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Marxists Internet Archive
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International Working-men's AssociationThe founders of Marxism, Marx and Engels, participated in the “International Workingmen's Association” from 1864 to 1872, where they found their first base of support and a connection with the workers' movement. Based in London, the International found supporteres across Europe and in the U.S.A.
Founders of Marxist practice and philosophy. Established the ground work of Marxism through an examination of the rise of capitalism, the history of society, and critique of many prevailent philosophies. Established the First International Workers' organisation.
[Marx Biography] [Engels Biography]
French Poet, member of the First International, Communard, author of The Internationale.
German communist, supported Marx in the International and in British trade unions.
German Revolutionary, comrade of Marx in the Communist League in the 1840s.
(1826-1906) < 5
After fighting in the 1848 Revolution in Germany, he fled to America; later Secretary of the First International; Marx's closest supporter in the US.
(1828-1888) < 5
Created dialectical materialism independently of Marx & Engels, but on seeing their writings became their most ardent supporter. His main contributions were using dialectics to elaborate epistemology.
French Marxist who moved to the US and joined a forerunner of DeLeon's Socialist Labor Party
(1825-1864) < 5
German socialist, contemporary and critic of Marx.
“The Communists disdain to conceal their views and aims. They openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions.(1840-1913) 10+
Let the ruling classes tremble at a communist revolution.
The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win.”
Co-founder of the German Social Democracy with Wilhelm Liebknecht in 1869. Part of the Reichstag from 1867. Outstandingly argued for the emancipation of women's rights before capitalism could be overthrown.
A member of the Paris Commune. Staunch advocate of Women's rights, wrote also on the history of religion, morals, literature, language, and comedy. Married to Marx's second daughter, Laura.
(1844-1883) < 5
Fought for Irish independence from England. Detailed the attrocities against Irish political prisoners in England. Braved a narrow escape from France after the massacres of the Paris Commune. Marx's eldest daugthter.
(1845-1922) < 5
French socialist. Leader of the Marxist wing of the French workers' movement.
The Socialist InternationalIn the 1880s, militant workers' movements grew up in all the capitalist countries. Marxists built powerful social-democratic parties which gave political leadership to these movements and transformed Marxism into a worldwide, mass movement.
Helped create the German Social-Democracy, one of the best-known theoreticians of the Second International, and a leading proponent of Marx & Engels after their death. During and after World War I he became a pacifist.
Helped create the Socialist League (with E. Marx). An artist who became a revolutionary communist through his search to address the lack of creative and artistic freedom allowed in the capitalist work process. Wrote fiction on far in the future Communist societies.
Founder of Britain’s first socialist party, the Social Democratic Federation, but did not follow the SDF into the Independent Labour Party and supported the War.
(1844-1929) < 5
English socialist poet, anthologist, early gay activist and socialist philosopher.
(1847-1933) < 5
British socialist, women's rights activist, writer and orator and supporter of Irish and Indian self rule.
(1849-1898) < 5
British socialist, married Marx’s daughter, Eleanor.
Among the first sources for many Marxist and materialist ideas in English. Founding member of Social Democratic Federation. Popularised Marxist approach to French Revolution in English.
Helped formed the Socialist League (with W. Morris), and wrote extensively in its paper. Wrote extensively on women's issues. Organizing, writer, record-keeper, and speaker for militant trade unions such as the Gasworkers, and the Dockers Union.
Founding member of British Social Democracy.
British feminist and founding member of the British Communist Party.
(1856-1941) < 5
British trade union organiser and founding member of the British Communist Party, founder of IWW and Marxist movement in Australia.
German-born Jewish socialist journalist and historian, British Social-Democrat; worked with Riazanov at the Institut für Sozialforschung.
Russian emigré British Social Democrat; returned to Russian after the Revolution and worked as a diplomat.
Russian emigré British Social Democrat.
(1904-1989) < 5
Left Social-Democratic journalist and teacher, member of the German Rote Kämpfer network (influenced by council communism) in the 30's. Wrote under the pseudonym Rudolf Sprenger.
Early American Marxism.
Helped create the IWW. Developed one of the most detailed outlines of how Socialist society should function. Believed that democratic control of all industries and services must be held by workers organised into industrial unions.
Helped build the American Railway Union, and later the American Socialist Party. Arrested for his political criticism of WW1, won almost a million votes for U.S. President while in prison.
Helped create the Irish Socialist Republican Party in 1896; served as Secretary of the Transport and General Workers Union. Executed for his leading role in the Easter Rising.
Collaborator of James Connolly; condemned to death after 1916, but elected as first woman MP to Westminster but refused to take her seat; Minister of Labour (1919-1922) in Irish revolutionary government; opponent of Anglo-Irish Treaty in 1922; sided with the republicans in the Irish Civil War.
(1843-1904) < 5
Among the first Italian Marxists, he was a writer and philosopher. Criticized the theories of Hegel, Nietzsche, Croce, and neo-Kantiansim.
(1849-1922) < 5
Founder of Swedish Social-Democracy.
A founder with Plekhanov of the Emancipation of Labour Group, and a translator of Marx's works into Russian; later joined the Mensheviks.
Helped create the Russian Social-Democratic party, becomming a Menshevik after the split in the party, but he tried to keep the party united. Believed that capitalism need to grow up before socialism was possible; thus he opposed the Soviet government.
(1873-1923) < 5
Originally close collaborator of Lenin, split with him in 1903 and became leading Left Menshevik and critic of Bolshevism.
(1884-1954) < 10
Bolshevik during 1904-07 and then adhered to the Mensheviks.
(1854-1940) < 5
One of the founders of the Second International in France.
(1856-1929) < 5
Italian Marxist of the Second International, criminologist.
Born Yabuki Sugataro, jailed for striking in 1912, left Japan for the US, where he became a Communist, and as an officer for Comintern he became in 1922, co-founder of the Japan Communist Party, left Japan and remained in the Soviet Union until his death.
Writer, historian, member of German Social Democrats and the Spartacist League.
Leader of the international women's movement. National Executive member of the German Social Democratic party. Long time comrade of Rosa Luxemburg, helped create the Spartacists and German Communist Party. Supported the Soviet government.
Championed the idea of the mass strike. Tireless opponent of WWI, she renounced the German Social Democracy, helped to create the Spartacus League, and later the German Communist Party. Critical of the Soviet government. Executed by the German government.
(1871-1919) < 5
“Karl Liebknecht called upon the workers and soldiers of Germany to turn their guns against their own government. Karl Liebknecht did that openly from the rostrum of parliament (the Reichstag) [of which he was a deputy – he was the only member of government to do so]." Executed by the German government.
