of the people of the world. We cannot rely on one superpower to defeat the other.

Marxist-Leninists must resolutely oppose the “theory of the three worlds” as this theory abandons the fight for revolution, abandons the struggle of the oppressed peoples and nations for liberation, and abandons the struggle against imperialism and revisionism. Marxist-Leninists must mobilize to defeat the revisionist “theory of the three worlds.”


The international communist movement is at a very important turning point. The emergence of a new international revisionist trend led by the Communist Party of China has presented new difficulties for the communist movement and must be resolutely combatted. But there are many forces in the international communist movement who have been forging ahead in the revolutionary struggle and have been meeting the challenge posed by the Chinese revisionist. We are confident that the problems remaining will be solved and difficulties overcome.

It is the particular responsibility of communists in the U.S. to lead the working class and all oppressed and exploited people in the revolutionary struggle to overthrow the rule of the U.S. monopoly capitalists, establish the dictatorship of the proletariat, and build socialism and communism. In order to do this, a vanguard Mar^st-Leninist Party is needed. Today in the United States there is no such party, and the formation of a genuine party is not imminent. Building this vanguard party remains the principal task of U.S. Marxist-Leninists and advanced workers. The actual situation in the U.S. communist movement is that, aside from many revisionist and opportunist “parties” and groups, the many circles and individuals who oppose Chinese revisionism and the “theory of the three worlds,” or are vacillating on this question are still disunited on many questions. Ideological struggle is needed to draw clear lines of demarcation between living Marxism-Leninism on the one hand, and fake Marxism Leninism on the other hand, so that the genuine forces can mite on a principled basis and form a vanguard proletarian party. Thus, we resolve to fight all shades of revisionism, opportunism, and social chauvinism. This statement by some of the U.S. Marxist-Leninists is a modest contribution to rallying Marxist-Leninists towards fulfilling these essential tasks.

January, 1979


Kansas City Revolutionary Workers Collective-Wichita Communist Cell
Marxist-Leninist Collective
Workers Revolutionary Organizing Committee
Comrades in the Bay Area

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P.O. Box 873
New York, NY 10025

Kansas City Revolutionary Workers Collective
P.O. Box 1565
Kansas City, Missouri 64141

Wichita Communist Cell
P.O. Box 493
Wichita, Kansas 67201

To Contact Marxist-Leninist Collective:
Workers’ Press
P.O. Box 24116
San Francisco, CA 94124

Chicago, IL