The Development of Capitalism in Russia
Chapter I. The Theoretical Mistakes of the Narodnik Economists
- The Social Division of Labour
The increase in the number of industries. —The
creation of a home market as a result of the social division
of labour. —The manifestation of this process in
agriculture. —The views of the Narodnik economists
- The Growth of the Industrial Population at the Expense of the Agricultural
The necessary connection between this phenomenon and
the very nature of commodity and capitalist economy.
- The Ruin of the Small Producers
The mistaken view of the
Narodniks. — The view of
the author of Capital on this subject.
- The Narodnik Theory of the Impossibility of Realising Surplus-Value
The substance of the theory of Messrs. V. V. and
N. —on: its erroneous character. —The “foreign
market” is wrongly dragged into the problem of
realisation. —The superficial estimation of the
contradictions of capitalism by the writers mentioned.
- The Views of Adam Smith on the Production and Circulation of the Aggregate Social Product in Capitalist Society and Marx’s Criticism of These Views
Adam Smith’s omission of
constant capital. —The influence of this error on the
theory of the national revenue
- Marx’s Theory of Realisation
The basis premises of
Marx’s theory. —The realisation of the product
under simple reproduction. —The main conclusion from
Marx’s theory of realisation. —The significance of
productive consumption. —The contradiction between the
urge towards the unlimited growth of production and the
limited character of consumption.
- The Theory of the National Income
Proudhon. —Rodbertus. —Contemporary
- Why Does the Capitalist Nation Need a Foreign Market?
The causes of the need for a foreign market. —The foreign
market and the progressive character of capitalism.
- Conclusions from Chapter I
Résumé of the
propositions examined above. —The essence of the problem
of the home market.
Chapter II. The Differentiation of the Peasantry
- Zemstvo Statistics for Novorossia
Economic groups of the
peasantry. —Commercial agriculture and the purchase and
sale of labour-power. —The top group; the concentration
of land, and of animals and implements the higher
productivity of labour. —Mr. V. V.’s argument of
the decline in horse-ownership. —The hiring of farm
workers and Mr. V. V.’s argument on this
phenomenon. —The bottom group of the peasantry; the
leasing of land. —The middle group, its
instability. —Messrs V. V. and Karyshev on peasant
rentings. —The attitude of the Narodniks to
Mr. Postnikov’s researches.
- Zemstvo Statistics for Samara Gubernia
Data concerning the farms of the different peasant groups in
Novouzensk Uyezd. —The land held and the land in use by the
different groups. —Mr. Karyshev on land renting and grain
prices. —Wage-labour; the creation of a home market by the
differentiation of the peasantry. —The rural proletariat in
- Zemstvo Statistics for Saratov Gubernia
Data concerning the farms of the different groups. —The
hiring of farm workers. —“Industries” in Zemstvo
statistics. —Rentings. —The arguments on land renting
advanced by Messrs. Karyshev, N.-on, and Maress. —A
comparison of Kamyshin and other uyezds. —The significance
of the classification of peasant households.
- Zemstvo Statistics for Perm Gubernia
Data concerning the farms of the different groups. —The hiring of
farm workers and day labourers and its significance. —The
manuring of the soil. —Improved implements. —Commercial
and industrial establishments.
- Zemstvo Statistics for Orel Gubernia
Data concerning the farms of the different
groups. —Incompleteness of the picture of differentiation
from the data for Orel Gubernia.
- Zemstvo Statistics for Voronezh Gubernia
Methods of classification in Voronezh abstracts. —Data for
Zadonsk Uyezd. —Industries.
- Zemstvo Statistics for Nizhni-Novgorod Gubernia
Data concerning groups of farms for three uyezds.
- Review of Zemstvo Statistics for Other Gubernias
Novgorod Gubernia, Demyansk Uyezd. —Chernigov Gubernia,
Kozelets Uyezd. —Yenisei Gubernia. —Poltava Gubernia,
three uyezds. —Kaluga Gubernia. —Tver Gubernia.
- Summary of the Above Zemstvo Statistics on the Differentiation of the Peasantry
Methods of marking the summary. —Combined table and
chart. —Examination of the various columns of the
chart. —Comparison between different localities as to degree
- Summary of Zemstvo Statistics and Army-Horse Census Returns
Zemstvo Statistics for 112 uyezds of 21
gubernias. —Army-horse census returns for 49 gubernias of
European Russia. —Significance of these data
- A Comparison of the Army-Horse Censuses of 1888-1891 and 1896-1900
Data for 48 gubernias of European Russia. —Statistical
exercises of Messrs. Vikhlyayev and Chernenkov.