German socialist, founder member and theorist of the German Communist Party.
(1877-1941) < 5
German socialist and political economist.
(1881-1938) < 5
Major theorist of “Austro-Marxism” in the “2½ International.”
(1881-1917) < 5
Marxist-Zionist and one of the founders of the Labour Zionist movement.
Australian Communist journalist, brother of Utopian William Lane.
A close associate of Engels and an early Marxist, Bernstein came to believe that capitalism could be made more and more democratic so that a socialist revolution would be unnecessary and irrelevant.
Popular French socialist. Founder of l'Humanité.
A founder of Swedish social democracy.
French socialist, son-in-law of Marx; later pacifist and centrist.
Leader of Popular Front government in France 1936-1939
Member of the Russian Socialist Revolutionary Party; was leader of the Provisional Government when overthrown by the Bolsheviks in October 1917.
Italian socialist, critic of bureaucracy.
Irish poet and playwrite who was also a socialist.
Irish writer and playwrite, comrade of Eleanor Marx, Edward Aveling, and William Morris, later joined the Fabian society, a circle of intellectuals who advocated reform to avoid revolution.
British labour leader, founded ILP in 1893, MP for Merthyr Tydfil from 1900.
Radical science fiction author who used his novels to warn of the dangers of capitalism.
Radical Irish social reformer, founder and leader of the Irish Land League, which fought for radical land reform.
Radical American writer who exposed the conditions of the poor in the industrial cities of the U.S..
Helped create the Bolshevik party. Led the Soviets to power in the Russian Revolution. Elected to the head of the Soviet government until 1922, when he retired due to ill health. Created the Communist International. Created the theory of Imperialism, emphasised the importance of the political party as vanguard in the revolution.
World-renowned writer of fiction, Gorky first focused on the plight of societal outcasts in Russia, then turned his attention to the struggles of the working class.
(1869-1939) < 5
Bolshevik Revolutionary. Writer, educator and Secretary of the Party. Wife and advisor to V.I. Lenin. Secretary to the Board of Iskra beginning in 1901. Brought recognition of International Women's day to Russia.
(1870-1938) < 5
Historian and Archivist of Marxism, helped create the Marx-Engels Institute. Political prisoner of Stalinism, died in prison.
Bolshevik Revolutionary. Led the Workers' Opposition, which opposed party control of trade unions and believed in industrial unionism. First woman ambassador in history. Proponent of free love, she wrote extensively on women's and other social issues.
One-time Diplomat and Social-Revolutionary, appointed Minister for Foreign Affairs for the Bolsheviks in 1918.
President of Soviet Ukraine, worked to make the Soviet Ukrainian identity independent of Russia. Helped create the Left Opposition, seen as its ideological leader. Explained Socialist economics. Political prisoner of Stalinism, died in prison.
(1873-1928) < 5
Russian Doctor, an old Bolshevik expelled in 1909 as an ultra-left. Also a writer, after the Revolution dedicated himself to science.
Bolshevik Revolutionary, outstanding orator. Commissar for Education in the Soviet government. Historian and archivist of Russia, he wrote extensive, personal biographical portraits on the leaders of the revolution.
(1876-1960) < 5
Bolshevik who wrote a celebrated history of her experiences.
(1877-1926) < 5
Polish communist. Headed the Cheka after 1917.
(1880-1936) < 5
Old Bolshevik, trade unionist.
(1882-1938) < 5
Old Bolshevik and early opponent of Stalin's Terror.
(1892-1939) < 5
Bolshevik sailor who chronicled the October Revolution.
First Menshevik, later Bolshevik Revolutionary. As commissar of war led the Red Army to defeat the Entente in their invasion of Soviet Russia. Helped create the Left Opposition to overthrow Stalin and stop the monstorous attrocities he'd soon commit. Created the theory of the Permanent Revolution, and the Fourth International. Assasinated by the Soviet government.
“The dictatorship of the proletariat which has risen to power as the leader of the democratic revolution is inevitably and, very quickly confronted with tasks, the fulfillment of which is bound up with deep inroads into the rights of bourgeois property.”
(1882-1962) < 5
Russian Revolutionary. Worked with Lenin and Trotsky on pre-revolutionary Bolshevik newspaper Iskra. Publicly split with Fourth International in 1951. Wife of Leon Trotsky.
(1883-1936) < 5
Old Bolshevik and founding member of Russian Social Democratic Labour Party. First chariman of Central Committee and a founding member of the politburo. First supported Stalin, then joined Trotsky to try to remove him. Imprisoned and placed on trial for alleged assassination plot against Stalin. Executed by the Soviet government.
(1883-1936) < 5
Bolshevik. With Kamenev, opposed the plans for a revolution. Allied with Stalin and Kamenev against Trotskyism. Later, allied with Trotsky against Stalin. Wrote about the history of the party. Executed during the Moscow Trials.
(1884-1937) < 5
Bolshevik and prominent humanist Marxist critic and editor of the 1920s, purged in the 1930s.
(1885-1937) < 5
Old Bolsheik, a member of the Central Committee during the October Revolution and member of the “Workers Opposition” after the Revolution. Executed by the Soviet government.
(1885-1939) < 5
Old Bolshevik, active in the Communist International in Europe. Died in prison.
(1880-1936) < 5
Old Bolshevik, Brest-Litovsk negotiator, Ambassador to England, and People's Commissar for Finance.
Bolshevik Revolutionary. Editor of Pravda (1928-29). Joined Stalin against Trotsky, then led the Right Opposition against Stalin. A theoretical leader of the party, focused heavily on economics, and wrote on market socialism. Executed after the Moscow Trials.
Young Bolshevik, Member of the Left Opposition. Executed after the Moscow Trials.
(1865-1941) < 5
Russian revolutionary, joined French CP as an exile.
(1873-1935) < 5
Pacifist novelist who joined the French Communist Party.
Carpenter, Spartacist and founder of the German CP; later a supporter of Stalin, in 1949 appointed President of the GDR.
German Communist and one of the first to develop the idea of National Bolshevism. Also known by the pseudonym Karl Erler.
German Communist and leading figure in the National Bolshevism tendency.
Old Bolshevik, Ukrainian Jewish worker, leader of the Red International of Trade Unions.
Scottish schoolteacher and Marxist educator. His evening-classes produced many of the activists who became instrumental in the Clyde revolts during and after WWI. Soviet Consul to Scotland.
(1879-1962) < 5
French Psychologist who elaborated a systematic Marxist psychology.
