MIA: Subjects: Albania

Marxists Internet Archive in Albanian

Political Leadership of People's Socialist Republic of Albania (1946 - 1992)


Enver Hoxha

Enver Hoxha (1908-1985)
An early leader of the communist movement in Albania, Enver Hoxha distinguished himself as a hero of the anti-fascist resistance during the Second World War. Under his leadership he moved this War of National Liberation into the second stage, a socialist revolution. Hoxha was a vigorous defender of the work and legacy of Joseph Stalin following Khrushchev's denunciation of the Soviet leader at the Twentieth Congress of the CPSU in 1956. Initially this was in alliance with Mao and China, but after XX Hoxha criticised China. Thereafter there were two strands in the international anti-revisionist movement, one pro-Albania and Hoxha, and one pro-China and Mao. He was a prolific writer, authoring an extensive collection of theoretical and political works. Hoxha led Albania for 41 years until his passing in 1985.

Enver Hoxha Internet Archive

Nexhmije Hoxha

Nexhmije Hoxha (1921 - 2020)
Joined partisan resistance and fought against Nazi forces. Later a prominent member of the national liberation movement and the Albanian Women's League. Director of the Institute of Marxist-Leninist Studies beginning in 1966. Wife of Enver Hoxha and defender of his work and legacy following his passing in 1985. She was imprisoned for long periods by the post-Hoxha capitalist governments.

Works include: Some Fundamental Questions of the Revolutionary Policy of the Party of Labour of Albania About the Development of the Class Struggle (1977)


Ramiz Alia (1925 - 2011)
A member of Albania's Communist Youth organization, later joining the Party of Labor of Albania. A longstanding political leader of People's Socialist Republic of Albania, Alia succeeded Enver Hoxha as President upon Hoxha's passing in 1985, but he quickly deviated from the established path of socialism in Albania. Effectively he played a similar role to that played by Khruschev in the USSR after Stalin's death. He resigned in 1992 and was later jailed and prosecuted by his anti-communist opponents.

Ramiz Alia Internet Archive
Works include: Leninism - The Banner of Struggle and Victories (1970); Stalin and his Work - A Banner of Struggle for All Revolutionaries (1979)

Hysni Kapo
Hysni Kapo (1915 - 1979)
Joined Albania's Communist Youth organization and served as a military commander in the anti-fascist resistance. After the war, Kapo held government positions including as ambassador to Yugoslavia, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Agriculture. Kapo also served as a member of the Central Committee of the Party of Labour of Albania.

Hysni Kapo Internet Archive
Works include: The Ideas of the October Revolution are Defended and Carried Forward in Struggle Against Modern Revisionism (1977)

Mehmet Shehu

Mehmet Shehu (1912 - 1981)
Leader of the partisan resistance during the fascist occupations of Albania as well as a member of Albania's Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation. Served as Prime Minister of Albania from 1954 to 1981. Died by suicide amidst political controversy.

Mehmet Shehu Internet Archive
Works include: The Government of the People's Republic of Albania will be Guided In All Its Activity by the Marxist-Leninist General Line of the Party (1970); Socialist Albania Will Never Budge from Its Revolutionary Positions (1978)



Political Writings on Socialist Albania

Bill Bland (1916-2001)
A founder of the Albania Society and a prolific writer, Bland authored many speeches, articles, and larger works related to Albanian politics, history and culture, as well as the history of the Soviet Union. He was also a co-founder of British discussion group The Stalin Society.

Bill Bland Internet Archive
Bill Bland

Representative Anti-Revisionist Materials from Albania

An extensive collection of articles regarding Albanian history and political economy, spanning 1960 to 1987. Includes works by Enver Hoxha, Filip Kota, Spiro Dede, and many others.



Albanian History and Culture

Albania Report

Albania Report (periodical)

Bulletin edited by the Albanian Study Group. The periodical was published by Gamma Publishing Company.
Albanian Life

Albanian Life (periodical)

The journal of the Albanian Society of Britain. Bill Bland served as the editor of the periodical and each issue featured articles on a range of subjects, including Albanian history, art, and culture.
Socialist Albania

Socialist Albania (periodical)

Quarterly publication of the New Albania Study Group, an organization which was devoted to informing people about the Peoples' Socialist Republic of Albania, the life of the Albanian people, and the realities of their economic and social system. Their aim was to increase the understanding and friendship between the American and the Albanian peoples.


Critiques of Anti-Revisionism in Albania

This area is under development.