- Zemstvo Statistics on Peasant Budgets
Character of the data and methods of treating
them. —(A). General results of the budgets. —Magnitude
of expenditures and incomes. —Components of
expenditures. —Components of incomes. —Cash portions of
the budgets. —The significance of the taxes. —(B). A
characterisation of peasant farming. —General data about the
farms. —Property and implements. —Farm
expenditure. —Income from agriculture. —An apparent
exception. —(C). A characterisation of the standard of
living. —Expenditure on food in kind. —Expenditure on
food in cash. —Remaining expenditures on personal
consumption. —Cash expenditure on personal and productive
consumption. —Mr. N.-on on about the top “stratum” of the
peasantry. —A comparison between the standard of living or
rural workers and peasants. —Methods of Mr. Shcherbina.
- Conclusions from Chapter II.
The significance of commodity economy. —1) Capitalist
contradictions within the village community. —2)
“Depeasantising”. —3) Characterisation of this process in
Capital. —4) The peasant bourgeoisie. —5) The
rural proletariat. The European type of allotment-holding rural
worker. —6) The middle peasantry. —7) The formation of a
home market for capitalism. —8) Increasing differentiation;
significance of migration. —9) Merchant’s and usurer’s
capital. The presentation of the problem in theory. The
connection between these forms of capital and industrial
capital. —10) Labour-service and its influence on the
differentiation of the peasantry.
Chapter III. The Landowners’ Transition from Corvée to Capitalist Economy
- The Main Features of Corvée Economy
The essence of the serf system of economy and the conditions for
- The Combination of the Corvée and the Capitalist Systems of Economy
The remnants of the old system after the Reform. —The
labour-service and the capitalist systems; their relative
incidence. —The transition from the labour-service system to
- Description of the Labour-Service System
Types of labour-service. Rentings in kind and their
significance. —The payment of labour under
labour-service. —Personal dependence under
labour-service. —General estimation of labour-service.
- The Decline of the Labour-Service System
Two types of labour-service.—The significance of the
differentiation of the peasantry.—View of
Mr. Stebut.—Views in various publications.
- The Narodnik Attitude to the Problem
The idealisation of labour-service.—Mr. Kablukov’s
- The Story of Engelhardt’s Farm
The original condition of the farm and the nature of the gradual
changes made in it.
- The Employment of Machinery in Agriculture
Four periods in the development of agricultural machinery
production.—Incompleteness of official statistics.—Data
on the employment of various agricultural machines.
- The Significance of Machinery in Agriculture
The capitalist character of the employment of
machinery.—Results of the employment of machinery.—The
inconsistency of the Narodniks.
- Wage-Labour in Agriculture
"Agricultural outside employments", their significance, their
scale.—Number of agricultural workers in all European
- The Significance of Hired Labour in Agriculture
The conditions of agricultural workers.—Specific forms of
hire.—The conditions of workers of small and big
employers.—First elements of public control.—The
appraisal of agricultural migration by the Narodniks.
Chapter IV. The Growth of Commercial Agriculture
- General Data on Agricultural Production in Post-Reform Russia and on the Types of Commercial Agriculture
The production of cereals and potatoes in 1864-1865, 1870-1879,
1883-1887, 1885-1894.—Potato sowing and its
significance.—Areas of commercial
agriculture.—Mr. Kablukov’s arguments.
- The Commercial Grain-Farming Area
The shifting of the principal centre of cereal
production.—The significance of the outer regions as
colonies.—The capitalist character of agriculture in this
- The Commercial Stock-Farming Area. General Data on the Development of Dairy Farming.
The significance of stock farming in the different
areas.—The calculations of Messrs. Kovalevsky and
Levitsky.—The development of cheese-making.—The
incompleteness of official data.—Technical progress.
- Continuation. The Economy of Landlord Farming in the Area Described
The rationalisation of agriculture.—"Amalgamated dairies"
and their significance.—The formation of a home
market.—The migration of agricultural workers to the
industrial gubernias.—The more even distribution of jobs
through-out the year.—The small cultivators’ dependence and
its estimation by Mr. V. V.