(1881-1960) < 5
French communist. Founding member of PCF, expelled in 1924, revolutionary syndicalist.
Founding member of PCF but expelled for his opposition to Stalinism.
(1883-1969) < 5
American socialist who became a prominent support of Trotsky but later an anti-communist.
(1885-1936) < 5
American Revolutionary, supporter of the Soviet government. Historian of the revolution. Tireless advocate to stop U.S. invasion of Soviet Russia. Wife of John Reed.
(1883-1924) < 5
Founding member of the South African Communist Party.
Hungarian Communist, activist in the Comintern.
(1891-1938) < 5
Hungarian Communist, official in the early Comintern.
German Communist, activist in the Comintern.
Indian Communist and key leader of the Comintern, later a radical humanist.
Miner, founding member of CPUSA, expelled after returning from the War.
German born American socialist, impossiblist, founding member of the CPUSA.
American Communist who helped her husband, M.N. Roy, found Communist Parties in Mexico and India.
American Revolutionary, supporter of the Soviet government. Historian of the revolution. Tireless advocate to stop U.S. invasion of Soviet Russia. Husband of Louise Bryant.
(1892-1953) < 5
American socialist, supporter of Russian Revolution, later expelled from the Comintern and wrote on economics.
Prominent German theorist. Expelled from the Communist Party for "right-wing deviation" in 1928 as main theorist for the Brandlerites. Particularly occupied with analyzing the actual class struggle of his time on independent Marxist grounds.
Originally an anarchist, later joined the Russian Communist Party. As a Comintern representative in Germany he helped prepare the aborted insurrection in 1923. Also joined the Left Opposition in 1923, expelled from the party in 1928 and briefly imprisoned. Exiled in 1933.
Helped create the Italian Communist Party. Arrested in 1926 for his revolutionary activities and sentenced by a fascist court to 20 years imprisonment. Theorized key concepts such as hegemony, base and superstructure, organic intellectuals, and war of position.
Yugoslav communist, participated in the October Revolution and built a partisan army during World War Two which won national liberation for Yugoslavia and united the country. Broke with Stalin over the Post-War settlement and took an independent line.
Founder of Communist Party and in 1935 of the POUM in Spain.
Peruvian Professor. Self-educated. Historian of European Marxism and movements in South America.
“1919: Horses dying from hunger in the roadway, pedestrians wan and inflated, scurvy, typhus, cold, hunger – treason – expectation. Soviets in Bavaria, Soviets in Hungary, the Internationale sung by two-thirds of Europe.”
(1883-1942) < 5
Dutch communist, early organiser for the Comintern, founding member of Communist Party in Indonesia.
Indonesian Communist, briefly became the Chairman of Indonesian Communist Party in 1921 before being exiled by the Dutch for the next 21 years. A prominent figure in the Indonesian national liberation movement and workers movement.
A founder of the Australian CP, member of ECCI, joined Trotskyists 1939.
A founder of the German CP, and leader of the DDR until 1971.
(1879-1964) < 5
Hungarian communist, Marxist Economist of the early Comintern.
(1886-1937) < 5
Russian Marxist Economist.
General Secretary of Soviet Communist Party from 1917 till his death in 1953. Responsible for the murder of the entire Bolshevik leadership and the consolidation of bureaucratic rule in the USSR.
(1881-1964) < 5
Finnish Communist and Comintern leader under Stalin.
Long-standing leader of Bulgarian C.P.
Soviet leader who succeeded Stalin.
Leader of Soviet Union who denounced Stalin in 1956 and tried to reform Soviet society.
(1883–1959) < 5
Functionary in the Comintern and foreign service.
(1899-1953) < 5
Close associate of Stalin, leader of Secret police 1938 till Stalin’s death.
(1902-1988) < 5
Soviet politician, succeeded Stalin as Chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR from 1953–1955.
(1895-1975) < 5
Soviet politician and minister in the Red Army. Succeeded Malenkov as Chairman of the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR from 1955–1958.
(1902-1982) < 5
Soviet politician and member of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party.
Post World War Two leader of the French Communist Party.
(1897-1982) < 5
French Communist Poet.
(1903-1942) < 5
French Marxist philosopher.
A leader of the Jewish Bund, and later leading member of the CPUSA.
Trade unionist and leader of the Communist Party of the USA.
Leader of the Communist Party of the USA before World War Two.
Leader of the Spanish Communist Party during the Civil War.
Leader of the Greek Communist Party during World War Two and the Greek Civil War.
Leader of Albanian CP, followed separate foreign policy, anti-Khrushchev, anti-Mao and pro-Stalin.
“The final victory of socialism in the first country to emancipate itself is impossible without the combined efforts of the proletarians of several countries, and the unfolding of the world revolution will be the more rapid and thorough, the more effective the assistance rendered by the first socialist country to the workers and laboring masses of all other countries.”British Communist Party
The CPGB History Archive includes a number of writers who were members of the Communist Party of Great Britain, including R. Page Arnot, Thomas Bell, B. F. Bradley, Emile Burns, J. R. Campbell, Helen Crawfurd, Clemens Dutt, Benjamin Fineberg, Ralph Fox, Will Gallacher, John Gollan, Wal Hannington, Arthur Horner, J. F. Horrabin, Albert Inkpin, T. A. Jackson, Monty Johnstone, James Klugmann, J. T. Walton Newbold, Arthur MacManus, Eden & Cedar Paul, William Paul, Marjorie Pollitt, R. W. Postgate, Stewart Purkis, Tom Quelch, Andrew Rothstein, Theodor Rothstein, William Rust, Shapurji Saklatvala, Beth Turner, Ellen Wilkinson, Tom Wintringham, and others as well as fellow-travellers such as Hewlett Johnson.
Founding member of the CPGB and noted figure in Comintern and RILU matters who moved the resolution expelling Trotsky from the Comintern in 1927.
General Secretary of CPGB from 1929 till 1956, apart from 1940 when he opposed Stalin-Hitler Pact.
Member of the Independent Labour Party before joining the Communist Party in 1920, Dutt was a member of the Executive Committee of the CPGB from 1923 until 1965.
Popularised Marxism. Wrote a 4 volume history of science from a Marxist perspective.
English philosopher and writer, won to Marxism in the 1930s and died fighting for the Republican cause in Spain in 1937. Wrote classic Marxist analyses of literature and art.
(1912-2003) < 5
English Marxist historian.
Australian journalist documented US imperialist crimes, expecially in S.E.Asia; Australian government removed his Australian citizenship.
Popular Italian communist, on the left of the PCI and a historian.
