Reference Writers: Max Horkheimer


Max Horkheimer


Max Horkheimer

“self-awareness in contemporary society is directly connected with belonging to some collectivity: to an age group or vocational group, and ultimately to the nation. The divergence between individual and group that is now disappearing continues to show up among stunted individuals, criminals, and people who can assert themselves only by opposition to everything else.” Feudal Lord, Customer, and Specialist.





The Little Man and the Philosophy of Freedom 1931

The Present Situation of Social Philosophy and the Tasks of an Institute for Social Research 1931

The Social Function of Philosophy 1939

Enlightenment as Mass Deception 1944

Theism and Atheism, 1963

Feudal Lord, Customer, and Specialist, 1964

Further reading:

Theodor Adorno Archive
Leo Lowenthal Archive
Herbert Marcuse Archive
Jürgen Habermas Archive
Georg Lukacs Archive