- Continuation. The Differentiation of the Peasantry in the Dairy-Farming Area
The distribution of cows among the peasants.—Details of
St. Petersburg Uyzed.—"Progressive trends in peasant
farming".—The influence of this progress on the poor.
- The Flax-Growing Area
The growth of commercial flax-growing.—Exchange between
different types of commercial agriculture.—"Extremes" in
the flax area.—Technical improvements.
- The Technical Processing of Agricultural Produce
The significance of the factory or technical system of
- ) Distilling . . .
The extent of agricultural distilling.—The development and
the significance of potato distilling.
- ) Beet-Sugar Production . . .
The growth of sugar-beet production.—The progress of
- ) Potato-Starch Production . . .
processes in the development of this branch of
production.—The starch "industry" in Moscow
Gubernia—and in Vladimir Gubernia.
- ) Vegetable Oil Production . . .
The dual processes of its development.—Oil pressing as a cottage
- ) Tobacco Growing . . .
- Industrial Vegetable and Fruit Growing; Suburban Farming.
The growth of commercial fruit growing and vegetable
growing.—Peasant vegetable growers in the St. Petersburg,
Moscow and Yareslavl gubernias.—The hot-house
industry.—Industrial melon growing.—Suburban farming
and its characteristics.
- Conclusions on the Significance of Capitalism in Agriculture in Russia
1) On the transformation of agriculture into enterprise. 2) The
specific features of capitalism in agriculture. 3) The
formation of a home market for capitalism. 4) The
progressive historical role of capitalism in Russian
- Narodnik Theories on Capitalism in Agriculture. "The Freeing of Winter Time"
The narrow and stereotyped character of this theory.—Its
omission of highly important aspects of the process.
- Continuation.—The Village Community.—Marx’s View on Small-Scale Agriculture.—Engels’s Opinion of the Contemporary Agricultural Crisis
The Narodnik’s wrong presentation of the problem of the village
community.—Their misunderstanding of a passage in
Capital.—Marx’s estimation of peasant
agriculture.—His estimation of agricultural capitalism.
—Mr. N.--on’s inappropriate quotation.
Chapter V. The First Stages of Capitalism in Industry
- Domestic Industry and Handicrafts
The remants of domestic industry. —The extent of the
prevalence of handicrafts, their basic features.
- Small Commodity-Producers in Industry. The Craft Spirit in the Small Industries
The transition from handicrafts to commodity production. The
fear of competition.
- The Growth of Small Industries after the Reform. Two Forms of This Process and Its Significance.
Causes of the growth of small industries. —The settlement of
industrialists in the outer regions. —The growth of small
industries among the local population. —The shift of
capital. —The connection between the growth of small
industries and the differentiation of the peasantry.
- The Differentiation of the Small Commodity-Producers. Data on House-to-House Censuses of Handicraftsmen in Moscow Gubernia
Presentation of the problem. —The method of processing the
data. —Combined table and chart. —Conclusions:
wage-labour, productivity of labour, incomes. —The
petty-bourgeois structure of handicraft industries.
- Capitalist Simple Co-operation
Its significance and influence on production. —Artels.
- Merchant’s Capital in the Small Industries
The conditions that give rise to the buyer-up. —Trades-women in
the lace industry. —Examples of marketing
organisation. —Views of the Narodniks.Forms of merchant’s
- "Industry and Agricultural"
Data of the table. —The agriculture of
wage-workers. —"Land labourers". —Other data concerning
industry and agriculture. —Length of the working
- "The Combination of Industry with Agriculture"
The Narodnik’s theory. —The forms in which industry is
combined with agriculture and their diverse significance.
- Some Remarks on the Pre-Capitalist Economy of Our Countryside
Chapter VI. Capitalist Manufacture and Capitalist Domestic Industry
- The Rise of Manufacture and Its Main Features
The concept of manufacture, its dual origin and
- Capitalist Manufacture in Russian Industry
- ) The Weaving
- ) Other Branches of the
Textile Industry. The Felt Trade
- ) The Hat-and-Cap and
- ) The Wood-Working
- ) The Processing of
Livestock Produce. The Leather and Fur Trades
- ) The Remaining
Livestock Processing Trades
- ) The Processing of
- ) The Metal Trades. The
- ) Other Metal
- ) The Jewellery,
Samovar and Accordian Trades
- Technique in Manufacture. Division of Labour and Its Significance
Hand production, apprenticeship. —Division of labour as a
stage preparatory to large-scale machine industry, its influence
on the workers.