A leader of the Canadian Communist Party, trade unionist, and agitator, especially among the unemployed during the Depression; loyal supporter of the Soviet line.
Canadian trade unionist, Communist and Member of Parliament.
New Zealand-born communist, supporter of Enver Hoxha in Britain.
(1855-1935) Soviet scientist who carried out groundbreaking research in genetics.
Architect of Soviet Health System.
Soviet political economist.
Soviet educationalist who promoted development of virtues of discipline and collectivism.
Promoted theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics as the official Communist Party line in biology.
Soviet MarxismDespite the suppression of Trotskyism and the impossibility of open political discussion in Stalin's Soviet Union, a few Russians continued the development of Marxism in Psychology, Medicine, Law and the Sciences. This “non-political Marxism” only dared to show its political colours after Stalin's death.
Foremost exponent of the Marxist approach to Law.
Soviet linguist, associate of Mickhail Bakhtin.
Soviet philosopher. Charted the materialist development of Hegel's dialectics. Wrote extensively on dialectics, the Metaphysics of Positivism, and The Dialectics of the Abstract and Concrete in Marx's Capital.
(192?- ) < 5
Soviet psychologist who wrote on foundations of subjectivity.
(1923-1974) < 5
Soviet psychologist who developed education of deaf-blind children.
(1930-2006) < 5
Soviet philosopher who challenged simplistic ideas of subjectivity.
Soviet Psychologist who founded the Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) school of human development.
(1902-1977) < 5
The creator of neuropsychology. Soviet Psychologist who made advances in cognitive psychology, the processes of learning and forgetting, and mental retardation. Charted the way in which damage to specific areas of the brain affect behavior.
(1904-1979) < 5
Soviet Psychologist who developed his own theory of activity which linked social context to development.
(1904-) < 5
Soviet Psychologist who developed cultural-historical activity theory in the field of childhood development.
Hungarian philosopher, writer, and literary critic. Commissar for Culture and Education in Hungary's short-lived Socialist government (1919). Helped lead the Hungarian uprising of 1956 against Stalinist repression. Created Marxist theory of aesthetics that opposed political control of artists, defended humanism, elaborated alienation.
Polish Marxist political economist.
British geneticist, biometrician, physiologist, and popular advocate of science; “Fellow traveller” of the British CP.
Japanese Marxist economist who wrote on the history of political economy and Marx’s theory of crisis and money edited the 15-volume Marx-Lexikon zur Politischen Ökonomie.
Marxism in Japan.
Existentialist philosopher who played an important role in the non-Communist Party Left in post-World War Two France, existentialist, later attracted to Marxism.
(1923-2007) < 5
Austrian and French social philosopher. A supporter of Jean-Paul Sartre's existentialist version of Marxism. After the May '68 student riots, he became more concerned with political ecology.
(1905-1940) < 5
French writer and Communist Party militant, friend of Jean-Paul Sartre; resigned CP afer Stalin’s pact with Hitler, killed near Dunkirk in 1940.
Criticised Marxism from the standpoint of Structuralism.
(1926-) < 5
French philosopher, who has written on personality and ethics, member of CC of French Communist Party.
(1931-1994) < 5
Situationist of the 1960s generation who developed ideas about “the society of the spectacle.” Valued by the “Autonomists.”
(1945-2003) < 5
French Marxist, variously Maoist and follower of Althusser, Trotskyist (Gauche Prolétarienne), Islamist and assistant to Jean-Paul Sartre before returning to the study of the Talmud.
German Left Communist who wrote one of the founding documents of “Western Marxism”, expelled from the Comintern. Became pessimistic about the prospects for socialism by the end of World War Two, but was later to become a supporter of Mao.
Secretary of the Austrian Social Democratic Party from 1911 to 1916, and a founder of the 2½ International.
Polish-Jewish Communist, Marxist Political economist.
(1892-1940) < 5
Critic of degeneration of art under capitalism
Long-term leader of the Frankfurt Institute from 1930, theorised Fordist, mass-production society.
(1900-1993) < 5
Philosopher who wrote on literary theory.
German-born U.S. psychoanalyst and social philosopher who explored the interaction between psychology and society. By applying Freudian principles to social problems, Fromm helped show the way to a psychologically balanced, “sane society.”
(1903-1969) < 5
Philosopher who studied the effects of mass culture and fascism on European society.
Last member of the original Frankfurt School, reached a broader audience in the 1960s with his critique of “consumer society” and the containment of opposition.
(1929- ) < 5
Leader of second generation of the Frankfurt School, theorised the idea of “networks” as opposed to Party and class, and initiated study of procedural ethics.
Founding member of the SPGB.
The son of a founding member of the SPGB, joined the party in 1922.
Australian-born.Journalist for the Socialist Standard.
American, IWW organiser, later helped create the US Communist Party. In the 1920s became a Trotskyst, and helped create the US Socialist Workers Party.
Greek Trotskyist. Lead mass movements of veterans and defended workers in court. Wrote extensively about Trotsky. Shot dead by fascists while in prison.
(1901-1971) < 5
Early member of Chinese CP, a founder of Trotskyism in China.
(1901-1988) < 5
South African communist who travelled to China and wrote extensively on China as a Trotskyist.
(1898-1992) < 5
Croatian Communist and one of the founders of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (KPJ), lived in the Soviet Union from 1926 to 1935, sympathizer of the Left Opposition.
American Communist Party, then helped create the American Trotskyist movement. Left the SWP and joined the Socialist Party.
American Trotskyist who broke with Trotsky with a concept of bureaucratic collectivism, later writing about the “managerial revolution.”
American Trotskyist and writer on Marxist philosophy.
American Trotskyist, wrote a classic eye-witness history of the Spanish Revolution. After the WWII, understood that Capitalism would recover and dominate the world, and that Socialism had a long struggle ahead.
A leader of the US SWP 40s-60s, advocate for Cuban revolution.
US Trotskyist in 1930s, editor of Monthly Review Press from 1967.
Member of US SWP, advocate of “turn to undustry,” expelled 1980.
German Jew expelled from the Communist Party for supporting Leon Trotsky, fled to France and later Norway he was eventually assassinated by a Stalinist agent.
French Trotskyist, a founder of the International Left Opposition in 1928, later a leader of the LCR.
International Secretary of Fourth International after WWII. Minister in Ben Bella's Socialist government of Algeria. Developed theory of "centuries of deformed workers states".
Romanian trotskyist, active in France from 1936. In 1939, he broke with the IVth International groupings in France and founded the "Groupe Communiste (IVéme Internationale), latter renamed "Union Communiste (Trotskyste)". Today's "Lutte Ouvriére" group claims to stand in the continuity of Barta's UC(T).
