Thomas Spence (1750 - 1814)

Token showing head of Thomas Spence


Thomas Spence was born in Newcastle in 1750 to a family of Scottish migrants, members of the Glasite church. He first worked as a teacher, inventing a new system of orthography intended to make it easier for the illiterate to learn to read and write. Many of his own later writings were also published in this orthography.

He was inspired by local attempts to defend common land against enclosure to develop 'Spence's plan': a utopian ideal of a society based on common ownership of land administered at parish level. His struggle to realise this utopia led him to publish his system in many forms throughout his life, gradually changing as his political experience increased, but always based on the idea that the rights of man could only be fully realised in such a system.

In the late 1780s Spence moved to London where he became a publisher and seller of political literature, and a manufacturer of and dealer in token coins. His coins served to illustrate and publicize his system and the political causes he became involved with. He was a member of the London Corresponding Society during the initial years of the French Revolution, and later associated with the clandestine United Britons. His attempts at synthesizing these experiences with his system included a version of the Jacobin 1793 constitution combined with communal land ownership, and praise of the self-management of the navy by the mutineers during the 1798 naval mutiny as a practical proof of the potential of the common man to run a society.

As a result of his publications and of his association with the LCS he spent a large part of the 1790s and early 1800s in court or in prison, losing his coin business and his shop. Government repression eventually blocked all possibilities for radicals to organize publicly. Spence's followers - now known as Spenceans - were reduced to spreading the word by chalking walls, popping up in pubs to sing subversive songs, and countermarking coins with slogans such as 'Spence's plan and full bellies'. Spence continued to publish versions of his Plan and Constitutions until he died unexpectedly in 1814. His funeral was followed by a procession handing out his propaganda tokens.


One of Spence's earliest projects was the creation of a phonetic alphabet to be used for teaching. Several of his political works were printed with both conventional English spelling and in his phonetic script; the phonetic versions are not hard to read but are difficult to transcribe and so only one example is included here: the introduction to Spence's Important Trial, which explains the rules of the system.

Spence's tokens (described in his Coin Collector's Companion) were often intended to illustrate the ideas in his printed works, and some of them are used in these pages for that purpose.

  1. The Grand Repository of the English Language, Newcastle 1775
  2. The Repository of Common Sense and innocent Amusement, a series of penny pamphlets in the new script. No copies of these are known to exist.
  3. Property in Land: Everyone's Right, Newcastle 1775. The first formal presentation of Spence's Plan. A copy of this long-lost pamphlet was discovered in 2005, and reprinted in Thomas Spence, the Poor Man's Revolutionary, ed. Bonnet & Armstrong, Breviary Stuff Publications, 2014.
  4. The Poor Man's Advocate, Newcastle 1779. This pamphlet has been lost; but an article from it, A Lesson for the Sheepish Multitude was republished in 1795 in Pigs' Meat.
  5. The Pronouncing and Foreigners' Bible : Containing the Old and New Testaments; Being, Not Only the Properest Book for Establishing an Uniform and Permanent Manner of Speaking the Most Sonorous, Harmonious, and Agreeable English, London 1782
  6. A Supplement to the History of Robinson Crusoe, being the History of Crusonia, or Robinson Crusoe's Island, down to the present time, Newcastle 1782. The first narrative version of Spence's plan, in a book for children and those learning to read.
  7. The Rights of Man in Verse, first published Newcastle 1783.
  8. Pigs' Meat; Or, Lessons for the Swinish Multitude : Published in Weekly Penny Numbers, Collected by the Poor Man's Advocate (An Old Veteran in the Cause of Freedom) in the Course of His Reading for More Than Twenty Years. Intended to Promote Among the Labouring Part of Mankind Proper Ideas of Their Situation, of Their Importance, and of Their Rights, and to Convince Them That Their Forlorn Condition Has Not Been Entirely Overlooked and Forgotten, nor Their Just Cause Unpleaded, Neither by Their Maker Not by the Best and Most Enlightened of Men in All Ages., published in weekly instalments from August 1793 to 1795, then issued bound in 3 volumes. Included here are a selection of articles chosen by Spence himself and some of Spence's shorter writings.
  9. Spence spent much of the years 1792-5 in court or in prison. A number of his writings reflect this.
  10. Rights of Man, including An interesting conversation (4th Edition, London 1793), The most widely known edition of Spence's Plan, first reprinted by Hyndman in 1882.
  11. The Marine Republic, included in Pig's Meat in 1794, and republished in modified form in The Giant-killer in 1814. The story is a reworking of the story of Crusonia, and includes the application of Spence's Plan to a ship.
  12. The coin collector's companion. Being a descriptive alphabetical list of the modern provincial, political, and other copper coins, London 1795
  13. The End of Oppression, or, a Quartern Loaf for Two Pence : Being a Dialogue Between an Old Mechanic and a Young One : Concerning the Establishment of the Rights of Man, London 1795
  14. A Fragment of an Ancient Prophecy, relating, as some think, to the Present Revolutions (being the fourth part of the End of Oppression), London 1796
  15. Spence's Recantation of the End of Oppression, London, 1796?
  16. The Meridian Sun of Liberty; Or, the Whole Rights of Man Displayed and Most Accurately Defined, in a Lecture Read at the Philosophical Society in Newcastle, on the 8th of November, 1775, to Which is Now First Prefixed, by Way of Preface, a Most Important Dialogue Between the Citizen Reader, and the Author, London 1796
  17. The Reign of Felicity, Being a Plan for Civilizing the Indians of North America without infringing on their national or individual independence, London 1796
  18. The Rights of Infants; Or, the Imprescriptable Right of Mothers to Such a Share of the Elements as is Sufficient to Enable Them to Suckle and Bring Up Their Young in a Dialogue Between the Aristocracy and a Mother of Children. to Which Are Added, by Way of Preface and Appendix, Strictures on Paine's Agrarian Justice, London 1797
  19. The Constitution of a Perfect Commonwealth: Being the French Constitution of 1793, amended and made entirely conformable to the Whole Rights of Man. 2nd Edition with a preface shewing how to study politics, London 1798
  20. The Whole End of Oppression, London 1801, a collection made up of older stock of the End of Oppression, The Meridian Sun, and Selections from Pigs' Meat, sold bound together in a hand-written wrapper.
  21. The Restorer of Society to its Natural State, London 1801
  22. The Important Trial of Thomas Spence for a Political Pamphlet Intitled ‘The Restorer of Society to its Natural State’, London 1803
  23. A receipt to make a millenium or happy world : being extracts from the constitution of Spensonia, 4th ed. London 1805
  24. The world turned upside down, dedicated to Earl Stanhope, 1805
  25. The Constitution of Spensonia, a Country in Fairy-land, situated by Utopia and Oceana, brought from thence by Captain Swallow, printed in the second edition of The Important Trial..., London 1807
  26. Spence's songs : with a humorous catalogue of Spence's songs prefixed, London 1807. The songs are by Spence, Evans, and other Spenceans.
  27. Spence's miscellanies : a new and infallible way to make peace at any time ; and, The jubilee hymn, London 1807
  28. The Giant Killer, or, Anti-Landlord, Issues 1 and 2, London 1814