- The Territorial Division of Labour and the Separation of Agriculture from Industry
Mr. Kharizomenov’s opinion. —Non-agricultural
centres. —The transitional character of
manufacture. —The raising of the cultural level of the
- The Economic Structure of Manufacture
The circumstances of production. —How Mr. Ovsyannikov and
Kharizomenov describe it.
- Merchant’s and Industrial Capital in Manufacture.The "Buyer-up" and the "Factory Owner"
The connection between the big and the small
establishments. —The error of the Narodniks.
- Capitalist Domestic Industry as an Appendage of Manufacture
Its incidence, its characteristic features, the conditions
making for its spread, its significance in the theory of the
- What Is "Handicraft" Industry?
Some aggregate statistics on handicraftsmen. —The
predominance of capitalistically employed workers. —The
vagueness of the term "handicraft" and the abuse of it.
Chapter VII. The Development of Large-Scale Machine Industry
- The Scientific Conception of the Factory and the Significance of "Factory" Statistics
- Our Factory Statistics
Their sources. —Publications of the
60s. —The specific character of the Military Statistical
Abstract. —Mr. Orlov’s Directory. —The
Collections of the Department of Commerce and
Manufactures. —The Returns for Russia for 1884-85;
Mr. Karyshev’s errors. —Data of gubernia statistical
committees. —The List. —Is the number of
factories in Russia growing?
- An Examination of Historical-Statistical Data on the Development of Large-Scale Industry
- ) Chemical, Livestock
Excise-Paying and Other
- The Development of the Mining Industry
The Urals, their specific features. —The South. —The
Caucasus. —The big and small mines in the Donets
Basin. —The significance of the data on the development of
the mining industry.
- Is the Number of Workers in Large Capitalist Enterprises Growing?
Data for the years 1865 and 1890. —Mistaken Method of the
- Steam-Engine Statistics.
Data for the years 1875-1878 and 1892.
- The Growth of Large Factories
Data for the years 1866, 1879, 1890 and 1894-95. —The
largest enterprises in factory industry and in the mining
industry. —The errors of Mr. N-on.
- The Distribution of Large-Scale Industry
Data on the leading centres of factory industry in the years
1879 and 1890. —Three types of centres. —The
classification of the centres. —The growth of rural factory
centres and its significance.
- The Development of the Lumber and Building Industries
The growth of the lumber industry; its organisation. —The
growth of capitalism in the building industry.
- The Appendage to the Factory
- The Complete Separation of Industry from Agriculture
The error of the Narodniks. —Moscow Zemstvo sanitary
- Three Stages in the Development of Capitalism in Russian Industry
The connection between all the stages. —Specific technical
features. —The growth of capitalist relationships. —The
character of the development of industry. —The separation of
industry from agriculture. —Differences in living
conditions. —The growth of the home market.
Chapter VIII. The Formation of the Home Market
- The Growth of Commodity Circulation
The development of the railways, water transport, commerce and
- The Growth of the Commercial and Industrial Population
- ) The Growth of Towns
- ) The Significance of Home Colonisation
- ) The Growth of Factory and of Commercial and Industrial
Townships and Villages
- ) Non-Agricultural Outside Employments
Non-agricultural outside employments, their size and growth,
their progressive role, the appraisal of them by Narodnik
- The Growth of the Employment of Wage-Labour
Approximate number of wage-workers. —Capitalist
surplus-population. —The error of the Narodniks.
- The Formation of a Home Market for Labour-Power
The main movements of wage-workers in connection with the size
of wages. —The formation of a home market. —Mr. N--on’s
- The Significance of the Border Regions. Home or Foreign Market?
Capitalism’s urge for expansion. —The example of the
Caucasus. —Two aspects of the process of the formation of a
- The "Mission" of Capitalism
The increase in the productivity of social labour. —The
socialisation of labour. —The cause of the difference with
Appendices to “The Development of Capitalism in Russia”
- Appendix I.
- Combined Table of Statistics on Small Peasant Industries of Moscow Gubernia (to Chapter V)
- Appendix II.
Table of Statistics on the Factory Industry of European Russia (to Chapter VII)
- Appendix III.
The Chief Centres of Factory Industry in European Russia (to Chapter VII)
Volume 3 Transcription/Mark-up:
David Walters, and
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