Leading figure in Canadian Trotskyism for 57 years.
British Trotskyist, historian and translator.
(1940-1997) < 5
British Trotskyist, economist.
Student leader in France, May ’68, later a leader of the LCR, more recently the NPA, one of the most prominent theoreticians of 4th International after death of Ernest Mandel.
Argentine Trotskyist, founder of the Revolutionary Workers League. Also known by the pseudonyms of "Quebracho" and "Lobodon Garra."
(1937-2011) < 5
South African-born British Trotskyist, a founder and long-term leader in the “Militant Tendency” within the Labour Party until expelled from the Labour Party in 1983, and after.
The leading theoretician of the Irish Militant group, later the Socialist Party, and the CWI.
English Trotskyist, a member of the Balham Group.
Rumanian-born English Journalist and Trotskyist.
French Trotskyist leader and historian.
(1918-1944) < 5
Jewish socialist and Historian, became a leading Belgian Trotskyist during World War II.
Belgian Trotskyist founder and leader of United Secretariat of the Fourth Intenrational, renowned as Marxist Economist.
(1924-1987) < 5
Argentinian Trotskyist. Leader of the Liga Internacional de Trabajadores (LIT), and of Movement for Socialism (MAS) in Argentina, among the largest revolutionary currents in Latin America which remained oriented to the urban working class after the Cuban Revolution, and opposed guerillaism.
“Just as it became necessary to discard the slogan of the ‘democratic dictatorship of the proletariat and peasantry’ after the Bolshevik Party had existed for 14 years, so has it now become necessary to renounce the theory of Russia as a degenerated workers’ state.”
Palestinian Jewish Trotskyist, developed critique of Stalinist Russia as a form of "bureaucratic state capitalism", laid the basis of the theory of 'deflected' permanent revolution and the 'permanent' arms economy, founder of International Socialist Tendency.
British Trotskyist, founder member of the International Socialist Tendency and leader of the British Socialist Workers Party.
English Marxist historian of the English Revolution, student of Christopher Hill, associated with the New Left in the 1950s and early 1960s, later joined Irish SWP.
British Trotskyist, Marxist historian and a founder member of the International Socialist Tendency.
A leading theoretician of the British Socialist Review Group and its successor, the International Socialists; also an editor of several publications including Pluto Press.
British postal worker and trade unionist, a founder of the ISO.
Theorist of the British ISO in the 1950s, translator and editor of Victor Serge.
Trotskyist and prominent investigative journalist in Britain, member of International Socialists.
British activist, journalist and historian.
British cultural critic, anti-fascist agitator and Marxist writer.
American Socialists, leaders of the Communist League of Struggle.
American Marxist, journalist and labor activist. Founder of the Socialist Workers Party & Fourth International in 1938, later founded the International Socialist party. Stopped associating with Trotskyism after the 1960s.
(1864-1927) < 5
Dutch socialist and poet, opposed WWI, became an advocate of ultra-left within Comintern. Leading supporter of the KAI.
(1868-1932) < 5
German left Social Democrat associated with the Bremen Radical Left, but never joined the KPD.
Dutch astonomer. Helped form a Marxist party in the Netherlands. Member of the German Social Democratic party.
(1915-2007) < 5
Dutch Left Communist. A central figure in the Council Communists movement (second-generation) and a Pannekoek sympathiser.
German Left Communist who voted with Karl Liebknecht against the war credits and was a founding member of the German Communist Party.
(1879-1947) < 5
French supporter of Esperanto and anti-nationalism.
(1880-1958) < 5
Scottish American socialist educator, founding member of the CPUSA, and later the Proletarian Party. Keracher was also a journalist and agitator.
(1882-1960) < 5
British Left-Communist and Suffragette.
Italian Communist, was expelled from Comintern as an ultra-left, later leading an independent Marxist Party in Italy.
( ) 5+
French political economist, follower of Bordiga.
(1893-1979) < 5
(1895-1958) < 5
French communist, trade unionist and anti-militarist.
German Left Communist, later lived in the U.S.. Main exponent of “Council Communism” and opponent of idea of Revolution being led by a political party.
(1927-1995) < 5
Italian Marxist, active in trade unions after WW2, built Lotta Comunista, an independent communist current in Italy.
(1888-1975) < 5
German Left Communist, member of the Executive Committee of the Comintern and of the KAPD; acted as their delegate to the Third Congress of the Third International.
(1879-1954) < 5
German Left Communist journalist, editor of Die Aktion.
West Indian, Afro Caribbean. Lucid dialectician, historian, novelist, & playwright. Stressed the importance of non-white workers to the revolutionary movement, foresaw the civil rights movement decades before it got underway.
American Russian Trotskyst, Humanist. Secretary to Trotsky, translated many Marx, Engels and Lenin. Critiqued Lenin's theory of the Party being the vanguard.
American autoworker and life-long supporter of Raya Dunayevskaya and C L R James.
British libertarian socialist, prominent neurologist and the intellectual leader of Solidarity (U.K.).
“It is with this problem of agency in mind that I have been studying, for several years now, the cultural apparatus, the intellectuals — as a possible, immediate, radical agency of change.” [C. Wright Mills, 1962]
(1916-1962) < 5
American Communist, initiated the “New Left” in the U.S.
(1940-2013) < 5
American Marxistm Humanist and Urbanist from New York.
(1885-1997) < 5
German Marxist-Humanist Philosopher.
(1912-1970) < 5
Polish Marxist Philosopher.
(d. 1978) < 5
Polish Marxist Philosopher.
(1922-1997) < 5
Greek philosopher, economist and psychoanalyst. Co-founder of the Socialisme ou Barbarie group. Perhaps better known by his pseudonyms Pierre Chaulieu and Paul Cardan.
(1924-2010) < 5
French philosopher and activist. One of the founding members of Socialisme ou Barbarie; later formed Informations et Liaison Ouvrières.
(1905-1996) < 5
French sociologist, Marxist humanist and with T.B. Bottomore, a prolific publisher and translator.
(1923-2000) < 5
Italian philologist, philosopher and Marxist.
(1916-2009) < 5
Marxist, historian, dissident Communist in 1956, set up The Reasoner with E.P. Thompson.
(1924-1993) < 5
English Marxist historian and humanist.
English Marxist political critic and humanist.
Belgian Marxist, contributor to and later co-editor of The Socialist Register.
(1941-2007) < 5
(1928-1995) < 5
Australian Marxist, elaborated ethical foundations of Marxism.
Croatian Marxist sociologist, Marxist Humanist, in Praxis group.
(1927-1993) < 5
Marxist Humanist, one of the main theorists in the Praxis Group and long-time editor of the journal Praxis.
(1927-2010) < 5
Serbian Marxist philosopher, one of the first and fiercest critics of the Stalinist philosophical theses in Yugoslavia, led return to study of Marx’s critical method in the mid-1960s.
Former longstanding leader of the Chinese Communist Party; purged as a “capitalist roader” during the Cultural Revolution, but returned to power after Mao's death and led the gradual return of China to capitalism.
(1928-2003) < 5
Political scientist, member of the Central Committee of the League of Communists of Serbia.
Czech dissident who became Deputy Prime Minister during the “Prague Spring” advocating a “Third Way” between capitalism and communism; in exile, became more of a social democrat of the Western variety.
See also Eurocommunism by Manuel Azcárate.
—— New Worker / Communist Currents ——
(1951-2002) < 5
Iranian Marxist. Conducted party building for the workers' movements in Iran and Iraq, specifically the Worker-Communist Party of Iran.
(1953-2001) < 5
Phillipino Communist. Led the split in the Communist Party of the Philippines in 1991 over strategy of guerilla warfare. Advocated the orientation to the workers movement, combining parliamentary and extra-parliamentary means of struggle.
Leader of the Chilean Socialist Party and President of Chile in 1973, when he was overthrown by a US-organised coup.
International Revolutionary. Helped create and maintain the Cuban Revolution. Creatively tried to establish socialism in Cuba, worked tirelessly to create revolutions throughout Africa and South America. Created the guerilla foco theory – building a revolutionary movement through militant resistance instead of party building.
(1911-1969) < 5
A Brazillian revolutionary who led the National Liberation Action (ALN). His tactics inspired the Italian Red Brigades, the German Red Army Faction. Expelled from the Brazilian Communist Party for “pro-Cuban” sympathy. Executed by police.
(1930-2006) < 5
General Secretary of the Communist Party of El Salvador, and guerrilla commander in the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN) in the 1980s.
Became leader of the Chinese Communist Party during the Long March in 1937, and led China to its Revolution in 1949 and remained its supreme leader until his death in 1976.
Firm supporter of Mao during the Cultural Revolution, leader of the Red Army.
Most respected of the old generation of leaders of the Chinese Communist Party.
Longstanding leader of the Chinese Communist Party; denounced during the Cultural Revolution, but survived and returned to leadership, as one who opposed restoration of the market.
A founder of the Marxist-Leninist Socialist Unity Centre of India.
Bengali intellectual and revolutionary. He helped found the Proletarian Party of East Bengal and took part in guerrilla warfare.
Longstanding leader of the CCP, denounced during the Cultural Revolution but later rehabilitated.
(1899-1967) < 5
Early leader of Chinese CP, regarded as ultra-leftist, denounced during Cultural Revolution, and committed suicide.
Longstanding leader of the Chinese Communist Party who was denounced during the Cultural Revolution as a “capitaist roader” and died in prison.
Part of the core leadership of China's Cultural Revolution. Worked closely with Mao's wife, Jiang Qing.
Led China after the Cultural Revolution after out-manoeuvering “Gang of Four” in a power struggle later in 1976. Deng Xiaoping's policies of reform began to take shape during Hua's tenure, and by 1980, leadership had shifted to Deng. Hua remains a member of the CC.
A founder of the pro-Chinese Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist), died in police custody.
Longstanding leader of the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Liberation.
Longstanding leader of the Vietnamese national liberation movement; set-up a guerilla base in the countryside in 1944, going on to defeat the French in 1954, but dying before final victory over the US invasion in 1975.
(1906-2000) < 5
Leader of the Vietnamee Army in the wars against both the French colonial forces and the US invaders. Foremost theorist of protracted warfare.
Led Communist forces in South Vietnam after French withdrawal in 1954 and was First Secretary of North Vietnam Communist Party from 1959. After Ho Chi Minh’s death in 1969, became Party leader.
Leader of Puerto Rican Nationalism.
Founding head of state of Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
Leader of the militant and socialist wing of the Independence Movement in India; hanged by the British in 1931.
Marxism and Anti-Imperialism in India.
West Indian, CPUSA and Comintern 1927-1935, became leading advocate of Pan-Africanism.
Leader of CPUSA and Comintern. Supported Mao and was expelled from the CPUSA.
One of modern China’s most prominent and influential writers. His work frequently promoted radical change through criticism of antiquated cultural values and repressive social customs.
Algerian communist and founder of the modern Algerian nationalist movement; supporter of the Russian Revolution.
West Indian-born, French/Algerian doctor and intellectual whose works addressed the problems of developing national consciousness in the oppressed people, an inspiration for the US Civil Rights movement as much as in Black Africa.
(1921-1997) < 5
Brazilian educator, member of the Workers' Party.
(1927- ) 10+
Leader of the Cuban Revolution and President of Cuban Republic.
Cuban History Archive.
(1918-1997) < 5
Maoist and union leader who was elected President of Guyana.
(1909-1972) < 5
Nkrumah was the force behind the movement for independence of Ghana, then British West Africa, first president of independent Ghana in 1957. His 1965 “Neocolonialism, the last stage of imperialism,” introduced the concept of “neocolonialism.”
(1910-2001) < 5
Life-long activist for the African National Congress and the South African Communist Party.
(1920- ) < 5
Journalist, Cental Committee member of the South African CP, ‘natives representative’ in Parliament before being banned, and fleeing to Britain.
(1926-1995) < 5
Leader of the South African Communist Party in 1991 till his death in 1995, leading SACP after the collapse of the USSR, to the final overthrow of apartheid.
(1921-1999) < 5
South African Trotskyist. Organiser for Workers International League, participated in the armed struggle, imprisoned, but went into exile in 1973.
(1922-1999) < 5
Pan-Africanist, socialist and leader of Tanzanian independence struggle and its first President.
Lead of independence struggle in Guinea-Bissau, assassinated by Portuguese agents.
(1925-1961) < 5
Leader of independence movement in the Congo, executed by Belgian colonial police, despite U.N. calls for his release.
The “Black Jacobin” who led a slave rebellion in Haiti in 1800 and created the first Black Republic, inspired by the French Revolution.
“I don't believe in fighting today in any one front, but on all fronts. In fact I'm a Black Nationalist Freedom Fighter. Islam is my religion, but I believe my religion is my personal buisness.... The economic philosophy of Black Nationalism only means that we should own and operate and control the economy of our community.”
American slave-abolitionist who aimed to build an emancipation army, hanged after a shoot-out with Robert E. Lee.
(1925-1965) 5+ (audio)
US Black Muslim leader, assassinated in 1965.
Black Panther Party
It has been said that the French Revolution, put Rousseau's philosophy into practice, in particular his idea of the Social Contract. Although he died 20 years before the Revolution, he was its principle theorist.
Leader of the left wing of the Revolution, inspired the execution of royalist prisoners which launched the second, radical phase of the Revolution; his murder set off the Great Terror.
Leader of the Jacobins and instigator of the Great Terror, Robespierre was the ultimate “moralist.” His overthrow marked the end of the radical phase of the Revolution.
Priest who became a leader of the popular democratic Enragés during the French Revolution. He was renowned for the foul and abusive language of his journalism.
Leader of the extreme left-wing during the Revolution and spokesperson of the sans coulottes. Hébert initiated a planned economy before his overthrow, after which the Revolution lost the support of the poor.
French materialist and atheistic philosopher.
Rose to prominence in the twilight of the Revolution, convening a running public forum organising for more radical measures. He can be regarded as the first communist and an advocate of popular sovereignty and participatory democracy.
Founder of the communist movement in the 1830s, he believed communism could be achieved by the dictatorship of a radical minority. He was immensely popular in France and elsewhere but spent most of his days in prison.
Veteran of the Revolution of 1848 and a leader of the left-wing of the Paris Commune.
Populist French military leader.
The Paris Commune
Agitator, editor of Le Cri du Peuple.
Journalist, deputy to Government of National Defence for Paris.
Nurse, soldier, hero of the Commune and labour organiser.
Thomas More wrote Utopia in 1515, looking forward to a world of individual freedom and equality governed by Reason, at a time when such a vision was almost inconceivable.
Common-Wealth of Oceana was based on universal land-ownership and was a militant republic dedicated to spreading its democratic system to the rest of the world. Cromwell banned it.
Little is known of Morelly; Code of Nature was an attempt to provide a systematic philosophical justification of his communist ideas.
French Utopian socialist who took part in War of Independence of the United States; opposed Deism and promoted the study of Nature.
French Utopian socialist who criticised the bourgeois society established by the French Revolution. He promoted the role of environment and education in moulding personality.
Welsh industrialist and social reformer; formed a model industrial community at New Lanark, Scotland, and pioneered cooperative societies.
His followers, known as the Icarians, established ill-fated utopian communities in Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, and California.
American author, famous for his utopian novel set in the year 2000, Looking Backward, published in 1888.
Founding theorist of anarchism, advocated cooperative society.
Leader of Russian Anarchism.
(1854-1907) < 5
‘Bomb-throwing’ French anarchist.
Radical French anarchist, opponent of electoralism.
French anarchist and militant opponent of anti-Semitism.
And others including: Emile Armand (1872-1963), Armand Barbès (1809-1870), Georges Darien (1862-1921), Manuel Devaldes (1875-1956), Georges Etiévant (1865-), Emile Henry (1872-1894), Libertad (1875-1908), Jean-Patrick Manchette (1942-1995), Georges Palante (1862-1895), Emile Pouget (1860-1931), Han Ryner (1861-1938), Gustave Hervé (1871-1944), Sebastien Faure (1858-1942) and Andre Lorulot (1885-1963).
“The rank and file have let their servants become their masters and dictators. The workers have now to fight not alone their exploiters but likewise their own leaders, who often betray them, who sell them out.” [Mother Jones]
Russian nobleman who advocated revolutionary anarchism; participant in the First International winning leadership of a significant section of the International in the 1870s.
Biographer of Bakunin and theorist for anarcho-syndicalism.
Leader of Italian anarchism, anarcho-syndicalist.
Leader of anarchist forces during the Wars of Intervention after the Russian Revolution.
American anarchist and writer, deported to the Soviet Union, fought in Spanish Civil War.
German anarcho-syndicalist, worked in Jewish anarchist movement in London before going to New York.
(1901-1973) < 5
Russian-born anarchist and author.
Prolific and legendary American labor organiser.
Czech anarchist writer and musician, emigrated to the U.S.
(1921-2006) < 5
American libertarian socialist, philosopher and environmentalist. Anarchist for much of his life, however in 1995 he founded his own political theory called "Communalism".
English radical who was the first woman to systematically enquire into the causes of women's oppression.
Friend of John Stuart Mill, and her work was published under his name, one of the earliest arguments for the emancipation of women, in the tradition of classical liberalism.
South African-born, British socialist and novellist.
American socialist and union organiser.
Australian suffragette, feminist and anti-militarist.
“There is a women’s question for the women of the proletariat, the bourgeoisie, the intelligentsia and the Upper Ten Thousand. It assumes a different form according to the class situation of each one of these strata.” [Clara Zetkin]
American socialist and historian.
Pioneer of women's liberation movement in South Asia.
Member of the American Trotskyist movement, socialist feminist, was one of the first to challenge anthropological and other spurious justifications for patriarchy.
Author of The Second Sex, the most significant review of approaches to the critique of women's role in history and modern society. De Beauvoir was an Existentialist.
Psychologist, a student of Kurt Koffka, who criticised Freudian psychoanalysis for its rationalisation of sexist attitudes; exposed the deep crisis affecting American housewives, excluded from the workforce and confined to housework.
Socialist-feminist, founder of Freedom Socialist Party in Seattle.
Radical Feminist, who argued for the expansion of the conceptions of historical materialism to include the processes of domestic labour and reproduction. May have coined the word “sexism.”
Australian Radical Feminist
New Zealand-born, British feminist who endeavoured to reconcile feminism with psychoanalysis.
American Socialist feminist and journalist.
British socialist feminist; wrote for the Trotskyist ‘Black Dwarf’ before publishing ‘Women’s Liberation and the New Politics’ arguing that women were oppressed in cultural as well as economic terms. A pioneer of women’s history.
A member of the CPUSA for some time, Davis is a supporter of Cuba and an active campaigner for radical alternatives to prison. Her criticisms of the exclusive focus of the modern women's movement on the concerns of middle-class white women was influential.
Radical feminist who argued that the concept of class should be expanded to encompass the notion of women as a sex-class, and thus utilise the ideas of Marxism and class struggle to understand the nature of women's oppression.
Socialist Feminist who argued both against the overreaction of feminists against socialism and the antipathy of socialists to feminism.
Historian who has contributed to uncovering the role of women in history, and analysed the historical development of the women's movement itself.
Australian Marxist and feminist, worked at the Working Women's Centre at the ACTU and researched the socialisation of women's labour.
Argues for a feminism based on historical materialism, against the postmodern feminism of people like Judith Butler, which she calls “ludic feminism.”
[Terea Ebert home page]
Historian who has contributed to uncovering the role of women in history, and analysed the historical development of the women's movement itself.
American “Ethical feminist,” professor of political science, women's studies, and comparative literature at Rutgers University.
[Feminist Theory Website]
Socialist Populists and JournalistsSome writers have advocated the overthrow of capitalism or were outspoken supporters of the Soviet Union, but did not see themselves as Marxists, or may have combined reactionary “populist” rhetoric with calls for socialism. Some writers have contributed to the development of socialism simply by reporting on its struggles in their professional capacity as journalists, often eye-witnesses to revolutionary struggles, although not themselves participants.
Influential Russian novelist.
Left-wing British journalist who visited and publicsed the achievements of the Soviets.
“Something new was being created. Something that had never been before in human history. I wanted to have a share in it, I wanted at least to understand it. Was it only the comradeship and joy of battle that always come to compensate for bitter times of struggle? Or was it really something new in the world!”
American radical journalist of the 1920s and 1930s.
American novelist, and populist socialist.
Keller was deaf and blind but became renowned for her abilities. She was a firm supporter of the Russian Revolution and the IWW.
British journalist and writer who visited the Soviet Union after the Bolshevik revolution.
Member of German USPD and later the Comintern, historian.
Journalist for the Christian Science Monitor, who visited the Soviet Union after the Revolution; provided information to US intelligence.
American Progressive journalist who reported on revolutions from Russia to Spain to China, a unique source of sympathetic views for American workers.
British labour educator, historian and proponent of Esperanto. Joined the Labour Party after a time in the CPGB.
African-American Marxist and world-renowned singer and civil rights and anticolonialist fighter.
Irish-American novelist, at one time a Trotskyist.
British dystopian novelist, fought with Republicans in Spain, became anti-Stalinist, worked with the I.L.P.
Sociologist who studied the benefits to families and children of the policies of the Soviet Union towards women.
Polish writer and communist expelled for his opposition to Stalin, later biographer of Trotsky.
American journalist who witnessed and chronicled the “Tragedy of the Chinese Revolution.”
Correspondent of the British CP who witnessed the “Hungarian Tragedy” in 1956.
(c 420 BCE)
Ancient Chinese philosopher, author of The Art of War, which sums up the wisdom of centuries of Chinese political experience.
15th century Italian civil servant who put in writing the political methods of Renaissance Europe.
English philosopher and political theorist of the state.
A leader of the True Levellers in the English Revolution of 1648.
English Empiricist who was the main theorist of the development of bourgeois political institutions in Britain.
“In tracing the causes that have degraded woman, I have confined my observations to such as universally act upon the morals and manners of the whole sex, ... I only contend that the men who have been placed in similar situations have acquired a similar character.”
English democratic and Deist journalist who formulated the concepts of civil liberty behind the American War of Independence and the French Revolution. Author of The Rights of Man.
Prussian military theorist admired by Marx, Engels and Lenin.
French diplomat who studied the development of democratic forms of society in America.
Leader of True Socialism, early associate of Marx.
A leader of Tammany Hall, the corrupt local government group in 19th century New York.
Early 20th century Australian Labor Party official and the Communist Party in Britain.
Left sociologist, literary and cultural critic.
Founder of British Empiricism.
French mathematician and philosopher.
Founder of French Rationalism.
French political philosopher.
French materialist philosopher.
German philosopher, Romantic critic of Kant, rehabilitated Spinoza.
German philosopher, introduced Recognition and Activity to philosophy.
German philosopher, objective idealist, early associate who later denounced Hegel.
The greatest philosopher of “German Idealism,” theorist of modern dialectics and the most important influence on Marx and Engels and essential to Marxism.
“The history of philosophy deals not with a past, but with an eternal and veritable present: and resembles not a museum of the aberrations of the human intellect, but a Pantheon of godlike figures, one after another in dialectical development.”
Exiled German poet and revolutionary democrat, much admired by Marx.
Left communist, follower of Babeuf and Fichte.
Founder of Positivism, an early advocate of the emancipation of women.
English poet and revolutionary-atheist.
Young Hegelian, philosopher of individual anarchism.
German philosopher, materialist and atheist critic of Hegel, and an influence on the young Marx in the 1840s.
Scottish Hegelian, translator.
British Hegelian, principal translator and advocate for Hegel in the English langauge. Later abandoned Hegelianism.
American Hegelian, Cornell University.
American Hegelian, University of Washington.
Important Italian Hegelian and socialist philosopher, one of the early advocates of Marxism in Italy, but became a reformist.
German sociologist and political economist best known for his thesis of the “Protestant Ethic”; an early proponent of positivist sociology and historiography, theorised “status order” rather than class. Regarded by many as the main alternative to Marx; developed the concept of “ideal types.”
British Trotskyist, philosopher.
(c. 500 BCE)
The Tao Te Ching is one of the first and finest examples in human history of the dialectical method of reasoning, here used towards a moral end.
Classics of Ethics
Founder of German Idealism whose works remain the foundations of secular Ethics.
American liberal and romantic writer.
German ethicist and existentialist philosopher.
German ethicist and existentialist philosopher.
Originally a moral philosopher, became the greatest of the British political economists; first to develop a labour theory of value.
British political economists who theorised economic basis for development of society, and infamous for his reactionary theory of population.
Contemporary and opponent of Karl Marx, English liberal theorist, early positivist and a Utilitarian in ethics.
Marxist Political Economy 1887-1995
U.S. Marxist Political Economist.
English Marxist Political Economist.
American management theorist who invented “scientific management.”
English, socialist economist who was a major theorist of imperialism, was somewhat of a centrist in politics.
British political economist who developed the theory of the welfare state & macroeconomic control of unemployment by public spending.
Classics of Political Economy 1673-1936
“The effect of combination on the part of a group of workers is to protect their relative real wage. The general level of real wages depends on the other forces of the economic system.”
English biologist who formulated the idea of evolution of species by natural selection.
Anthropologist who formulated the idea of development of human society through definite stages corresponding to evolution of the forces of production.
Psychologist, founder of psychoanalysis.
Discoverer of Theory of Relativity and the Quantum nature of energy; devoted his life to fight for peace and world government.
Foundations of Mathematics
Epistemology & Modern Physics
Classics in Psychology (1874-1989)